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THE POWERFUL

TEACHER

“I’ve come to a frightening


conclusion that I am the decisive
element in the classroom.

It’s my personal approach


that creates the climate
It’s my daily mood
that makes the
weather
As a teacher, I possess a tremendous
power to make a child’s
life miserable or joyous

I can be a tool of torture


or an instrument of inspiration
I can humiliate or humor,
hurt or heal

In all situations, it is my response


that
decides whether a crisis will be escalated
or
de – escalated and a child humanized or
de – humanized.
EFFECTIVE TEACHER
A process that involves a knowledge of
educational theory and research, a
willingness to learn new roles and
teaching methods, and the ability to
reflect on one’s own performance.

Some people have inherent qualities that


increase the likelihood of their being good
teachers, and they can improve on their
natural abilities to make themselves
excellent teachers.
CATEGORIES OF
EFFECTIVE TEACHING IN
NURSING
 PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE =
one who aims at excellence develops
thorough knowledge of subject matter
and polishes skills throughout his/her
career. One who portrays excellent
clinical skills and judgment becomes a
positive role model for learners.
2.INTERPERSONAL
RELATIONSHIP WITH STUDENTS
=

demonstrated by taking a personal interest


in learners, being sensitive to their feelings
and problems, conveying respect for them ,
alleviating their anxieties, being accessible
for conferences, being fair, permitting
learners to express differing points of view,
creating an atmosphere in which they feel
free to ask questions, and conveying a
sense of warmth.
3 Basic Therapeutic Approaches to
Maintain Self –Esteem and minimize
Anxieties to Learners
 Emphatic Listening =the approach requires
teachers to respect learners and care about their
concerns and try to understand the world as learners
experience it.

 Acceptance = accept learners as they are, whether


or not you like them. Affirming the fact that learners
are worthwhile people, even though different from
yourself, enhances their self-esteem and convinces
them that you have faith in their desire and ability to
learn.

 Honest Communication = openness between


educator and students creates a relaxed atmosphere
in which students are able to see the teacher as a role
model.
PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS (desirable)

 personal magnetism
 enthusiasm
 cheerfulness
 self- control
 patience
 flexibility
 sense of humor
 good speaking voice
 self confidence
 willingness to admit errors
 caring attitude

4. TEACHING PRACTICES = the mechanics,
methods and skills in classroom and clinical teaching.
Students and colleagues value a teacher who has a
thorough knowledge of the subject matter and can present
material in an interesting, clear and organized manner.

5. EVALUATION PRACTICES = at the beginning of


a teaching/learning relationship, expectations should be
clearly expressed. If the learners are not meeting a
teacher’s expectations, they should know it as soon as
possible. On the other hand, learners who are doing a
superior job should be told so; it is not necessary to search
for weaknesses to write on an evaluation if they do not
exists.

Fairness in evaluation is a rather subjective phenomenon.


Complaints of unfairness can be minimized if evaluation is
based on published criteria and if those criteria are
pertinent to the learning objectives.
6. AVAILABILITY TO STUDENTS =
nursing students expect the clinical instructor being
there in stressful clinical situations, physically
helping students give nursing care, giving
appropriate amounts of supervision, freely
answering questions, and acting as a resource
person during clinical experiences.

Learners should be told at the beginning of instruction


what they should do if they need assistance and the
instructor is not available at that time.

There should be a back up plan for assistance by a staff


nurse, another instructor, or head nurse who can be
“on call” when the need arises.
NON- NURSING STUDIES IDENTIFIED
EFFECTIVE TEACHING
 TEACHER CLARITY ( Cruickshank, 1992) =researchers
have found that the clear teacher is one logically organizes
instruction, explains what is to be learned, uses simple
terms to present new material, constantly assesses whether
students are understanding and can follow the teacher’s
train of thought, uses example whenever possible, allows
students time to think about what is being taught, and uses
repetition and summarization.

 CARING ( Rodgers et al. 1997) – it was revealed that to be


a good teacher one have really the desire to be good
because teaching takes a lot of work to succeed in every
aspect of teaching.

