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Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives. Organizational behavior encompasses a wide range of topics, such as human behavior, change, leadership, teams, etc.
Elements of Organizational Behavior
The organization's base rests on management's philosophy, values, vision and goals. This in turn drives the organizational culture which is composed of the formal organization, informal organization, and the social environment. The culture determines the type of leadership, communication, and group dynamics within the organization. The workers perceive this as the quality of work life which directs their degree of motivation. The final outcome are performance, individual satisfaction, and personal growth and development. All these elements combine to build the model or framework that the organization operates from.
The employee need that is met is subsistence. The employees in turn are oriented towards security and benefits and dependence on the organization.Models of Organizational Behavior There are four major models or frameworks that organizations operate out of: Autocratic . The performance result is minimal. Custodial . The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence on the boss. The performance result is passive cooperation. The employee need that is met is security. .The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority.The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money.
The employee need that is met is status and recognition. The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and participation. The performance result is moderate enthusiasm. The performance result is awakened drives.The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support. The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and selfdiscipline. . Supportive . Collegial . The employee need that is met is selfactualization.The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork.
with one or more areas over-lapping in the other models. Although there are four separate models. almost no organization operates exclusively in one. . There will usually be a predominate one.
How individualization affects different organizations High Conformity Socialization Creative Individualism Isolation Rebellion Low Low Individualization High .
. Too high socialization and too little individualization creates conformity.having people grow with the organization.. This is what it takes to survive in a very competitive environment. While the match that organizations want to create is high socialization and high individualization for a creative environment. 1968) shows how individualization affects different organizations: Too little socialization and too little individualization creates isolation. . but doing the right thing when others want to follow the easy path.The chart above (Schein. Too little socialization and too high individualization creates rebellion.
procedures. productivity. and effectiveness.. to bring about planned change. strategies. values. technological advances. and structures so that the organization can adapt to competitive actions.Organization Development Organization Development (OD) is the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels. behaviors. It accomplishes this by changing attitudes. . and the fast pace of change within the environment. adaptability. organization. such as group. etc. inter-group. Its objectives is a higher quality of work-life.
Experiential Learning: The learners' experiences in the training environment should be the kind of human problems they encounter at work. The training should NOT be all theory and lecture. .There are seven characteristics of OD: Humanistic Values: Positive beliefs about the potential of employees (McGregor's Theory Y). Systems Orientation: All parts of the organization. and people. technology. to include structure. must work together.
corrective action is taken. Levels of Interventions: Problems can occur at one or more level in the organization so the strategy will require one or more interventions. Change Agent: Stimulate. Contingency Orientation: Actions are selected and adapted to fit the need.There are seven characteristics of OD: Problem Solving: Problems are identified. This process is known as Action Research. facilitate. data is gathered. progress is assessed. and coordinate change. and adjustments in the problem solving process are made as needed. .
And the area that OD loves .redesign the job. but pay the employees more. Leave the job as is. Some of the options available for improving job design are: Leave the job as is but employ only people who like the rigid environment or routine work. . Mechanize and automate the routine jobs. Its purpose is to develop jobs and working conditions that are excellent for both the employees and the organization. Some people do enjoy the security and task support of these kinds of jobs.Quality of Work Life Quality of Work Life (QWL) is the favorableness or unfavorableness of the job environment. One of the ways of accomplishing QWL is through job design.
This can also be accomplished by job rotation.Redesigning jobs When redesigning jobs there are two spectrums to follow job enlargement and job enrichment. The chart below (Cunningham & Eberle. on the other hand. It adds depth to the job . responsibility. as opposed to job enlargement which simply gives more variety.more control. This takes in the breadth of the job. 1990) illustrates the differences: . Job enlargement adds a more variety of tasks and duties to the job so that it is not as monotonous. adds additional motivators. This gives higher order needs to the employee. the number of different tasks that an employee performs. and discretion to how the job is performed. That is. Job enrichment.
Redesigning jobs Higher order Job Enrichment Accent on needs Job enrichment & enlargement Routine Job Job Enlargement Lower order Few Variety of Tasks Many .
and grievances for the organization Full use of human resources for society Society gains more effective organizations . The benefits of enriching jobs include: Growth of the individual Individuals have better job satisfaction Self-actualization of the individual Better employee performance for the organization Organization gets intrinsically motivated employees Less absenteeism. turnover.
. but require the same set of skills. Autonomy: This gives employees discretion and control over job related decisions. This gives a sense of completion and responsibility for the product. Task Identity: Create or perform a complete piece of work. This differs from job enlargement which might require the employee to perform more tasks. It can come directly from the job (task feedback) or verbally form someone else.There are a variety of methods for improving job enrichment: Skill Variety: Perform different tasks that require different skill. Feedback: Information that tells workers how well they are performing. Task Significant: This is the amount of impact that the work has on other people as the employee perceives.
expectations.” . assumptions. beliefs.Organisational Culture Organisational culture is the personality of the organisation Culture is comprised of : “The shared philosophies. ideologies. values. attitudes and norms that knit a community together.
for-profit corporation is quite different than that of a hospital which is quite different that that of a university. the culture of a large. . Culture is one of those terms that's difficult to express distinctly. values. For example. but everyone knows it when they sense it. Members of an organization soon come to sense the particular culture of an organization. organizational culture is the personality of the organization. Culture is comprised of the assumptions.Culture Basically. norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors.
