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Comparison between Oracle and Teradata

Center of Excellence Data Warehousing Wipro Technologies


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Basic Database Architecture Differences: Oracle


Oracle SMP
DBMS Kernel Locking Logging Global Systems/Storage Area Global Buffer Pools I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O Multi-Task Control

Data Partition

Data Partition

Data Partition

Data Partition

Basic Database Architecture Differences: Teradata


SMP Node PE V-Proc BYNET Connect PE V-Proc

Teradata MPP
B Y N E T

SMP Node PE V-Proc BYNET Connect PE V-Proc

AMP M-T Lock Log BPool I/O

AMP M-T Lock Log BPool I/O

AMP M-T Lock Log BPool I/O

AMP M-T Lock Log BPool I/O

AMP M-T Lock Log BPool I/O

AMP M-T Lock Log BPool I/O

AMP M-T Lock Log BPool I/O

AMP M-T Lock Log BPool I/O

Data Partition

Data Partition

Data Partition

Data Partition

Data Partition

Data Partition

Data Partition

Data Partition

Oracle SMP
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Oracle Physical Storage


Tablespaces are individual units of storage Tablespaces have associated data files

Data files can be added to, extended or removed from a tablespace dynamically

Only partitioned objects can span tablespaces

Logical objects are stored in physical segments.


Segments consist of extents Object space is allocated one extent at a time. May cause fragmentation.
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Disk Space and the Teradata Database


SMP Node
PE V-Proc PE V-Proc

SMP Node
PE V-Proc PE V-Proc

BYNET Connect
AM P M-T Loc k Log BPo ol I/O AM P M-T Loc k Log BPo ol I/O AM P M-T Loc k Log BPo ol I/O AM P M-T Loc k Log BPo ol I/O

B Y N E T

BYNET Connect
AM P M-T Loc k Log BPo ol I/O AM P M-T Loc k Log BPo ol I/O AM P M-T Loc k Log BPo ol I/O AM P M-T Loc k Log BPo ol I/O

Data Data Data Data Partition Partition Partition Partition

Data Data Data Data Partition Partition Partition Partition

DBC
Stores
TABLE INDEX

Products
INDEX

TABLE

Sample Large Disk Space Allocation DDL


Oracle9i
drop tablespace ts_o1 including contents; create tablespace ts_o1 datafile /export/home/oracle/oracle817/dbs/datafiles/o_1 size 8190m reuse extent management local autoallocate ;

Repeat this for every tablespace

. . .
Teradata
Execute Once
CREATE USER tpcd3000g AS PERM= 5400E9, PASSWORD= tpcd3000g;
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Comparing Database Creation


Database Creation Task Script(s) to Create Catalog/Data Dictionary Tables and Views Manage In-Flight Transactional Data Database Logs Temporary Space/Work Space Default Permanent Space Table Block Size Oracle Catalog.sql, Catclust.sql, Catproc.sql Rollback/Undo Segments Redo Logs Temp Space Default Tablespace Set at Table Level for Each but Requires DBA Setup of Bufferpools for Each Block Size Teradata DIP

Transient Journal Permanent Journal Spool Space Default Database Set at Table Level for Each Teradata Memory Management for Different Blocksizes is Automatic XCTL, Vconfig.out
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Database Startup Information INIT.ORA and Control File

Create Table Statements


Oracle
CREATE TABLE Table1 ( Col1 NUMBER,

Teradata
CREATE TABLE Table1 ,FALLBACK , NO BEFORE JOURNAL, NO AFTER JOURNAL (Col1 INTEGER, Col2 INTEGER, Col3 INTEGER) UNIQUE PRIMARY INDEX ( Col1 );

Col2 NUMBER,
Col3 NUMBER ) TABLESPACE Tablespace1 STORAGE (INITIAL 6144 NEXT 6144

MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 5 );
or... CREATE TABLE <expl|impl column specification> AS SELECT <any query>;
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Creating Tables: Similarities


All tables have names Tables have columns with data types You can define:

Constraints Referential integrity Global temporary tables Triggers

Creating Tables: Differences

Teradata tables are created in the database or user

DBC
Product TABLE s

Teradata provides several convenient options:

Fallback Permanent journaling Table block size Primary index Built into the Table MULTISET

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Partitioning
Partitioning tables and indexes allow Oracle and Teradata to

store lots of data With Oracle, the process of choosing partitioning methods and partitioning keys is the balancing of query access path, performance, and data load requirements You specifically manage the partitioning constraints and their relationship to disk storage With Teradata, the hash partitioning algorithm is very good at evenly distributing (loading) data partitions and is the basis for high performance data access and ease of user access Provide reasonable partitioning columns when defining the table and Teradata does the rest
Partitioning Columns are Chosen for Even Data Distribution in Both Teradata and Oracle
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Partitioning Comparisons - Oracle


Oracle Partitioning Decisions - Decide on Methods as well as partitioning columns, set up the disk environment
Hash1 99Q4 California 99Q4 Hash2 Hash3 Hash3 Hash4 Hash3 Hash2 Hash1 99Q3

99Q3

Florida

99Q2

New York

99Q2

Hash2

99Q1

Texas

99Q1

Hash1

Range Partitioning

List Partitioning

Composite Range Partitioning

Hash Partitioning

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Partitioning Comparisons-Teradata
Teradata Partitioning is a Fact of the System with

Hash Data Distribution based on Primary Index (Partitioning) Columns and system managed disk

AMP1

AMP2

AMP3

AMP4

Table 1 Table 2 Table 3

Table 1 Table 2 Table 3

Table 1 Table 2 Table 3

Table 1 Table 2 Table 3

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Examples of DDL to Create Partitioned Tables