 It was also wrote that good teaching is a form of parenting-


caring about students, knowing when to set boundaries and
knowing student’s potential.
A good teacher is concerned with more than just
what student’s know; he or she should also be
concerned with student’s beliefs, values, and
relationships.

COMMITTED AND CREATIVE ( Flowers 2000)


= a good teacher is committed when they don’t
watch the clock, often working long hours. They are
creative in their attempts to stimulate intellectual
inquisitiveness in their students and to help students
explore their world.
ROLE OF INSTRUCTORS
 FACILITATOR = setting up conditions under which
learning will occur

 GUIDING = setting goals and general principles for


achieving them

 STIMULATING = motivating performance

 SUPPORTING = providing individual attention as


needed

 SUPERVISING = overseeing the learning process to


avoid error fixation
Rodden (2000) wrote
Ultimately , what distinguishes the great teachers is
what I can only call their unsparing gift of self, their
capacity for caring about students

Not pseudo – care via maudlin gestures or gushy


words.

Perhaps even a bracing care, laced with stern


affection or bolstered by an impersonal rigor.
But their aim is always to awaken students to
an awareness of their greater potential.
NURSES AS TEACHERS
 Nurses take on the teaching role
in many settings. They may be
patient or client teachers, school
nurses, staff development
instructors, or collegiate
educators. In any nursing
position, it is safe that the nurse
will be teaching.
Nurses who spend the majority of their time in the
educator role such as staff development instructors or
educators in collegiate settings have more formal
preparation for the educator role and need to become
expert teachers in order to prepare the next generation
of patient educators.

In all cases, the characteristics of the effective teacher


should be studied and applied to the educator role if we
are to fulfill our professional responsibility for
providing high quality care and high quality education.
HALLMARKS OF GOOD
TEACHING
 Professional Competence
 mastery of subject matter
 mastery of methods, strategies, approaches,
techniques and tools
 mastery of medium of instruction
 mastery of lesson planning and organizing
instructional materials and other resources
 mastery of psychology of learning
 mastery of formulation of goals and objectives
 mastery of classroom management including
discipline
 mastery of measurement and evaluation
 mastery of techniques of motivation
 mastery of art of questioning
 mastery in the basics of guidance and counseling
PRINCIPLES OF GOOD PRACTICE
 Encourage student – faculty contact
 Encourage cooperation among students
 Encourage active learning
 Hive prompt feedback
 Emphasize time on task
 Communicate high expectations
 Respect diverse talents and ways of learning
FORMS OF TEACHING
 Authoritarian

 Democratic
LEARNING
 is the acquisition of knowledge of all
kinds, abilities, habits, attitudes,
values and skills. It is acquiring
something that one could not have
done before.
PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING
 Learning is not memorizing. People learn by
doing. Learning is an active process.
 Learning takes place only when people
recognize a problem or a need and is interested
in solving or satisfying the problem or need.
 People can and do increase their knowledge
irrespective of their age.
 Learning must be meaningful.
 Learning about health situations where actual
instruction is given does not takes place only in
one situation.
• Learning must be aimed at realistic goals.
Behavior can be change so that life may be more
satisfying.

• People can learn no matter what their age and


range of ability is. The saying that “ old dogs can’t
learn new tricks” is not true.

• What people learn in any given situation depends


on their past experiences, goals, or purposes,
interest in everyday life and hopes for the future.

• The most effective procedures, methods and tools


are often those created by the group or
individuals using them.

• Good human relations are important in learning


• No two students are exactly alike, and
therefore should always take into
consideration individual differences

• Teaching of health must be positive

• Use variety of teaching methods and


instructional materials

• Health teachings must be based on real life


situations, real people and real local health
problems.

• Teaching should be adapted to the student’s


interests and capacities.

• All learning is motivated.

