This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
I’ve come to a frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom.
It’s my personal approach that creates the climate It’s my daily mood that makes the weather
As a teacher, I possess a tremendous power to make a child’s life miserable or joyous
I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal
In all situations, it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de – escalated and a child humanized or de – humanized.
A process that involves a knowledge of educational theory and research, a willingness to learn new roles and teaching methods, and the ability to reflect on one’s own performance. Some people have inherent qualities that increase the likelihood of their being good teachers, and they can improve on their natural abilities to make themselves excellent teachers.
CATEGORIES OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING IN NURSING
PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE = one who aims at excellence develops thorough knowledge of subject matter and polishes skills throughout his/her career. One who portrays excellent clinical skills and judgment becomes a positive role model for learners.
INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP WITH STUDENTS =
demonstrated by taking a personal interest in learners, being sensitive to their feelings and problems, conveying respect for them alleviating their anxieties, being accessible for conferences, being fair, permitting learners to express differing points of view, creating an atmosphere in which they feel free to ask questions, and conveying a sense of warmth.
3 Basic Therapeutic Approaches to Maintain Self –Esteem and minimize Anxieties to Learners
Emphatic Listening =the approach requires teachers to respect learners and care about their concerns and try to understand the world as learners experience it. Acceptance = accept learners as they are, whether or not you like them. Affirming the fact that learners are worthwhile people, even though different from yourself, enhances their self-esteem and convinces them that you have faith in their desire and ability to learn. Honest Communication = openness between educator and students creates a relaxed atmosphere in which students are able to see the teacher as a role model.
PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS (desirable)
personal magnetism enthusiasm cheerfulness self- control patience flexibility sense of humor good speaking voice self confidence willingness to admit errors caring attitude
4. TEACHING PRACTICES = the mechanics,
methods and skills in classroom and clinical teaching. Students and colleagues value a teacher who has a thorough knowledge of the subject matter and can present material in an interesting, clear and organized manner.
5. EVALUATION PRACTICES = at the beginning of
a teaching/learning relationship, expectations should be clearly expressed. If the learners are not meeting a teacher’s expectations, they should know it as soon as possible. On the other hand, learners who are doing a superior job should be told so; it is not necessary to search for weaknesses to write on an evaluation if they do not exists. Fairness in evaluation is a rather subjective phenomenon. Complaints of unfairness can be minimized if evaluation is based on published criteria and if those criteria are pertinent to the learning objectives.
6. AVAILABILITY TO STUDENTS =
nursing students expect the clinical instructor being there in stressful clinical situations, physically helping students give nursing care, giving appropriate amounts of supervision, freely answering questions, and acting as a resource person during clinical experiences. Learners should be told at the beginning of instruction what they should do if they need assistance and the instructor is not available at that time. There should be a back up plan for assistance by a staff nurse, another instructor, or head nurse who can be “on call” when the need arises.
NON- NURSING STUDIES IDENTIFIED EFFECTIVE TEACHING
TEACHER CLARITY ( Cruickshank, 1992) =researchers have found that the clear teacher is one logically organizes instruction, explains what is to be learned, uses simple terms to present new material, constantly assesses whether students are understanding and can follow the teacher’s train of thought, uses example whenever possible, allows students time to think about what is being taught, and uses repetition and summarization. CARING ( Rodgers et al. 1997) – it was revealed that to be a good teacher one have really the desire to be good because teaching takes a lot of work to succeed in every aspect of teaching. It was also wrote that good teaching is a form of parentingcaring about students, knowing when to set boundaries and knowing student’s potential.
A good teacher is concerned with more than just what student’s know; he or she should also be concerned with student’s beliefs, values, and relationships.
COMMITTED AND CREATIVE ( Flowers 2000)
= a good teacher is committed when they don’t watch the clock, often working long hours. They are creative in their attempts to stimulate intellectual inquisitiveness in their students and to help students explore their world.
ROLE OF INSTRUCTORS
FACILITATOR = setting up conditions under which learning will occur GUIDING = setting goals and general principles for achieving them STIMULATING = motivating performance SUPPORTING = providing individual attention as needed SUPERVISING = overseeing the learning process to avoid error fixation
Rodden (2000) wrote
Ultimately , what distinguishes the great teachers is what I can only call their unsparing gift of self, their capacity for caring about students Not pseudo – care via maudlin gestures or gushy words. Perhaps even a bracing care, laced with stern affection or bolstered by an impersonal rigor. But their aim is always to awaken students to an awareness of their greater potential.