Organizational Structures: Reporting lines. and convey a message on what is valued in Org . board reports become more habitual than necessary. Control Systems: The processes in place to monitor what is going on. Rituals and Routines: Management meetings. its values. Equations of Power: Who makes the decisions. what it does. how widely spread is power.Define Culture Paradigm: What the organization is about. ie car parking spaces & executive washrooms! Stories and Myths: build up about people & events.. and the way that work flows thru the business. hierarchies. may extend to symbols of power. its mission. & what is power base? Symbols: Logos and designs.
Levels of Culture
Usual visible behavior patterns, styles of functioning, norms, rituals and ceremonies Hidden assumptions, values, fundamental beliefs behind decisions and actions
OVERT / SURFACE
Unconscious human nature, collective behaviors, instincts, motives and desires
Dimensions of Culture
Concern for performance and goal accomplishment Desire to set or maintain high standards / excellence
Drive to attain unique accomplishments
Concern for maintaining control Desire for status and position for their own sake Emphasis on authority, hierarchy and privileges : Desire to maintain positive emotional relationship Concern for social contact and interaction Emphasis on harmony and friendly relationship
Types of Organisational Culture
1 2 3 4 5 6
Low Low High High High
Low High Low High High
High Low Low Low High
Types of Organisational Culture Achievement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Affiliation Low Low High Low High High Power Low High Low Low Low High Type Bureaucratic Autocratic Affiliative Professional/ Contract Team PaternalisticAutocratic Low Low Low High High High .
stereotyped range of responses Trial and error learning Parts are fragmented Untrusting and exploitative Personalized conflict Control by commitment Reflective. short-term perspective Narrow.Levels of Cultural Maturity Lower Level Higher Level Control by fear Reactive. long term perspective Wide range and variety of responses Designed learning Parts are integrated Trust. integrity and “right” action Conflict over issues. resolved by reason .
Models for evaluating Culture .
crats) Senior Management Work-groups Task Corporate Culture Values Commitment Sharing .Influences on organizational culture National culture Nation specific influences Departments Importable (….
National culture is an important influence in culture. Geert Hofstede demonstrated that there are regional differences The members of the organization bring their own individual experiences, beliefs and values.
Work-groups within the organization have their own behavioral quirks and interactions which, to an extent, affects the whole system. Task culture can be imported. That is to say, computer technicians will have expertise, language and behaviors gained independently of the organization that set them apart from their colleagues, but their mere presence can influence the culture of the organization. Senior management may determine a Corporate Culture. They may wish to impose corporate values and standards of behavior that specifically reflect the objectives of the organization.
Power distance Uncertainty avoidance individualism vs. collectivism Masculinity vs. femininity Long vs. short term orientation
A high score suggests that there is an expectation that some individuals wield larger amounts of power than others. and the accumulation of wealth and material possessions. ambition. Long vs.The degree to which a society expects there to be differences in the levels of power. femininity .refers to the value placed on traditionally male or female values. A low score reflects the view that all people should have equal rights. Male values for example include competitiveness. short term orientation . assertiveness. Masculinity vs. or alternatively act predominantly as a member of the group or organization. Power distance . and refers to the extent to which people are expected to stand up for themselves. individualism vs. collectivism .individualism is contrasted with collectivism. Uncertainty avoidance reflects the extent to which a society accepts uncertainty and risk.
High Risk… Research Low feedback . Low risk …. …Athletes Rapid feedback. Low Risk….Service industry The Work Hard/Play Hard Culture The Bet your Company Culture Low Feedback.Deal and Kennedy The Tough-Guy Macho Culture Rapid feedback.Beauraucracy The Process Culture Feedback & Risk . High Risk.
This often applies to fast moving financial activities such as brokerage. This could be in monetary terms. or athletes competing in team sports. such as the impact of a great save in a soccer match. but could also be seen in other ways. Deal and Kennedy defined organizational culture as the way things get done around here. Risk . They measured organizations in respect of: Feedback .represents the degree of uncertainty in the organization‟s activities. This can be a very stressful culture in which to operate. they were able to suggest four classifications of organizational culture: The Tough-Guy Macho Culture. .quick feedback means an instant response. Using these parameters. but could also apply to policemen or women. Feedback is quick and the rewards are high.
This is typical in large organizations. Whilst it is easy to criticize these cultures for being over cautious or bogged down in red tape. jargon and buzzwords. all with rapid feedback. The Process Culture occurs in organizations where there is little or no feedback. they do produce consistent results. The Bet your Company Culture. but it may be years before the results are known. where big stakes decisions are taken. for example. It is often characterized by team meetings. Typically. which is ideal in. . public services. which take years to come to fruition. such as oil prospecting or military aviation. which strive for high quality customer service. People become bogged down with how things are done not with what is to be achieved. This is often associated with bureaucracies. The Work Hard/Play Hard Culture is characterized by few risks being taken. these might involve development or exploration projects.
little bureaucracy. quick decision delegated authorities within a highly defined structure Teams are formed to solve particular problems where all individuals believe themselves superior to the organization Role Culture (Apollo) Task Culture (Athena) Person Culture (Dionysus) .Charles Handy Power Culture (Club) Few rules.
These cultures often feature the multiple reporting lines of a matrix structure. swift decisions can ensue. because each partner brings a peculiar expertise and clientele to the firm. Some professional partnerships can operate as person cultures. Power derives from expertise so long as a team requires expertise. Typically. In a Role Culture. Control radiates from the center like a web. . Power Cultures have few rules and little bureaucracy. A Person Culture exists where all individuals believe themselves superior to the organization. since the concept of an organization suggests that a group of like-minded individuals pursue the organizational goals. teams are formed to solve particular problems. Power derives from a person's position and little scope exists for expert power. a Power Culture which concentrates power in a few pairs of hands. people have clearly delegated authorities within a highly defined structure. By contrast. these organizations form hierarchical bureaucracies. Survival can become difficult for such organizations. in a Task Culture.