• Avoid embarrassing students


OUTCOMES OF LEARNING
 COGNITIVE – knowledge and understanding of
facts, ideas, concepts, principles, rules, laws,
meanings, definitions etc.
 AFFECTIVE – attitudes, appreciation, interests,
ideals, values, likes and dislikes, beliefs,
conducts, philosophies in life, etc.
 PSYCHOMOTOR – manipulative skills, bodily
movements, vocal skills, dramatic abilities,
athletic skills, adaptive abilities, etc.
TEACHING- LEARNING
SITUATIONS
 It occurs when activities are focused on
activities of teacher, learning situation
when discussion is focused on the
activities of learner. Teaching and
learning are inseparable and they can
occur anytime.
TRANSFER OF LEARNING
 Transfer – ability to take information learned in one
situation and apply to another.

 Successful Transfer depends on:

 The extent to which material was originally learned


 The ability to retrieve information from memory
 The way in which the material was taught and learned
 The similarity of the new situation to the original
POSITIVE TRANSFER OF
LEARNING
 Occurs when present learning is
enhanced or accelerated by past
learning.
NEGATIVE TRANSFER OF
LEARNING
 Occurs when past learning interferes
with present learning.
Transfer of learning is acknowledged in all
major theories:
 BEHAVIORISM - S-R
 COGNITIVE LEARNING
THEORY- SCHEMA
RESTRUCTURING

 SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY –


MODELLING PROCESS
COURSE OBJECTIVES –
 clear what they expected to learn,
designed to be achievable are
broader than class objectives, should
be discussed in the first class.
sessions so learners are immediately
clear what they expected to learn,
designed to be achievable.
THREE DOMAINS OF LEARNING
OBJECTIVES
 1. Cognitive – should measure knowledge,
comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and
evaluation.
 can be evaluated by a test, written or oral.
 2. Psychomotor – observe what learners are actually
doing, when performing a skill
 demonstrate

 can be stated as “ correctly mix 2 types of insulin in

one syringe.
 3. Affective – are not easy to write and measure
ORGANIZING CONTENT
 Should follow a logical sequence
 Lectures moves from

generalization to specific or
specific to general
SELECTING TEACHING
METHODS
 Factors Affecting Choice of Method
 Depends on the objectives and type of learning
you are trying to achieved
 Ex: Facts – lecture with handouts
 Mold attitudes – case studies, discussions,
role playing
 Motivate – games
 Creativity and problem solving skills –
problem based learning or individual projects
 Depends on the abilities and interest of the teacher
 Teaching methods should emphasize student activity
 Discussions - simulations
 case studies - demonstration
 role playing - computer used
 Depends on the number of people in the class
 Limited resources
 classroom size
 furniture’s
 lighting
 availability of technology
 availability of other instructional equipment and supplies
CONDUCTING CLASSES
 First Day of the Class
 begin with introducing of self
 establish a pleasant atmosphere by welcoming the class,
reading names, giving handouts
 humor
 communicate your expectations for the course
 review the course syllabus or outline, take time to answer
questions
 give general ides of the workload preparation and terms of
learning outcomes
 cover general classroom rules in terms of attendance,
tardiness, eating in class, breaks etc.
 communicate enthusiasm for the subject by the end of the
class.
Subsequent Classes
 begin by controlling and gaining the attention of the
learner ( get attention by just giving a look)
 walk around the periphery of the room instead of
standing behind the desk or lecterm.
 Class proximity may help establish your presence
and authority.
 Need to assess the learner
 determine their background