NURSES AS TEACHERS
Nurses take on the teaching role in many settings. They may be patient or client teachers, school nurses, staff development instructors, or collegiate educators. In any nursing position, it is safe that the nurse will be teaching.
Nurses who spend the majority of their time in the educator role such as staff development instructors or educators in collegiate settings have more formal preparation for the educator role and need to become expert teachers in order to prepare the next generation of patient educators. In all cases, the characteristics of the effective teacher should be studied and applied to the educator role if we are to fulfill our professional responsibility for providing high quality care and high quality education.
HALLMARKS OF GOOD TEACHING
mastery of subject matter mastery of methods, strategies, approaches, techniques and tools mastery of medium of instruction mastery of lesson planning and organizing instructional materials and other resources mastery of psychology of learning mastery of formulation of goals and objectives mastery of classroom management including discipline mastery of measurement and evaluation mastery of techniques of motivation mastery of art of questioning mastery in the basics of guidance and counseling
PRINCIPLES OF GOOD PRACTICE
Encourage student – faculty contact Encourage cooperation among students Encourage active learning Hive prompt feedback Emphasize time on task Communicate high expectations Respect diverse talents and ways of learning
FORMS OF TEACHING
is the acquisition of knowledge of all kinds, abilities, habits, attitudes, values and skills. It is acquiring something that one could not have done before.
PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING
Learning is not memorizing. People learn by doing. Learning is an active process. Learning takes place only when people recognize a problem or a need and is interested in solving or satisfying the problem or need. People can and do increase their knowledge irrespective of their age. Learning must be meaningful. Learning about health situations where actual instruction is given does not takes place only in one situation.
• Learning must be aimed at realistic goals. Behavior can be change so that life may be more satisfying. • People can learn no matter what their age and range of ability is. The saying that “ old dogs can’t learn new tricks” is not true. • What people learn in any given situation depends on their past experiences, goals, or purposes, interest in everyday life and hopes for the future. • The most effective procedures, methods and tools are often those created by the group or individuals using them. • Good human relations are important in learning
• No two students are exactly alike, and therefore should always take into consideration individual differences • Teaching of health must be positive • Use variety of teaching methods and instructional materials • Health teachings must be based on real life situations, real people and real local health problems. • Teaching should be adapted to the student’s interests and capacities. • All learning is motivated. • Avoid embarrassing students
OUTCOMES OF LEARNING
COGNITIVE – knowledge and understanding of facts, ideas, concepts, principles, rules, laws, meanings, definitions etc. AFFECTIVE – attitudes, appreciation, interests, ideals, values, likes and dislikes, beliefs, conducts, philosophies in life, etc. PSYCHOMOTOR – manipulative skills, bodily movements, vocal skills, dramatic abilities, athletic skills, adaptive abilities, etc.
TEACHING- LEARNING SITUATIONS
It occurs when activities are focused on activities of teacher, learning situation when discussion is focused on the activities of learner. Teaching and learning are inseparable and they can occur anytime.
TRANSFER OF LEARNING
Transfer – ability to take information learned in one situation and apply to another. Successful Transfer depends on: The extent to which material was originally learned The ability to retrieve information from memory The way in which the material was taught and learned The similarity of the new situation to the original
POSITIVE TRANSFER OF LEARNING
Occurs when present learning is enhanced or accelerated by past learning.
NEGATIVE TRANSFER OF LEARNING
Occurs when past learning interferes with present learning.
Transfer of learning is acknowledged in all major theories:
BEHAVIORISM - S-R COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY- SCHEMA RESTRUCTURING SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY – MODELLING PROCESS
COURSE OBJECTIVES –
clear what they expected to learn, designed to be achievable are broader than class objectives, should be discussed in the first class. sessions so learners are immediately clear what they expected to learn, designed to be achievable.