Individual cum Group Exercise Define Culture of an Organization .
Group Dynamics .
What is A Group ? A comprehensive definition would say that is a group exists in an organization. it‟s members: Are motivated to join Perceive the group as unified unit of interacting people Contribute in various amounts to the group processes Reach agreements and have differences in various forms of interactions .
What is a Group? A group is: “two or more people who share a common definition and evaluation of themselves and behave in accordance with such a definition” (Vaughan & Hogg, 2002, p. 200) a collection of people who interact with one another, accept rights and obligations as members and who share a common identity. Criteria for a group include: formal social structure face-to-face interaction 2 or more persons common fate common goals interdependence self-definition as group members recognition by others
What is Group Dynamics?
Kurt Lewin popularized it in 1930‟s How groups should be organized and conducted. Democratic leadership, member participation and over all cooperation is stressed. Another view was that it is a set of technique used. e.g. team building, brainstorming etc. It was viewed from the internal perspective of the group, as to how they are formed, their structure and processes, their functioning, the interaction within the group etc.
Why do individual form groups?
Why do individuals form groups? Propinquity It simply means that people affiliate with each other because of geographic proximity. The students sitting besides each other are more likely to form a group than those sitting on opposite corners of the class The other theories are based on commonality of activity. One of the major element is „INTERACTION‟ . interactions and sentiments.g. e.
.cost outcomes of interactions.Why do individual form groups? EXCHANGE THEORY This is based on the reward . The minimum acceptable would be that the rewards are at a minimum positive level than costs.
that is. Storming: A chaotic vying for leadership and trialling of group processes 3. Norming: Eventually agreement is reached on how the group operates (norming) 4. Dr Suess-style: 1. Performing: The group practices its craft and becomes effective in meeting its objectives. . Tuckman added a 5th stage 10 years later: 5. He labelled the stages. letting go of the group structure and moving on.Stages of Group Development Stages of group development Bruce Tuckman (1965) developed a 4-stage model of group development. 2. Forming: The group comes together and gets to initially know one other and form as a group. Adjourning: The process of "unforming" the group.
Each group has a different bearing on its members. Primary Groups A primary group is smaller in size (generally no number is assigned to define „small size‟.Types of Group There are different types of groups.face interaction). E.to . but it should be small enough to facilitate one -to -one interaction & face . Family & Peer group. loyalty and a common sense of values amongst it‟s members. .g. In addition it has a higher degree of comradeship.
Independent of the formal organization structure lacks a formal internal structure Mutual perception of membership Issue-oriented to advance purpose of members .Types of Group Coalition Interacting group of individuals Deliberately constructed by the members for a specific purpose.
•Members are not homogeneous in nature •Vide variety of skill sets.Types of Group Formal Groups •They are constituted with a specific purpose. •Members of this group are normally not by choice •Number of members are normally restricted. .
etc. • E. . membership group.Informal Group • They are not constituted.g. interest group. friendship group. • Voluntary membership • Number of members are not normally restricted. • Members are generally homogeneous in nature • Vide variety of skill sets.
Sources of Group Effectiveness Organizational context Group structure Goals Resources Knowledge Motivation Leadership Formal structure Group roles Extent of interdependence Complexity Group resources The task .
where the individual defines herself as a member of a group. rather than as an individual .What is Cohesion? “…The „cement‟ binding together group members and maintaining their relationships to one another” “The resultant of all the forces acting on the members to remain in the group” The attraction of individuals to the team or group itself.
friendship Task The ability of the group to facilitate individuals‟ goals Not necessary for group members to like one another .Types of Cohesion Interpersonal or social The attraction between and among group members Liking.
External frustration or threat Shared success or failure What are the results? Higher perceptions of similarity Uniformity of thought / behavior Performance Better communications . status.Cohesion: Antecedents and Consequences Where does it come from? Propinquity and interaction Perceived similarities in personality. attitudes. etc. demographics.
Factors that increase or decrease group cohesiveness Increase Agreement on group goals frequency of interaction personal attractiveness inter group competition favorable evaluation Decreases Disagreement on goals Large group size Unpleasant experiences Intra-group competition dominance by one or more members .
Group Roles: Group-Oriented Behavior Encouraging Expressing Group Feelings Harmonizing Gate-Keeping Setting Standards .
Anti-Group Behavior The Blocker The Recognition-Seeker The Dominator The Avoider .
Conflict in Groups Different goals Lack of role clarity Dysfunctional group behaviors Anti-group behaviors Groupthink .
Group Norms Norms are strongly enforced if . • Help the group in avoiding embarrassment / interpersonal conflicts • Expresses the central values or goals of the group and clarify what is distinctive about the group... . • They aid in survival and provision of the benefit • Simplify or make predictable the behavior expected of group members.
Group Norms What causes compliance to norms Group Pressure Group Review & Reinforcement Personal Values and Norms .
It is a position that can be acted out by an individual. . The content of the given role is prescribed by the prevailing norm.Role and Role Playing • What is „Role‟? Role consists of pattern of norms.
) (Depart from group .Oriented Employee •Technique Oriented Employee •Nay Sayers •Yes Sayers •Rule enforcers •New Comers •Old timer •Climbers •Cosmopolitans •Rule evaders •Rule blinkers •Involved employee •Locals •Detached employee •Mavericks values.Types of Role •Task.