 how much they already know about the

subject matter
TEACHING and LEARNING
STRATEGIES FOR THE
LABORATORY SETTING

 The utility of the College laboratory in nursing


education suggests that pre- clinical testing of
skills is :
 “ AN EFFECTIVE STRATEGY
FOR REDUCING ANXIETY RELATED TO
INITIAL TRANSFER OF SKILLS FROM A
LABORATORY TO A CLINICAL SETTING
AND ENHANCING SELF CONFIDENCE “.
Approaches Used by Students in
Learning
 Abstract Conceptualization ( Thinking)
– process words efficiently, and prefer
to learn via the written or spoken word
 Reflective Observation ( watching) –
learn best visually; they respond to
demonstration, diagrams and visual
media
 Concrete experience – ( feelings ) – prefer to
try things out for themselves, but wish to do
so in a controlled setting
 Active Experimentation ( doing) – learns best
in the real world, although they would prefer
to learn in the clinical setting, like simulations
and role playing exercises may provide
sufficient stimuli for learners in this mode.
PURPOSES OF A COLLEGE
LABORATORY
 1. Introduction of technical skills
 2. Practice a full range of nursing activities,
including communication techniques, problem
solving strategies and documentation practices
 3. Provides opportunities to use each of
learning modes, thus developing flexibility in
their approaches to learning
 4. Place for active learning and not used as an
extension of the classroom.
GUIDELINES IN STRUCTURING THE
LABORATORY EXPERIENCES
 One skill taught at a time
 Provide general introduction, pointing out the
theory and principles involved in the activity
 Use films or videos following orientation
 Demonstration of skills using volunteer or
mannequin, pointing out the rationale for
various aspects of the activity
 Have students pair up and practice the skill
together, with each assuming first the role of
the nurse and then the role of the patient.
Return demonstration by the students:
 Follow skill demonstration with an exercise in
mental imagery, in which students are
encouraged to imagine performing the skills
in the clinical setting.
 Use of a brief written scenario
 Draw a given number of skills from a
fishbowl and then perform those while being
observed and rated by the instructor.
 Practice interviewing and therapeutic
communication
 Instructor can achieve a similar result by consistently
asking “why” and “what if” questions as she teaches
nursing skills. Questions such as the following stimulate
students to reach into their store of cognitive
information to problem – solve potential clinical
scenarios.
 Ex: what would happen if intramuscular injection
entered a vein nerve?
 How can the nurse prevent this from
occurring?
 What if the patient is immobilized on his
back? How would you go about selecting an alternative
site for an intramuscular injection?
COGNITIVE LEARNING
THEORIES
 Perspective : Learning is an active process in which
the learner constructs meaning based on prior
knowledge and views.
 SUBSUMPTION THEORY OF MEANINGFUL
VERBAL LEARNING –( Ausubel , 1963 ).
 = proposed that new information is subsumed into
existing thought and memory structures
 = meaningful learning is thought to occur only if
existing cognitive structures are organized and
differentiated.
 = repetition of use of meaningful material use in
various context would enhance retention.
COMPREHENSIVE THEORY –
(Rumelhart, 1980 )
 = its foundation was the concept of schema or schemata
 Schemata – are knowledge structures these are stored in memory.
All knowledge are packaged into units though not always
accurate.
 Ex: Processes of remembering the route of work and recognizing
people, pattern of facts or visual, auditory and tactile cues.
 Three Kinds of Learning ( delineated by Rumelhart and Norman)
 Accretion – learning of facts, new information is learned and
added to existing schemata.
 Tuning – existing schemata evolve or are refined throughout the
life span as new situations and issues are encountered.
 Restructuring – development of new schemata by copying an old
schema and adding new elements that are different enough to
warrant a new schema.
LEVELS OF PROCESSING
THEORY
 states that information is processed
sequentially from perception to
attention to labeling and meaning.
Sequence occurs in both memory
storage and memory retrieval.
PARALLEL DISTRIBUTING
MODEL
 proposes that information is processed
by different parts of the memory
system simultaneously rather than
being a sequential process.
CONNECTIONISTIC MODEL
 says that information is stored in many
places throughout the brain, forming a
network of connections. The more
connections that there are to an item in
memory storage, the easier it is to
retrieve it from memory
STAGE THEORY OF
INFORMATION PROCESSING
 its core is that information is both processed and stored in 3
stages.
 Sensory memory – things we see, = half second
 Things we hear = 3 seconds
 If not attended immediately
it is usually forgotten
 Short term memory – last for 20 seconds, unless we mentally
or verbally repeat the item, these must be of some interest to
the person or activate a known schema. The item is retain
indefinitely if it continues to be rehearsed or is especially
meaningful to us.
 Long term memory – moving the item to this level is tying it
firmly to an existing schema in the brain, relate name to
another similar name, face, place or create a mental
association picture.
COMMON CONCEPTS OF
COGNITIVE THEORIES
 1. Learning – focuses more on the acquisition of
knowledge , concerns more on what the knowledge
means to a person.
 Breur (1993) – defines learning as the process whereby
novices become more expert.
 = The amount of knowledge and understanding you
already posses on a subject will have a tremendous
influence on what and how you learn. ( Feden, 1994)
 = Domain – specific learning = that is if you already
posses a body of knowledge on a topic, it may be easier
for you to learn more, because you have a schema in
your brain already that helps you make a sense of new
information and lodge it in memory.
Metacognition
 – its concept has evolved from the study of
information processing and is sometimes defined as
thinking about one’s thinking. It is a process learners
use to gauge their thinking while reading, studying,
trying to learn, or problem solving.
 = research support the hypothesis that learners can
improve their metacognitive abilities. They can be
taught how to reflect on what they are doing, to
analyze their thinking, and to predict whether they
know the answers to test questions.
 = such teaching strategies as journal
writing, group dialogue, problem based
learning, and think aloud techniques
when reviewing test questions with an
instructor help students strengthen their
metacognitive powers.
Memory
 there is a consolidation function in the memory
process. It is through consolidation that items are
stationed in memory. The more we connect new
information to old, the more we ruminate over the
new information, and the more frequently we recall
and think about it, the more long lasting it will be.
 Retention / Forgetting
 Retention – information that is meaningful to the
person and that is studied may be retained very well.
 - many studies have concluded that we can
hold
Motivation and Behavior
Change
 An effective Health Education Intervention -
encompasses more than just the giving of new
information, for information alone does not
always result in behavior change, compliance
or improved health status.
 Successful Educational Intervention –
increase compliance with medical regimens and
improve health outcomes. They are based on
learner characteristics, his or her educational
needs, theory and a sound educational plan.
Learner Characteristics
 Factors that influence the learning process:
 Culture – this are invisible patterns that form the
normal ways of acting, feeling, judging, perceiving
and organizing the world.
 it influences gender roles, sexual behavior, diet,
personal
hygiene, body image, drug use, communication,
etc.
 Literacy – an essential component of learning where
it measures the ability to read and understand what
is being read.
 established the reading level and used materials with
the client’s ability
 materials at too high level will be useless as they will
not be understood.
 Materials at too low a level, while of some value, may
be too simplistic and may even be seen as insulting.
 Age

