# Data Mining, Data Warehousing and Knowledge Discovery

Basic Algorithms and Concepts

Srinath Srinivasa IIIT Bangalore sri@iiitb.ac.in

Overview
• Why Data Mining? • Data Mining concepts • Data Mining algorithms
– – – – Tabular data mining Association, Classification and Clustering Sequence data mining Streaming data mining

• Data Warehousing concepts

Why Data Mining
From a managerial perspective:

Analyzing trends Wealth generation

Security

Strategic decision making

Data Mining
• Look for hidden patterns and trends in data that is not immediately apparent from summarizing the data
• No Query… • …But an “Interestingness criteria”

Data Mining

+
Data Interestingness criteria

=
Hidden patterns

Data Mining

Type of Patterns

+
Data Interestingness criteria

=
Hidden patterns

Data Mining
Type of data Type of Interestingness criteria

+
Data Interestingness criteria

=
Hidden patterns

Type of Data
• Tabular
– Relational – Multi-dimensional

(Ex: Transaction data)

• Spatial • Temporal • • • •

– Streaming (Ex: multimedia, network traffic) – Spatio-temporal (Ex: GIS)

Tree (Ex: XML data) Graphs (Ex: WWW, BioMolecular data) Sequence (Ex: DNA, activity logs) Text, Multimedia …

Type of Interestingness
• • • •
• • • •

Frequency Rarity Correlation Length of occurrence (for sequence and temporal
data)

Consistency Repeating / periodicity “Abnormal” behavior Other patterns of interestingness…

Data Mining vs Statistical Inference
Statistics: Statistical Reasoning

Conceptual Model (Hypothesis )

“Proof” (Validation of Hypothesis)

Data Mining vs Statistical Inference
Data mining: Mining Algorithm Based on Interestingness

Data

Pattern (model, rule, hypothesis) discovery

Data Mining Concepts
Associations and Item-sets: An association is a rule of the form: if X then Y. It is denoted as X  Y Example: If India wins in cricket, sales of sweets go up. For any rule if X  Y  Y  X, then X and Y are called an “interesting item-set”. Example: People buying school uniforms in June also buy school bags (People buying school bags in June also buy school uniforms)

Data Mining Concepts
Support and Confidence: The support for a rule R is the ratio of the number of occurrences of R, given all occurrences of all rules. The confidence of a rule X  Y, is the ratio of the number of occurrences of Y given X, among all other occurrences given X.

Data Mining Concepts
Support and Confidence: Bag Books Bag Bag Uniform Bag Crayons Books Uniform Pencil Uniform Bag Uniform Pencil Crayons Pencil Uniform Crayons Crayons Uniform Crayons Uniform Pencil Book Bag Book Bag Bag Pencil Books Support for {Bag, Uniform} = 5/10 = 0.5 Confidence for Bag  Uniform = 5/8 = 0.625

Mining for Frequent Item-sets
The Apriori Algorithm: Given minimum required support s as interestingness criterion: 1. Search for all individual elements (1-element item-set) that have a minimum support of s 2. Repeat 1. From the results of the previous search for i-element item-sets, search for all i+1 element item-sets that have a minimum support of s 2. This becomes the set of all frequent (i+1)-element itemsets that are interesting 3. Until item-set size reaches maximum..

Mining for Frequent Item-sets
The Apriori Algorithm: (Example)
Let minimum support = 0.3

Bag Books Bag Bag Uniform Bag Crayons Books Uniform Pencil

Uniform Bag Uniform Pencil Crayons Pencil Uniform Crayons Crayons Uniform

Crayons Uniform Pencil Books Bag Books Bag Bag Pencil Books

Interesting 1-element item-sets: {Bag}, {Uniform}, {Crayons}, {Pencil}, {Books} Interesting 2-element item-sets: {Bag,Uniform} {Bag,Crayons} {Bag,Pencil} {Bag,Books} {Uniform,Crayons} {Uniform,Pencil} {Pencil,Books}

Mining for Frequent Item-sets
The Apriori Algorithm: (Example)
Let minimum support = 0.3

Bag Books Bag Bag Uniform Bag Crayons Books Uniform Pencil

Uniform Bag Uniform Pencil Crayons Pencil Uniform Crayons Crayons Uniform

Crayons Uniform Interesting 3-element item-sets: {Bag,Uniform,Crayons} Pencil Books Bag Books Bag Bag Pencil Books

