You are on page 1of 30

Human Resource Management

TWELFTH EDITION

GARY DESSLER BIJU VARKKEY


Part 3 | Training and Development

Chapter 8

Training and Developing Employees


Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

Purpose of Orientation

Orientation Helps New Employees

Feel Welcome and At Ease

Understand the Organization

Know What Is Expected in Work and Behavior

Begin the Socialization Process

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

82

The Orientation Process


Company Organization and Operations

Employee Benefit Information

Personnel Policies

Employee Orientation

Safety Measures and Regulations

Daily Routine

Facilities Tour

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

83

The Training Process


Training
The process of teaching new employees the basic

skills they need to perform their jobs.

Trainings Strategic Context


The firms training programs must make sense in

terms of the companys strategic goals.

Performance Management
Taking an integrated, goal-oriented approach to

assigning, training, assessing, and rewarding employees performance.

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

84

The Training Process (continued)


The Five-Step Training and Development Process
1

Needs analysis

2
3 4 5

Instructional design Validation


Implement the program Evaluation

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

85

Training, Learning, and Motivation


Make the Learning Meaningful
1. At the start of training, provide a birds-eye view of

the material to be presented to facilitate learning.


2. Use a variety of familiar examples.
3. Organize the information so you can present it

logically, and in meaningful units.


4. Use terms and concepts that are already familiar

to trainees.
5. Use as many visual aids as possible. 6. Create a perceived need for training in the minds of

the trainees.
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e
86

Training, Learning, and Motivation (continued)


Make Skills Transfer Easy
1. Maximize the similarity between the training situation and the

work situation.
2. Provide adequate practice. 3. Label or identify each feature of the machine and/or step in the

process.
4. Direct the trainees attention to important aspects of the job. 5. Provide heads-up, preparatory information that lets trainees

know what might happen back on the job.


6. Trainees learn best at their own pace. If possible, let them

pace themselves.
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e
87

Training, Learning, and Motivation


Trainees learn best when the trainers immediately reinforce correct responses. Trainees learn best at their own pace. The schedule is importantthe learning curve goes down late in the day; less than full day training is most effective.

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

88

Analyzing Training Needs

Training Needs Analysis

Task Analysis:
Assessing New Employees Training Needs

Performance Analysis:
Assessing Current Employees Training Needs

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

89

TABLE 81 Task Analysis Record Form

Note: Task analysis record form showing some of the tasks and subtasks performed by a printing press operator.

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

810

Assessing Current Employees Training Needs

Assessment Center Results

Performance Appraisals

Individual Diaries

Attitude Surveys

Methods for Identifying Training Needs

Job-Related Performance Data

Observations

Tests

Interviews

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

811

Training Methods
On-the-Job Training Apprenticeship Training Informal Learning

Job Instruction Training Lectures Programmed Learning Audiovisual Training Simulated Training (also Vestibule Training) Computer-Based Training (CBT) Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) Distance and Internet-Based Training
812

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

Training Methods (continued)


On-the-Job Training (OJT)
Having a person learn a job

by actually doing the job.

Types of On-the-Job Training


Coaching or understudy Job rotation

Special assignments

Advantages
Inexpensive Learn by doing Immediate feedback
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e
813

On-the-Job Training
Steps to Help Ensure OJT Success
1

Prepare the Learner Present the Operation

2
3

Do a Tryout
Follow Up

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

814

Training Methods (continued)


Effective Lectures
Dont start out on the wrong foot. Give listeners signals.

Be alert to your audience.


Maintain eye contact with audience. Make sure everyone in the room can hear.

Control your hands.


Talk from notes rather than from a script. Break a long talk into a series of five-minute talks.

Practice and rehearse your presentation.


Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

815

Programmed Learning
Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner Providing feedback on the accuracy of answers

Allowing the person to respond

Advantages
Reduced training time Self-paced learning

Immediate feedback
Reduced risk of error for learner
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

816

Computer-Based Training (CBT)


Advantages
Reduced learning time Cost-effectiveness Instructional consistency

Types of CBT
Interactive multimedia training Virtual reality training

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

817

Distance and Internet-Based Training

Teletraining

Videoconferencing Distance Learning Methods Internet-Based Training E-Learning and Learning Portals

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

818

Management Development

Long-Term Focus of Management Development

Assessing the companys strategic needs

Appraising managers current performance

Developing the managers and future managers

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

819

Management Development (continued)


Managerial On-the-Job Training

Job Rotation

Coaching/ Understudy Approach

Action Learning

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

820

Management Development (continued)


Off-the-Job Management Training and Development Techniques
The Case Study Method Management Games Role Playing Behavior Modeling Corporate Universities Executive Coaches

Outside Seminars
University-Related Programs

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

821

Managing Organizational Change and Development

What to Change

Strategy

Culture

Structure

Technologies

Employees

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

822

Managing Organizational Change and Development (continued)


The Human Resource Managers Role

Overcoming resistance to change

Organizing and leading organizational change

Effectively using organizational development practices

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

823

Managing Organizational Change and Development (continued)


Overcoming Resistance to Change: Lewins Change Process
1

Unfreezing

2 3

Moving
Refreezing

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

824

How to Lead the Change


Unfreezing Phase
Establish a sense of urgency (need for change). Mobilize commitment to solving problems.

Moving Phase
Create a guiding coalition. Develop and communicate a shared vision.

Help employees to make the change.


Consolidate gains and produce more change.

Refreezing Phase
Reinforce new ways of doing things.
Monitor and assess progress.
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e
825

Using Organizational Development


Organizational Development (OD)
1

Usually involves action research. Applies behavioral science knowledge. Changes the organization in a particular direction.

2
3

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

826

TABLE 83

Examples of OD Interventions

Human Process Applications


T-groups (Sensitivity Training) Process consultation Third-party intervention Team building Organizational confrontation meeting Survey research

HRM Applications
Goal setting Performance appraisal Reward systems Career planning and development Managing workforce diversity Employee wellness

Technostructural Interventions
Formal structural change

Strategic OD Applications
Integrated strategic management

Differentiation and integration


Cooperative unionmanagement projects Quality circles Total quality management Work design
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

Culture change
Strategic change Self-designing organizations

827

Evaluating the Training Effort


Designing the Study
Time series design Controlled experimentation

Training Effects to Measure


Reaction of trainees to the program

Learning that actually took place


Behavior that changed on the job Results achieved as a result of the training
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

828

FIGURE 86 Using a Time Series Graph to Assess a Training Programs Effects

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

829

FIGURE 87 A Sample Training Evaluation Form

Source: www.opm.gov/employment_and_benefits/worklife/.

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human Resource Management, 12/e

830