Communicator Positive. He is seen as very dependent. He enjoys providing support to the group activities. resolving conflicts.Types of Role Contributor: Task Oriented member. . He plays the role of a facilitator of involvement. problem solving. people oriented & effective listener.
methods etc. Flexible in approach. Willing to disagree with any one if he feel so.Types of Role Collaborator Focuses on the big picture. Reminds others of the larger goals. . Challenger Known for candor and openness questions teams goals.
reality testing. .Group Think • Deterioration of mental efficiency. and moral judgements that result from group pressures • It results from the pressures from individual members to conform and reach consensus.
There is excessiveness of optimism and risk taking There are rationalization by members to discount warnings / threats The group ignores questionable ethical or moral issues .Group Think Symptoms There is an illusion of invulnerability.
Loyal members do not question the direction in which the group is heading. Self censorship on any type of deviation from group consensus. There is an illusion of unanimity. Silence is taken as conformance. .Group Think Symptoms Those who oppose are stereotyped as evil or bad or weak. Self appointed „Mind-guard‟. who protect the group from adverse information.
Strategies for Managing Conflict Fox – You bend – I bend … Win -Win Teddy Bear – I lose – you win … Lose .Lose .Win Shark – I win – you lose … Win .Lose Turtle – No winners – no losers … Lose .
.Compromising You bend. I bend Symbol: Fox Fundamental premise: Winning something while losing a little is OK Strategic philosophy: Both ends are placed against the middle in an attempt to serve the "common good" while ensuring each person can maintain something of their original position When to use: * When people of equal status are equally committed to goals * When time can be saved by reaching intermediate settlements on individual parts of complex issues * When goals are moderately important Drawbacks: * Important values and long-term objectives can be derailed in the process * May not work if initial demands are too great * Can spawn cynicism. especially if there's no commitment to honor the compromise solutions .
thus protecting the relationship When to use: *When an issue is not as important to you as it is to the other person *When you know you can't win *When it's not the right time *When harmony is extremely important *When what the parties have in common is a good deal more important than their differences Drawbacks: *One's own ideas don't get attention *Credibility and influence can be lost . the trauma of confronting differences may damage fragile relationships Strategic philosophy: Appease others by downplaying conflict. you win Symbol: Teddy Bear Fundamental premise: Working toward a common purpose is more important than any of the peripheral concerns.Accommodating I lose.
Competing I win. you lose Symbol: Shark Fundamental premise: Associates "winning" a conflict with competition Strategic philosophy: When goals are extremely important. one must sometimes use power to win When to use: When you know you are right When quick decision is needed When a strong personality is trying to steamroller you When you need to stand up for your rights Drawbacks: Can escalate conflict Losers may retaliate .
or postponing When to use: When the conflict is small and relationships are at stake When more important issues are pressing and you feel you don't have time to deal with this particular one When you see no chance of getting your concerns met When you are too emotionally involved and others around you can solve the conflict more successfully When more information is needed Drawbacks: Important decisions may be made by default Postponing may make matters worse . no losers Symbol: Turtle Fundamental premise: This isn't the right time or place to address this issue Strategic philosophy: Avoids conflict by withdrawing. sidestepping.Avoiding No winners.
Diversity @ workplace .
diversity is "otherness.What is Diversity? In simple terms." or those human qualities that are different from our own and outside the groups in which we belong. There are various qualities that differentiate one individual from the next. .
Elements of Diversity Age Gender Income Education Marital Status Religious Beliefs Geographic Location Parental Status Personality Type Ethnicity Race Physical Ability Sexual Orientation Physical Characteristics .
includes everyone.Diversity: The uniqueness of all individuals. .
Principles of Diversity Management Establish a business strategy for effectively managing a diverse workforce Create a positive work environment Promote personal and professional development Empower all people to reach their full potential Remove barriers that hinder progress Ensure equal opportunities and prevent discrimination .
Creating an Organization That Can Manage Diversity Organizational vision Top management commitment Auditing and assessment of needs Clarity of objectives Clear accountability Effective communication Coordination of activity Evaluation .
Techniques for Managing Diversity Managing diversity training programs Core groups to manage diversity Multicultural teams Senior managers of diversity Targeted recruitment and selection programs .
Techniques for Managing Diversity Compensation and reward programs tied to achieving diversity goals Language training Mentoring programs Cultural advisory groups Corporate social activities that celebrate diversity .
.Managing diversity effectively Leads to: Greater range of perspectives. and creativity. ideas. Greater potential of developing a high performance team. and decisions. generation of alternatives. Greater resilience in dealing with escalating demands. Better problem definition.
Stereotyping of other members and sub grouping along cultural lines. arriving at consensus & agreement.Mismanaging diversity Leads to: Disrupts development of trust. effectiveness & productivity . Low levels of efficiency. Misunderstanding and disruptive communication. constructive working relationships.
Unintended Results of Managing Diversity Programs that focus on encouraging certain groups may create feelings of unfairness or exclusion in others Giving preferential treatment to certain groups may stigmatize their members Increasing diversity without recognition and rewards for the new members can create organizational tension .
Implications for Managers Managing a diverse workforce is an important part of an international manager‟s job Must understand the impact of diversity and know how to utilize Realize different cultures view diversity differently and consider impact on manager .
Potential Benefits of an Effective Diversity Management Program Improve organizational performance Help prevent unlawful discrimination or harassment incidents Improve workplace relations Build more effective work teams Improve organizational problem solving Improve customer service Enhanced recruitment efforts .
Making heads count is more important than counting heads .