Mining for Association Rules
Bag Books Bag Bag Uniform Bag Crayons Books Uniform Pencil Uniform Bag Uniform Pencil Crayons Pencil Uniform Crayons Crayons Uniform Association rules are of the form AB Crayons Uniform Pencil Which are directional… Books Association rule mining requires two Bag Books thresholds: Bag minsup and minconf Bag Pencil Books

Mining for Association Rules
Mining association rules using apriori
General Procedure:

Bag Books Bag Bag Uniform Bag Crayons Books Uniform Pencil

Uniform Bag Uniform Pencil Crayons Pencil Uniform Crayons Crayons Uniform

Crayons Uniform Pencil Books Bag Books Bag Bag Pencil Books

1.
2.

3. 4.

Use apriori to generate frequent itemsets of different sizes At each iteration divide each frequent itemset X into two parts LHS and RHS. This represents a rule of the form LHS  RHS The confidence of such a rule is support(X)/support(LHS) Discard all rules whose confidence is less than minconf.

Mining for Association Rules
Mining association rules using apriori
Example:

Bag Books Bag Bag Uniform Bag Crayons Books Uniform Pencil

Uniform Bag Uniform Pencil Crayons Pencil Uniform Crayons Crayons Uniform

Crayons Uniform Pencil Books Bag Books Bag Bag Pencil Books

The frequent itemset {Bag, Uniform, Crayons} has a support of 0.3.
This can be divided into the following rules: {Bag}  {Uniform, Crayons} {Bag, Uniform}  {Crayons} {Bag, Crayons}  {Uniform} {Uniform}  {Bag, Crayons} {Uniform, Crayons}  {Bag} {Crayons}  {Bag, Uniform}

Mining for Association Rules
Mining association rules using apriori
Confidence for these rules are as follows:

Bag Books Bag Bag Uniform Bag Crayons Books Uniform Pencil

Uniform Bag Uniform Pencil Crayons Pencil Uniform Crayons Crayons Uniform

Crayons Uniform Pencil Books Bag Books Bag Bag Pencil Books

{Bag}  {Uniform, Crayons} {Bag, Uniform}  {Crayons} {Bag, Crayons}  {Uniform} {Uniform}  {Bag, Crayons} {Uniform, Crayons}  {Bag} {Crayons}  {Bag, Uniform}

0.375 0.6 0.75 0.428 0.75 0.75

If minconf is 0.7, then we have discovered the following rules…

Mining for Association Rules
Mining association rules using apriori Bag Books Bag Bag Uniform Bag Crayons Books Uniform Pencil
People who buy a school bag and a set of crayons are likely to buy school Uniform Crayons uniform.

Bag Uniform Pencil Crayons Pencil Uniform Crayons Crayons Uniform

Uniform Pencil People who buy school uniform and a set of crayons are likely to buy a school Books bag. Bag Books People who buy just a set of crayons are Bag likely to buy a school bag and school Bag uniform as well. Pencil Books

Generalized Association Rules
Since customers can buy any number of items in one transaction, the transaction relation would be in the form of a list of individual purchases.

Bill No. 15563 15563 15564 15564

Date 23.10.2003 23.10.2003 23.10.2003 23.10.2003

Item Books Crayons Uniform Crayons

Generalized Association Rules
A transaction for the purposes of data mining is obtained by performing a GROUP BY of the table over various fields.

Bill No. 15563 15563 15564 15564

Date 23.10.2003 23.10.2003 23.10.2003 23.10.2003

Item Books Crayons Uniform Crayons

Generalized Association Rules
A GROUP BY over Bill No. would show frequent buying patterns across different customers. A GROUP BY over Date would show frequent buying patterns across different days.