THREE DOMAINS OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1. Cognitive – should measure knowledge,
comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
can be evaluated by a test, written or oral. 2. Psychomotor – observe what learners are actually doing, when performing a skill demonstrate can be stated as “ correctly mix 2 types of insulin in one syringe. 3. Affective – are not easy to write and measure
Should follow a logical sequence Lectures moves from generalization to specific or specific to general
SELECTING TEACHING METHODS
Factors Affecting Choice of Method Depends on the objectives and type of learning you are trying to achieved Ex: Facts – lecture with handouts Mold attitudes – case studies, discussions, role playing Motivate – games Creativity and problem solving skills – problem based learning or individual projects
Depends on the abilities and interest of the teacher Teaching methods should emphasize student activity
Discussions case studies role playing - simulations - demonstration - computer used
Depends on the number of people in the class Limited resources
classroom size furniture’s lighting availability of technology availability of other instructional equipment and supplies
First Day of the Class
begin with introducing of self establish a pleasant atmosphere by welcoming the class, reading names, giving handouts humor communicate your expectations for the course review the course syllabus or outline, take time to answer questions give general ides of the workload preparation and terms of learning outcomes cover general classroom rules in terms of attendance, tardiness, eating in class, breaks etc. communicate enthusiasm for the subject by the end of the class.
begin by controlling and gaining the attention of the learner ( get attention by just giving a look) walk around the periphery of the room instead of standing behind the desk or lecterm. Class proximity may help establish your presence and authority. Need to assess the learner determine their background how much they already know about the subject matter
TEACHING and LEARNING
STRATEGIES FOR THE LABORATORY SETTING
The utility of the College laboratory in nursing education suggests that pre- clinical testing of skills is : “ AN EFFECTIVE STRATEGY FOR REDUCING ANXIETY RELATED TO INITIAL TRANSFER OF SKILLS FROM A LABORATORY TO A CLINICAL SETTING AND ENHANCING SELF CONFIDENCE “.
Approaches Used by Students in Learning
Abstract Conceptualization ( Thinking) – process words efficiently, and prefer to learn via the written or spoken word Reflective Observation ( watching) – learn best visually; they respond to demonstration, diagrams and visual media
Concrete experience – ( feelings ) – prefer to try things out for themselves, but wish to do so in a controlled setting Active Experimentation ( doing) – learns best in the real world, although they would prefer to learn in the clinical setting, like simulations and role playing exercises may provide sufficient stimuli for learners in this mode.
PURPOSES OF A COLLEGE LABORATORY
1. Introduction of technical skills 2. Practice a full range of nursing activities, including communication techniques, problem solving strategies and documentation practices 3. Provides opportunities to use each of learning modes, thus developing flexibility in their approaches to learning 4. Place for active learning and not used as an extension of the classroom.
GUIDELINES IN STRUCTURING THE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES
One skill taught at a time Provide general introduction, pointing out the theory and principles involved in the activity Use films or videos following orientation Demonstration of skills using volunteer or mannequin, pointing out the rationale for various aspects of the activity Have students pair up and practice the skill together, with each assuming first the role of the nurse and then the role of the patient.
Return demonstration by the students:
Follow skill demonstration with an exercise in mental imagery, in which students are encouraged to imagine performing the skills in the clinical setting. Use of a brief written scenario Draw a given number of skills from a fishbowl and then perform those while being observed and rated by the instructor. Practice interviewing and therapeutic communication
Instructor can achieve a similar result by consistently asking “why” and “what if” questions as she teaches nursing skills. Questions such as the following stimulate students to reach into their store of cognitive information to problem – solve potential clinical scenarios. Ex: what would happen if intramuscular injection entered a vein nerve? How can the nurse prevent this from occurring? What if the patient is immobilized on his back? How would you go about selecting an alternative site for an intramuscular injection?
COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORIES
Perspective : Learning is an active process in which the learner constructs meaning based on prior knowledge and views. SUBSUMPTION THEORY OF MEANINGFUL VERBAL LEARNING –( Ausubel , 1963 ). = proposed that new information is subsumed into existing thought and memory structures = meaningful learning is thought to occur only if existing cognitive structures are organized and differentiated. = repetition of use of meaningful material use in various context would enhance retention.
COMPREHENSIVE THEORY – (Rumelhart, 1980 )
= its foundation was the concept of schema or schemata Schemata – are knowledge structures these are stored in memory. All knowledge are packaged into units though not always accurate. Ex: Processes of remembering the route of work and recognizing people, pattern of facts or visual, auditory and tactile cues. Three Kinds of Learning ( delineated by Rumelhart and Norman) Accretion – learning of facts, new information is learned and added to existing schemata. Tuning – existing schemata evolve or are refined throughout the life span as new situations and issues are encountered. Restructuring – development of new schemata by copying an old schema and adding new elements that are different enough to warrant a new schema.