Possible barriers in the organization that prevent a more balanced workforce? Limiting area of consideration Lack of diversity at the senior ranks Categorizing people into certain positions Always recruiting from same source Grooming/developing only one person .
Strategies for Inclusion .
The Value of Mentoring Without regard to race. national origin …. religion. Inconvenience yourself to show someone else the way Unleash someone else‟s potential . gender.
Professional Development Identify training and development needs for all employees Utilize Individual Development Plans Rotational & Developmental Assignments Rotate “acting” supervisor .
problem solving. and organizational flexibility . Effective diversity management strategy has a positive effect on cost reduction. Diversity management is about full utilization of people with different backgrounds and experiences. creativity.
Reciprocal learning & influence of minority & majority Open minded.3 Stage Model of Organisational Development in dealing with diversity Monolithic & Homogeneous Org Pluralistic & Heterogeneous Org Learns Multi-Cultural Organisations Truly Discrimination Prejudice Occupational Segregation Majority influences minority to manage diversity Has more heterogeneous membership Focus on equal employment opportunities Emphasis on equity in employment & pay High degree of inter-group conflict between minority & majority values diversity Extensive awareness training & skill bldg. open to other‟s perspective Recognize. Appreciate and work effectively with diversity . flexible.
and to get the people to do the things they would not otherwise do Distinction between Power and Leadership Bases of power Legitimate Power Coercive Power Reward Power Information Power Referent Power Expert Power Charismatic Power .Power Power is the potential ability to influence behaviour. to change the course of events. to overcome resistance.
Coercive Power Power drawn from organizational position – legitimate power or power to allocate resources coerces people to accept influences.derived from larger power base – e. depriving a person from information . delaying action.g. Emotional power. Punishment Charismatic Power – charismatic leader does not treat his people as mature people with competence to make their own decisions.when influence is accepted because of emotional bond rather a conscious choice Reflected Power. CEO‟s private secretary Manipulated power – by withholding information.
Coercive Power Base Organizational Position Closeness to power source Charisma Ability to punish Personal Relationship Ability to withhold/ deprive information Type Status Reflected Charismatic Coercive Emotional Manipulative .
Helping / caring Logical Power .Persuasive Power Personal Power Expertise – special knowledge Competence – general effectiveness to product results Referent Power (Modeling) – Example set by Behaviour Reward power – encourages people to experiment – reinforcing Extension power .Information .
Persuasive Power Base Expertise Competence Role Modeling Ability to reward Helping / caring Type Expert Competence Referent Reinforcing Extension Information Logical .
Dependency arises out of control on resources which are Important Scarce Non-substitutable . the greater B‟s power over A.What Creates Power The greater A‟s dependency on B.
Power Tactics Ways in which Individual translates power bases into specific actions Seven tactical dimensions or strategies Reason Assertiveness Friendliness Coalition Bargaining Higher authority Sanctions .
Organizational Politics Activities that are not required as part of one‟s formal role in the Organization. or attempt to influence the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. but that influence. Is it possible for the Organizations to be politics free? .
Politics in Organizations Use of Power to affect decision making in the organization. Legitimate Political Behaviours Illegitimate Political behaviours . especially those concerned with distribution of advantages or disadvantages within the Organization.
consensus on core values. efficiency .Good power and politics Processes Empowerment. creative turbulence. overcome dependency and inertia. adaptiveness. abolish unproductive routines. acceptance of rules of the game. increased efficacy. open conflict. root out entrenched interests. positive-sum games. shifting coalitions and interests Outcomes Flexibility.
high cost in time & resources. isolation.Bad power and politics From the organization‟s perspective Processes Back-stabbing. vengeance-seeking. inability to focus on tasks. frustration. loss of transparency and accountability Outcomes From the participant‟s perspective Uncertainty. failure . stress. hoarding. secrecy. rumor-mongoring. zero-sum games Goal subversion/sub-optimization. factionalism. corruption. sabotage. stalemate & inertia. anxiety.
Employee Response to Bad Politics Decreased Job Satisfaction Increased Anxiety Increased Turnover Reduced Performance .
Defensive Behaviour Avoiding Action • Avoiding Change – Prevention – Self-protection Over conforming Buck Passing Playing Dumb Stretching Stalling Avoiding Blame Buffing Playing Safe Justifying Scapegoating Misrepresenting .
Strategies for Attaining Power Maintaining alliance with powerful people Embrace or Demolish Divide and Rule Manipulate Information Create good impressions Collect and use IOUs Go slow and easy Wait for crises Reservations against participation .
Impression Management Conformity : Agreeing to gain approval Excuses : To minimize severity Apologies: Admitting responsibility and attempt to gain pardon Self-Promotion: Highlighting one‟s achievements and positives Flattery: Complimenting others Favours: Doing something nice to gain approval Association: Reflected glory .
.creating and strengthening sub-units Privatization – passing responsibility to private orgs.Transferring responsibility for specifically defined functions Devolution . De-concentration – handing over some admin authority to lower levels Delegation.shared decision making.Power Sharing Decentralization of power.
Delegation The process of delegation: Jointly define role boundaries Provide needed competencies Provide needed resources Monitor but do not closely supervise Reward discretion and initiative Respect role boundaries Jointly analyse mistakes to plan for future Review delegation down the line .
Stress & Burnout .
job stress can be disabling. In chronic cases a psychiatric consultation is usually required to validate the reason and degree of work related stress. One or more of a host of physical and mental illnesses manifests job stress. . In some cases.Stress at Workplace Job stress is a chronic disease caused by conditions in the workplace that negatively affect an individual's performance and/or overall well-being of his body and mind.