older adults usually needs more time to learn

educational sessions either need to be for a longer period
of time or broken into more sessions for a shorter time
covering less information.
 Older adults learn best when the information is relevant
to them and has a practical application

Emotional or mental status should be acknowledged and
taken into account when planning an educational
intervention. Depression, denial, fear and anxiety can all
have an impact on the effectiveness of teaching. – These
issues may need to be addressed before teaching and
learning can progress.
 Plan group sessions and socializations for older adults

Be cognizant of possible hearing and visual deficits.
Education Level and Health
Status
 It has been well documented that education level
is significantly associated with health status.
 More educated client is the one who seeks
treatment earlier in the disease process, and the
less educated client is sicker.

When teaching, it is important to establish the
client’s level of knowledge or depth of
understanding of his or her condition. This will
enable you to provide information at an
appropriate level.
Socioeconomic level
 The resources needed to comply with the medical
regimen may not be available.
 While the information is learned, the behavior
cannot be changed because of factors beyond the
client’s control, income, transportation and local
availability.
 In teaching patients and clients, it is important
to identify as many variables as possible that
may affect learning or compliance with health
care.
Learning Principles To Use In
Motivating Learners
 Use several senses
 Actively involve the patients or clients in the learning process
 Provide an environment conducive to learning
 Assess the extent to which the learner is ready to learn
 Determine the perceive relevance of the information
 Repeat information
 Generalize information
 Make learning a pleasant experience
 Begin with what is known, move toward what is unknown
 Present information at an appropriate rate.