LEVELS OF PROCESSING THEORY
states that information is processed sequentially from perception to attention to labeling and meaning. Sequence occurs in both memory storage and memory retrieval.
PARALLEL DISTRIBUTING MODEL
proposes that information is processed by different parts of the memory system simultaneously rather than being a sequential process.
says that information is stored in many places throughout the brain, forming a network of connections. The more connections that there are to an item in memory storage, the easier it is to retrieve it from memory
STAGE THEORY OF INFORMATION PROCESSING
its core is that information is both processed and stored in 3 stages. Sensory memory – things we see, = half second Things we hear = 3 seconds If not attended immediately it is usually forgotten Short term memory – last for 20 seconds, unless we mentally or verbally repeat the item, these must be of some interest to the person or activate a known schema. The item is retain indefinitely if it continues to be rehearsed or is especially meaningful to us. Long term memory – moving the item to this level is tying it firmly to an existing schema in the brain, relate name to another similar name, face, place or create a mental association picture.
COMMON CONCEPTS OF COGNITIVE THEORIES
1. Learning – focuses more on the acquisition of knowledge , concerns more on what the knowledge means to a person. Breur (1993) – defines learning as the process whereby novices become more expert. = The amount of knowledge and understanding you already posses on a subject will have a tremendous influence on what and how you learn. ( Feden, 1994) = Domain – specific learning = that is if you already posses a body of knowledge on a topic, it may be easier for you to learn more, because you have a schema in your brain already that helps you make a sense of new information and lodge it in memory.
– its concept has evolved from the study of information processing and is sometimes defined as thinking about one’s thinking. It is a process learners use to gauge their thinking while reading, studying, trying to learn, or problem solving. = research support the hypothesis that learners can improve their metacognitive abilities. They can be taught how to reflect on what they are doing, to analyze their thinking, and to predict whether they know the answers to test questions.
= such teaching strategies as journal writing, group dialogue, problem based learning, and think aloud techniques when reviewing test questions with an instructor help students strengthen their metacognitive powers.
there is a consolidation function in the memory process. It is through consolidation that items are stationed in memory. The more we connect new information to old, the more we ruminate over the new information, and the more frequently we recall and think about it, the more long lasting it will be. Retention / Forgetting Retention – information that is meaningful to the person and that is studied may be retained very well. - many studies have concluded that we can hold
Motivation and Behavior Change
An effective Health Education Intervention encompasses more than just the giving of new information, for information alone does not always result in behavior change, compliance or improved health status. Successful Educational Intervention – increase compliance with medical regimens and improve health outcomes. They are based on learner characteristics, his or her educational needs, theory and a sound educational plan.
Factors that influence the learning process:
Culture – this are invisible patterns that form the normal ways of acting, feeling, judging, perceiving and organizing the world.
it influences gender roles, sexual behavior, diet, personal hygiene, body image, drug use, communication,
Literacy – an essential component of learning where it measures the ability to read and understand what is being read.
established the reading level and used materials with the client’s ability materials at too high level will be useless as they will not be understood. Materials at too low a level, while of some value, may be too simplistic and may even be seen as insulting.
older adults usually needs more time to learn educational sessions either need to be for a longer period of time or broken into more sessions for a shorter time covering less information. Older adults learn best when the information is relevant to them and has a practical application Emotional or mental status should be acknowledged and taken into account when planning an educational intervention. Depression, denial, fear and anxiety can all have an impact on the effectiveness of teaching. – These issues may need to be addressed before teaching and learning can progress. Plan group sessions and socializations for older adults Be cognizant of possible hearing and visual deficits.
Education Level and Health Status
It has been well documented that education level is significantly associated with health status. More educated client is the one who seeks treatment earlier in the disease process, and the less educated client is sicker. When teaching, it is important to establish the client’s level of knowledge or depth of understanding of his or her condition. This will enable you to provide information at an appropriate level.
The resources needed to comply with the medical regimen may not be available. While the information is learned, the behavior cannot be changed because of factors beyond the client’s control, income, transportation and local availability.
In teaching patients and clients, it is important to identify as many variables as possible that may affect learning or compliance with health care.
Learning Principles To Use In Motivating Learners
Use several senses Actively involve the patients or clients in the learning process Provide an environment conducive to learning Assess the extent to which the learner is ready to learn Determine the perceive relevance of the information Repeat information Generalize information Make learning a pleasant experience Begin with what is known, move toward what is unknown Present information at an appropriate rate.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.