• Extreme anger and frustration. Typical symptoms of job stress can be: • Insomnia • Loss of mental concentration. depending on the particular situation. how long the individual has been subjected to the stressors. stress • Absenteeism • Depression.Symptoms The signs of job stress vary from person to person. migraine. . stomach problems. • Anxiety. and back problems. • Family conflict • Physical illnesses such as heart disease. • Substance abuse. and the intensity of the stress itself. headaches.
Causes of Workplace Stress Job Insecurity High Demand for Performance Technology Workplace Culture Personal or Family Problems Job Stress and Women .
or selectively deal with matters in some priority .How to deal with Stress Set realistic goals for yourself: Reduce the number of events going on in your life and you may reduce the circuit overload Remove yourself from the stressful situation: Give yourself a break if only for a few moments daily Don't overwhelm yourself: by fretting about your entire workload. Handle each task as it comes.
Focus on one troublesome thing and manage your reactions to it/him/her Avoid extreme reactions: Why hate when a little dislike will do? Why generate anxiety when you can be nervous? Why rage when anger will do the job? Why be depressed when you can just be sad? .How to deal with Stress Don't sweat the small stuff: Try to prioritize a few truly important things and let the rest slide Selectively change the way you react: but not too much at one time.
They don't help deal with the problems Learn how to best relax yourself: Meditation and breathing exercises have been proven to be very effective in controlling stress.How to deal with Stress Get enough sleep: Lack of rest just aggravates stress Avoid self-medication or escape: Alcohol and drugs can mask stress. . Practice clearing your mind of disturbing thoughts.
gardening Try to "use" stress: If you can't fight what's bothering you and you can't flee from it. tennis. "Stress can actually help memory. Increase your body's feedback and make stress self-regulating Do something for others: to help get your mind off your self Work off stress: with physical activity. flow with it and try to use it in a productive way Try to be positive: Give yourself messages as to how well you can cope rather than how horrible everything is going to be.How to deal with Stress Change the way you see things: Learn to recognize stress for what it is. whether it's jogging. provided it is short-term and not too severe .
It is also used as an English slang term to mean exhaustion.Burnout Burnout is a psychological term for the experience of longterm exhaustion and diminished interest (depersonalization or cynicism). Sometimes argued that workers with particular personality traits (especially neuroticism) are more prone to experiencing burnout. Burnout proceeds by stages that blend and merge into one another so smoothly and imperceptibly that the victim seldom realizes what happened even after it's over. usually in the work context. . Burnout is often construed as the result of a period of expending too much effort at work while having too little recovery.
your job is wonderful. The Honeymoon During the honeymoon phase. your coworkers and the organization. You're delighted with your job. You love the job and the job loves you.The stages include 1. . You believe it will satisfy all your needs and desires and solve all your problems. You have boundless energy and enthusiasm and all things seem possible.
As disillusionment and disappointment grow. It doesn't satisfy all your needs. But working harder doesn't change anything and you become increasingly tired. You question your competence and ability and start losing your self-confidence . and rewards and recognition are scarce.2. bored. The Awakening The honeymoon wanes and the awakening stage starts with the realization that your initial expectations were unrealistic. Something is wrong. The job isn't working out the way you thought it would. you work even harder to make your dreams come true. and frustrated. but you can't quite put your finger on it. your co-workers and the organization are less than perfect. you become confused. Typically.
partying. and openly critical of the organization. or shopping binges. and co-workers. and physical illness. Your eating and sleeping patterns change and you indulge in escapist behaviors such as sex. your early enthusiasm and energy give way to chronic fatigue and irritability. You are cynical. Drugs or alcohol are often a problem. Co-workers and superiors may comment on it. superiors. and your productivity drops. drinking. anxiety. detached. Unless interrupted. Your work deteriorates. drugs. You become indecisive. You are beset with depression.3. brownout slides into its later stages. Brownout As brownout begins. . You become increasingly frustrated and angry and project the blame for your difficulties onto others.
"what's the use" pessimism about the future. optimism. Despair is the dominant feature of this final stage. but in most cases it involves three to four years." Your are exhausted physically and mentally. Physical and mental breakdowns are likely. You talk about. stroke. "just quitting and getting away.4. Full Scale Burnout Unless you wake up and interrupt the process or someone intervenes. and enthusiasm. brownout drifts remorselessly into full-scale burnout. . or heart attack are not unusual as you complete the final stage of what all started with such high hopes. energy. Life seems pointless and there is a paralyzing. You experience an overwhelming sense of failure and a devastating loss of self-esteem and selfconfidence. You become depressed and feel lonely and empty. Suicide. This may take several months.
. but be careful.5. Whomever you're talking to about your feelings can help you. Trying to be and do what someone else wants you to be or do is a surefire recipe for continued frustration and burnout. the work won't get done and you'll only feel guilty for being "lazy. aspirations. First of all. The Phoenix Phenomenon You can arise Phoenix-like from the ashes of burnout. Don't take work home.“ In coming back from burnout. Your readjusted aspirations and goals must be yours and not somebody else's. be realistic in your job expectations. If you're like most. but it takes time. you need to rest and relax. and goals.
Physical. Mental and Emotional Exhaustion. . Helplessness and Crisis. Shame and Doubt. Failure. 3. 4. Cynicism and Callousness. 2.Burnout The Four Attitudinal Stages of Burnout 1.
Change Management .
Managing Change .
.Why organisations need to change Many things cause organisational change. These include: challenges of growth. especially global markets changes in strategy technological changes competitive pressures customer pressure. particularly shifting markets to learn new organisation behaviour and skills government legislation/initiatives.