Bill No. 15563 15563 15564 15564

Date 23.10.2003 23.10.2003 23.10.2003 23.10.2003

Item Books Crayons Uniform Crayons

Classification and Clustering
Given a set of data elements:
Classification maps each data element to one of a set of pre-determined classes based on the difference among data elements belonging to different classes Clustering groups data elements into different groups based on the similarity between elements within a single group

Classification Techniques
Decision Tree Identification
Outlook Sunny Overcast Sunny Cloudy Overcast Overcast Temp 30 15 16 27 25 17 Play? Yes No Yes Yes Yes No

Classification problem Weather  Play(Yes,No)

Cloudy
Cloudy

17
35

No
Yes

Classification Techniques
Hunt’s method for decision tree identification: Given N element types and m decision classes: 1. For i  1 to N do 1. Add element i to the i-1 element item-sets from the previous iteration 2. Identify the set of decision classes for each item-set 3. If an item-set has only one decision class, then that item-set is done, remove that item-set from subsequent iterations 2. done

Classification Techniques
Decision Tree Identification Example
Outlook Sunny Overcast Sunny Cloudy Overcast Overcast Temp Warm Chilly Chilly Play? Yes No Yes

Sunny Cloudy

Yes Yes/No

Pleasant Yes Pleasant Yes Chilly No

Overcast

Yes/No

Cloudy
Cloudy

Chilly
Warm

No
Yes

Classification Techniques
Decision Tree Identification Example
Outlook Sunny Overcast Sunny Cloudy Overcast Overcast Temp Warm Chilly Chilly Play? Yes No Yes

Sunny Cloudy

Yes Yes/No

Pleasant Yes Pleasant Yes Chilly No

Overcast

Yes/No

Cloudy
Cloudy

Chilly
Warm

No
Yes

Classification Techniques
Decision Tree Identification Example
Outlook Sunny Overcast Sunny Cloudy Overcast Overcast Temp Warm Chilly Chilly Play? Yes No Yes

Cloudy Warm Cloudy Chilly

Yes No

Pleasant Yes Pleasant Yes Chilly No

Cloudy
Cloudy

Chilly
Warm

No
Yes

Cloudy Pleasant

Yes

Classification Techniques
Decision Tree Identification Example
Outlook Sunny Overcast Sunny Cloudy Overcast Overcast Temp Warm Chilly Chilly Play? Yes No Yes

Overcast Warm Overcast Chilly No

Pleasant Yes Pleasant Yes Chilly No

Cloudy
Cloudy

Chilly
Warm

No
Yes

Overcast Pleasant

Yes

Classification Techniques
Decision Tree Identification Example Yes/No Cloudy Yes/No Warm Yes Pleasant Chilly No Yes Yes Sunny Yes Overcast Yes/No Chilly No Pleasant

Classification Techniques
Decision Tree Identification Example • Top down technique for decision tree identification • Decision tree created is sensitive to the order in which items are considered • If an N-item-set does not result in a clear decision, classification classes have to be modeled by rough sets.

Other Classification Algorithms
Quinlan’s depth-first strategy builds the decision tree in a depth-first fashion, by considering all possible tests that give a decision and selecting the test that gives the best information gain. It hence eliminates tests that are inconclusive.
SLIQ (Supervised Learning in Quest) developed in the QUEST project of IBM uses a top-down breadth-first strategy to build a decision tree. At each level in the tree, an entropy value of each node is calculated and nodes having the lowest entropy values selected and expanded.

Clustering Techniques
Clustering partitions the data set into clusters or equivalence classes.
Similarity among members of a class more than similarity among members across classes.

Similarity measures: Euclidian distance or other application specific measures.

Euclidian Distance for Tables
(Overcast,Chilly,Don’t Play) Overcast

(Cloudy,Pleasant,Play)
Cloudy Don’t Play Play Sunny Warm Pleasant Chilly

Clustering Techniques
General Strategy:
1. Draw a graph connecting items which are close to one another with edges. 2. Partition the graph into maximally connected subcomponents. 1. Construct an MST for the graph 2. Merge items that are connected by the minimum weight of the MST into a cluster

Clustering Techniques
Clustering types:
Hierarchical clustering: Clusters are formed at different levels by merging clusters at a lower level

Partitional clustering: Clusters are formed at only one level

Clustering Techniques
Nearest Neighbour Clustering Algorithm:
Given n elements x1, x2, … xn, and threshold t, . 1. j  1, k  1, Clusters = {} 2. Repeat 1. Find the nearest neighbour of xj 2. Let the nearest neighbour be in cluster m 3. If distance to nearest neighbour > t, then create a new cluster and k  k+1; else assign xj to cluster m 4. j  j+1 3. until j > n

Clustering Techniques
Iterative partitional clustering:
Given n elements x1, x2, … xn, and k clusters, each with a center. 1. Assign each element to its closest cluster center 2. After all assignments have been made, compute the cluster centroids for each of the cluster 3. Repeat the above two steps with the new centroids until the algorithm converges