Lewin specifically considers a three-stage process of managing change: Unfreezing. Changing and Re-freezing. .The Kurt Lewin model of change This model considers that change involves a move from one static state via a state of activity to another static status quo.
The third stage involves embedding the new ways of working into the organisation. The second stage requires organising and mobilising the resources required to bring about the change. . which creates conditions for change to be implemented. The first stage involves creating a level of dissatisfaction with the status quo.
Process of Organisational change Unfreezing : Identifying the need for change Increasing the driving forces of change Express the need for change Communicate the potential benefit Protect the interest of concerned people Get people involved in the process Communicate the progress of change Use a respected change agent Reinforce earlier change Reducing the resisting forces of change .
Moving / Changing: Individual components Group components Task components Structural components Technology components .
Refreezing : Reinforcing the newly learned behavior Finding „fits‟ between organizational components Maintaining „fits‟ between organizational components .
imposed change can lead to greater employee resistance Finally.Issues in the change management process? Organisational issues: Individual change initiatives are not always undertaken as part of a wider coherent change plan. . lack of effective leadership has been identified as an inhibitor of effective change. For example. for example a change that considers a new structure but fails to establish the need to introduce new systems to support such a structure is less likely to succeed. Poor communication has been linked to issues surrounding the effectiveness of in achieving effective change in various ways.
withholding of information to active resistance eg via strikes.Individual/group resistance to change Resistance to change can be defined as an individual or group engaging in acts to block or disrupt an attempt to introduce change. . Resistance itself can take many different forms from subtle undermining of change initiatives.
Individual/group resistance to change Resistance to change can be considered along various dimensions: individual versus collective passive versus active direct versus indirect behavioural versus verbal or attitudinal minor versus major. .
for example. to the introduction of a particular reward system. This concerns the way a change is introduced rather than the object of change per se. Resistance to the process of change. without prior consultation of affected employees. Similarly two broad types of resistance can be considered: Resistance to the content of change .for example to a specific change in technology. management re-structure jobs. .
Reasons for resistance include loss of control shock of new Uncertainty Inconvenience threat to status competence fears It is important to try to diagnose the cause of employee resistance as this will help determine the focus of effort in trying to reduce/remove the issue. .
for example coercive.What can be done to make change management more effective? Leadership:Effective leadership is a key enabler as it provides the vision and the rationale for change. consultative and collaborative. when there is a large-scale organisation-wide change a directive style has been identified as most effective. For example. directive. Different styles of leadership have been identified. . These different styles may each be appropriate depending on the type and scale of change being undertaken.
Change management skills. including communication and facilitation. .What can be done to make change management more effective? Training: Appropriate and timely training is frequently identified as key to effective change. Examples of training requirements might include: Project and programme management skills to ensure change initiatives are completed both on time and to budget. leadership coaching.
Active participation is one suggested means of overcoming resistance to change. (CFT) .What can be done to make change management more effective? Communication: Two-way communication with employees and their active involvement in implementation has also been identified as a key enabler of change.
Capturing learning. Consulting stakeholders. Connecting organisation-wide change.The seven C's of change Choosing a team. Communicating. . Coping with change. Crafting the vision and the path.
Rewards and Recognition .
Travel etc)b . often with accompanying recognition Recognition is a positive consequence provided to a person for a behavior or a result in the form of acknowledgement. Trophy.Understanding Reward & Recognition Definitions: A reward is an item or experience with monetary value that is provided for a desired behavior or performance. Merchandise. approval or the expression of gratitude “Recognition” is more of an activity or an association (a social or interpersonal activity) while a “Reward” is more of a thing (Money.
you harness the power of motivation. which is the single most powerful strategy used to promote performance and positive behaviors Drives Stretch in Performance Enhances aspirations and creates Motivation Feeling Valued Builds Self Esteem and sense of Belonging Improves Individual Attitudes .Why Reward & Recognise employees By valuating and recognizing people.
World at Work 9. emotion * Gerald Ledford Jr.Reward is a Right. Recognition is a Gift…. positive. all 5 types of rewards were considered equally important…. Praise Time Toys. Rewards at work Recognition Direct Financial (pay) Indirect Financial (benefits) Work Content (work) Careers (development) Affiliation (feeling of belonging) Study results: Surprisingly.. Freedom & Food Small Money Others Common thread – Genuine.3 (Q3 2000):1-11 . no. and Peter LeBlanc. Trophies & Trinkets Fun.
‖ 1 ―Recognition can be a strategic tool for shaping behavior and moving an organization in a desired direction. or deed towards making someone feel appreciated for who they are and recognized for what they do. Training magazine .‖ 3 1 2 “Making Recognition a Daily Event” by Roy Saunderson.‖ 2 ―Recognition is something a manager should be doing all the time— it’s a running dialogue with people.What is Recognition? ―Recognition is any thought. Recognition Management Institute “A Culture of Recognition. Building a System to Celebrate Great Performance” by Rhonda Sunnarborg. BI Business Improvement Series 3 Ron Zemke. word.
Why Focus on Recognition? Employees identify recognition as one of the most effective motivators1 Even small increases in supportive practices are associated with decreased turnover and increased sales/profitability2 Employees who feel that their organization values them are more likely to value their customers2 Appreciation and/or praise are among the top three drivers of employee motivation and engagement across a variety of industries and companies3 1 The Conference Board. 1999 HR Executive Review: Employee Recognition Programs Pfeffer 2001 study Hewitt Associates 2 3 .