Mining Sequence Data
Characteristics of Sequence Data: • Collection of data elements which are ordered sequences • In a sequence, each item has an index associated with it • A k-sequence is a sequence of length k. Support for sequence j is the number of m-sequences (m>=j) which contain j as a sequence • Sequence data: transaction logs, DNA sequences, patient ailment history, …

Mining Sequence Data
Some Definitions: • A sequence is a list of itemsets of finite length. • Example: • {pen,pencil,ink}{pencil,ink}{ink,eraser}{ruler,pencil} • … the purchases of a single customer over time…

• The order of items within an itemset does not matter; but the order of itemsets matter • A subsequence is a sequence with some itemsets deleted

Mining Sequence Data
Some Definitions: • A sequence S’ = {a1, a2, …, am} is said to be contained within another sequence S, if S contains a subsequence {b1, b2, … bm} such that a1  b1, a2  b2, …, am  bm. • Hence, {pen}{pencil}{ruler,pencil} is contained in {pen,pencil,ink}{pencil,ink}{ink,eraser}{ruler,pencil}

Mining Sequence Data
Apriori Algorithm for Sequences: 1. L1  Set of all interesting 1-sequences 2. k  1 3. while Lk is not empty do 1. Generate all candidate k+1 sequences 2. Lk+1  Set of all interesting k+1-sequences 4. done

Mining Sequence Data
Generating Candidate Sequences: Given L1, L2, … Lk, candidate sequences of Lk+1 are generated as follows: For each sequence s in Lk, concatenate s with all new 1sequences found while generating Lk-1

Mining Sequence Data
Example: abcde bdae aebd be eabda aaaa baaa cbdb abbab abde minsup = 0.5 Interesting 1-sequences: a b d e Candidate 2-sequences aa, ab, ad, ae ba, bb, bd, be da, db, dd, de ea, eb, ed, ee

Mining Sequence Data
Example: abcde bdae aebd be eabda aaaa baaa cbdb abbab abde minsup = 0.5 Interesting 2-sequences: ab, bd Candidate 2-sequences aba, abb, abd, abe, aab, bab, dab, eab, bda, bdb, bdd, bde, bbd, dbd, ebd.

Interesting 3-sequences = {}

Mining Sequence Data
Language Inference: Given a set of sequences, consider each sequence as the behavioural trace of a machine, and infer the machine that can display the given sequence as behavior. aabb ababcac abbac … Input set of sequences Output state machine

Mining Sequence Data
• Inferring the syntax of a language given its sentences • Applications: discerning behavioural patterns, emergent properties discovery, collaboration modeling, … • State machine discovery is the reverse of state machine construction • Discovery is “maximalist” in nature…

Mining Sequence Data
“Maximal” nature of language inference: a,b,c

abc aabc aabbc abbc

“Most general” state machine

b

c c c c b

a a

b

b
“Most specific” state machine

Mining Sequence Data
“Shortest-run Generalization” (Srinivasa and Spiliopoulou 2000) Given a set of n sequences: 1. Create a state machine for the first sequence 2. for j  2 to n do 1. Create a state machine for the jth sequence 2. Merge this sequence into the earlier sequence as follows: 1. Merge all halt states in the new state machine to the halt state in the existing state machine 2. If two or more paths to the halt state share the same suffix, merge the suffixes together into a single path 3. Done

Mining Sequence Data
“Shortest-run Generalization” (Srinivasa and Spiliopoulou 2000) a a a a b b c c c c b b b

aabcb
aac

aabc

a

a
b

b

c
a a c b

Mining Streaming Data
Characteristics of streaming data: • Large data sequence • No storage • Often an infinite sequence • Examples: Stock market quotes, streaming audio/video, network traffic

Mining Streaming Data
Running mean: Let n = number of items read so far, avg = running average calculated so far,

On reading the next number num:
avg  (n*avg+num) / (n+1) n  n+1

Mining Streaming Data
Running variance: var = (num-avg)2 = num2 - 2*num*avg + avg2 Let A = num2 of all numbers read so far B = 2*num*avg of all numbers read so far C = avg2 of all numbers read so far avg = average of numbers read so far n = number of numbers read so far

Mining Streaming Data
Running variance: On reading next number num: avg  (avg*n + num) / (n+1) n  n+1