Differentiation between Reward and Recognition Reward Monetary A reward is given by an “organization” to value something it already has or it ascribes a value to a particular job / event Recognition Feelings A recognition is just an expression of feeling. It happens when a person is impacted by another person and he / she expresses it openly .
Recognition Jeopardy How many managers feel that “appreciating others” is a major part of their job ? Very FEW .
Recognition Jeopardy What causes you the most dissatisfaction at work ? Lack of appreciation .
A Challenging Situation Employee faith and loyalty in organizations dropping! 40% of employees feel unappreciated 1 in 3 workers are unhappy and not engaged “not feeling appreciated” may be the #1 reason people leave a job 61% of employees received no meaningful praise in the past year .
Who needs appreciation? 78% of employees feel it is very important to be recognized by their manager “I can live for two months on a good compliment!” Mark Twain “I now perceive one immense omission in my psychology – the deepest principle of human nature is the craving to be appreciated.” William James .
Informal Recognition: Building A Culture Understand organizational goals/values Determine the goals of the recognition initiative Know your staff better “How to do it”– every day Look for recognition opportunities “Thanks”. praise and feedback .
Organisation‟s Goals / Values What values and goals does the organization want to promote? Relative importance? Relative impact? What specific values and goals will be addressed with recognition efforts? .
focus NAER 2003 Recognition Survey .Potential Initiative Goals Create a positive work environment 80% Create a culture 76% Motivate high performance 75% Reinforce desired behaviors 75% Increase morale 71% Support organizational values/goals 66% Increase retention 51% Encourage loyalty 40% Others – communication. teambuilding.
Recognition Follies If we want better people skills Why do we often recognize technical achievements innovative thinking “no mistakes” tight control over employee development resources Remember you get what you recognize! .
Potential Benefits Positive workplace… Support of organization’s goals… Increased retention Higher performance More innovation/better economics .
Potential Benefits Positive workplace… Support organization’s goals… Increased retention Higher performance More innovation/better economics Increased self-esteem An employee who feels more valued A more committed. engaged analyst Strengthened bond between the analyst and manager A more focused manager .
Getting to know what your people want Challenging. interesting work A collegial work environment Work that supports growth and personal achievement Good communications and supportive relationships Recognition for new promising ideas Support for risk taking Clearly integrated technical/business goals .
“Good Recognition” As immediate as possible Specific What did you see How did it impact the situation or the organization In a form meaningful to the employee Provided in a way meaningful to the employee Recognizes work in progress/efforts as well Recognizes everyone including high performers .
Effective Ways to Recognize “Thanks!” including feedback Employee involvement Responsibility and authority Employee development The work itself Attention Professional recognition .
More responsibility 4.Highly Valued Forms of Recognition 1. Personal praise 3. More authority . Manager‟s support and involvement 2.
Employee Involvement Ask for their opinions and ideas Implement their ideas whenever possible Include them in planning and decision making Provide as much information as possible Let them represent the lab Suggest participation on special teams and committees .
Responsibility/Authority More freedom to work independently More opportunities to self-manage Higher levels of responsibility Empowerment to make more decisions Ability/responsibility to improve processes .
Employee Development Provide opportunities to fulfill their own goals Freedom to work more independently Formal training opportunities In or out-of-house Let them use the new skills immediately Let them brief others Recognize individual talents when assigning work .
(ASAP)3 = Effective Praising As soon As sincere As specific As personal As positive As proactive © 1997 by Bob Nelson (scientific version of ASAP-Cubed) .
Recognition Using Feedback Feedback is a powerful form of praise Addresses important values of challenging work and excellent performance Shows your concern and interest Positive AND constructive messages “…can’t have one without the other” Enhances intrinsic motivation A positive cycle of excellent work leading to higher motivation from the work leading to higher performance…. .
but they keep motivated people from becoming demotivated” .ALMA Roundtable – Insights “Thanks” is highly effective if reinforced over time Recognition must be sincere. timely. appropriate Tailor the recognition/reward The more personal the better Show appreciation in various ways Personal notes Pass along or post messages of appreciation Post successes “Recognition/rewards are not motivators.
Mismatch with environment/culture Expectancy/reinforcement theory Recognizing the wrong behavior or value
Intrinsic motivation – the Pareto 20%
1. Response to surveys 2. Performance development meetings 3. Retention rates 4. Exit interviews
ALMA Roundtable 2005
You are the HR Manager of an FMCG organisation which has 400 employees at their HO. You have been asked to develop an R&R program for your organisation to keep employees engaged and motivation levels high. A separate budget would be provided for the R&R activities. You and you team has to design a program and present it to your leadership team.
A Closing Thought “…the best success we can have in getting managers and supervisors to recognize employees more often is less a function of awareness of the importance of recognition and the skills of providing recognition and more a function of getting managers to personally experience the power of recognition.” Bob Nelson .
Business Ethics Business ethics is a form of the art of applied ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment. .
General business ethics This part of business ethics overlaps with the philosophy of business. Corporate social responsibility or CSR: an umbrella term under which the ethical rights and duties existing between companies and society is debated. hostile take-overs. If a company's main purpose is to maximize the returns to its shareholders. industrial espionage. one of the aims of which is to determine the fundamental purposes of a company. Issues regarding the moral rights and duties between a company and its shareholders: fiduciary responsibility. shareholder concept. . Ethical issues concerning relations between different companies: e.g. then it could be seen as unethical for a company to consider the interests and rights of anyone else. Political contributions made by corporations. such as the ethical debate over introducing a crime of corporate manslaughter. Law reform. stakeholder concept v. Leadership issues: corporate governance.
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