A  A + num2 B  B + 2*avg*num C  C + avg2 var = A + B + C

Mining Streaming Data
-Consistency: (Srinivasa and Spiliopoulou, CoopIS 1999) Let streaming data be in the form of “frames” where each frame comprises of one or more data elements. Support for data element k within a frame is defined as (#occurrences of k)/(#elements in frame) -Consistency for data element k is the “sustained” support for k over all frames read so far, with a “leakage” of (1- )

Mining Streaming Data
-Consistency: (Srinivasa and Spiliopoulou, CoopIS 1999) *sup(k)

(1-) levelt(k) = (1-)*levelt-1(k) + *sup(k)

Data Warehousing
• A platform for online analytical processing (OLAP) • Warehouses collect transactional data from several transactional databases and organize them in a fashion amenable to analysis • Also called “data marts” • A critical component of the decision support system (DSS) of enterprises • Some typical DW queries: – Which item sells best in each region that has retail outlets – Which advertising strategy is best for South India? – Which (age_group/occupation) in South India likes fast food, and which (age_group/occupation) likes to cook?

Data Warehousing
OLTP

Data Cleaning
Inventory

Data Warehouse (OLAP)

OLTP vs OLAP
Transactional Data (OLTP) Analysis Data (OLAP)
Small or medium size databases Very large databases Transient data Archival data

Data Cleaning
• Performs logical transformation of transactional data to suit the data warehouse • Model of operations  model of enterprise • Usually a semi-automatic process

Data Cleaning
Orders Order_id Price Cust_id
Data Warehouse Customers Products Orders Inventory Price Time Sales Cust_id Cust_prof Tot_sales

Inventory Prod_id Price Price_chng

Multi-dimensional Data Model

Customers Jan’01 Jun’01 Jan’02 Jun’02

Time

Some MDBMS Operations
• Roll-up

• Drill-down
– Collapse dimensions

• Vector-distance operations (ex: clustering) • Vector space browsing

Star Schema
Dim Tbl_1 Dim Tbl_1

Dim Tbl_1

Fact table

Dim Tbl_1

WWW Based References
• • • • • • • • • • • http://www.kdnuggets.com/ http://www.megaputer.com/ http://www.almaden.ibm.com/cs/quest/index.html http://fas.sfu.ca/cs/research/groups/DB/sections/publication /kdd/kdd.html http://www.cs.su.oz.au/~thierry/ckdd.html http://www.dwinfocenter.org/ http://datawarehouse.itoolbox.com/ http://www.knowledgestorm.com/ http://www.bitpipe.com/ http://www.dw-institute.com/ http://www.datawarehousing.com/

References
• • • Agrawal, R. Srikant: ``Fast Algorithms for Mining Association Rules'', Proc. of the 20th Int'l Conference on Very Large Databases, Santiago, Chile, Sept. 1994. R. Agrawal, R. Srikant, ``Mining Sequential Patterns'', Proc. of the Int'l Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE), Taipei, Taiwan, March 1995. R. Agrawal, A. Arning, T. Bollinger, M. Mehta, J. Shafer, R. Srikant: "The Quest Data Mining System", Proc. of the 2nd Int'l Conference on Knowledge Discovery in Databases and Data Mining, Portland, Oregon, August, 1996. Surajit Chaudhuri, Umesh Dayal. An Overview of Data Warehousing and OLAP Technology. ACM SIGMOD Record. 26(1), March 1997. Jennifer Widom. Research Problems in Data Warehousing. Proc. of Int’l Conf. On Information and Knowledge Management, 1995.

• •

References
• • • • A. Shoshani. OLAP and Statistical Databases: Similarities and Differences. Proc. of ACM PODS 1997. Panos Vassiliadis, Timos Sellis. A Survey on Logical Models for OLAP Databases. ACM SIGMOD Record M. Gyssens, Laks VS Lakshmanan. A Foundation for MultiDimensional Databases. Proc of VLDB 1997, Athens, Greece. Srinath Srinivasa, Myra Spiliopoulou. Modeling Interactions Based on Consistent Patterns. Proc. of CoopIS 1999, Edinburg, UK. Srinath Srinivasa, Myra Spiliopoulou. Discerning Behavioral Patterns By Mining Transaction Logs. Proc. of ACM SAC 2000, Como, Italy.