Oracle9i
create table orders( o_orderdate date , o_orderkey number NOT NULL, o_custkey number NOT NULL, o_orderpriority char(15) , o_shippriority number , o_clerk char(15) , o_orderstatus char(1) , o_totalprice number , o_comment varchar(79) ) pctfree 1 pctused 99 initrans 10 storage (freelists 99 freelist groups 2) parallel nologging partition by range (o_orderdate) subpartition by hash(o_custkey) subpartitions 16 ( partition ord1 values less than (to_date(1992-0101,YYYY-MM-DD)) tablespace ts_o1 . . . partition ord84 values less than (MAXVALUE) tablespace ts_o84 ) ;

Teradata
CREATE MULTISET TABLE ORDERTBL, DATABLOCKSIZE= 29.5 KILOBYTES ( O_ ORDERKEY DECIMAL (15,0) not null ,O_ CUSTKEY INTEGER not null ,O_ ORDERSTATUS CHAR( 1) CASESPECIFIC not null ,O_ TOTALPRICE DECIMAL( 15,2) not null ,O_ ORDERDATE DATE FORMAT yyyy- mm- dd not null ,O_ ORDERPRIORITY CHAR( 15) CASESPECIFIC not null ,O_ CLERK CHAR( 15) CASESPECIFIC not null ,O_ SHIPPRIORITY INTEGER not null ,O_ COMMENT VARCHAR( 79) CASESPECIFIC not null ) UNIQUE PRIMARY INDEX( O_ ORDERKEY );

Repeat 82 Times with DBA Defined Ranges


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Oracle Parallelism
Oracle parallelism is not directly related to table partitioning because

of its shared disk architecture Dynamically splits data over parallel processing units for Selects/Inserts means 1 or more parallel processing units per partition Considers partitioning when distributing data to parallel processing units One parallel processing unit applied to each partition for Updates/Deletes Each user/query can get varying amounts of parallelism or run serially depending upon the resources available at query run time May need to manually control parallelism to improve system throughput and to ensure fair distribution of parallel resources Parallel processes may funnel down to serial processing for final 15 sort/merge, aggregate activity

Teradata Parallelism
Teradata parallelism is directly related to its shared nothing

architecture Automatically applied by the database Architecture ensures that each major unit of parallelism (the VAMP) has similar amounts of data and memory Pipelining and query step parallelism is performed within the VAMP Utility Parallelism and Query/Data Manipulation Language parallelism (Select, Insert, Update, Delete) are all the same All system parallelism is available to ALL operations Teradata parallelism is automatic, pervasive, and database managed All users/queries take advantage of all the system parallel resources You do not manage and control parallelism

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Data Types
Oracle

Teradata

CHAR VARCHAR2 NCHAR NCHAR2 NUMBER LONG LONGRAW RAW DATE BLOB CLOB NCLOB BFILE ROWID UROWID

CHAR VARCHAR CHAR VARYING LONG VARCHAR NUMERIC DECIMAL DOUBLE PRECISION FLOAT INTEGER SMALLINT BYTEINT BYTE VARBYTE GRAPHIC VARGRAPHIC LONG VARGRAPHIC DATE REAL
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Data Type Translations


Oracle Char Varchar2 Number(m,n) Date (includes time) Date (time portion) Date Teradata Char Varchar DECIMAL(m,n) or NUMERIC(m,n) Date (does not include time) Time Timestamp
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Datatypes

In Oracle the maximum precision "m" for number is 38. In Teradata it is 19 NUMBER (without precision) has no direct counterpart in Teradata. Determine migration by contents ROWID has no counterpart in Teradata

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Constraints

Like Teradatas Constraints

Defined on columns and tables


Default mandatory is NULL Case sensitivity is fixed at ON Constraints can be disabled and enabled

Oracle is different from Teradata on the follow:


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Oracle Specific Columns and Table

ROWNUM will number retrieved rows

ROWID indicates physical address of row

SELECT must have FROM list

DUAL is a pseudo-table with 1 row


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Creating Indexes
Similarities between Teradata and Oracle: Indexes take up space on disk Indexes can be unique and non-unique Indexes and secondary indexes provide alternate ways to access data
Differences: Teradata indexes are not in B-tree structure Hash Subtables Teradata automatically partitions indexes across the AMPs Teradata uses a Primary Index for each table
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Index Usage Comparisons


Oracle solutions traditionally have relied heavily on

indexes OLTP workloads required fast access paths to few rows Decision support solutions continue Oracles use of indexes where tactical queries with OLTP-like response time requirements are given more emphasis than throughput performance Teradata solutions have traditionally not used lots of indexes Teradatas efficient parallel architecture emphasizes throughput performance requirements - a result of its DSS background
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Index Usage Comparisons Contd.


Teradata typically uses fewer indexes than the equivalent Oracle

system Saves on disk storage Reduces table maintenance windows where affected by existing indexes Fewer database objects to manage and monitor Most of the indexes found in Oracle may not be used on Teradata Indexes can provide clues to ad hoc query support requirements No Bit-Map indexes for Teradata Add indexes to Teradata only as workloads (or anticipated workloads) require them Monitor their usage or lack of usage Statistics are key - you WANT to collect statistics in Teradata!
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Principles Behind the Use of Indexes


Maximize the use of Single or Few AMP Operations:

Drive towards using single or few AMP operations for queries Minimizing the number of AMPs in an operation, all other AMPs are freed to perform other tasks. Scalability is increased because the freed AMPs can execute more single or few AMP operations creating greater throughput by increasing the number of tactical queries executed in parallel Create Efficient All AMP Operations: Reduce the resource consumption on each AMP for all AMP operations. Since all AMP operations are virtually impossible to remove from a data warehousing environment, reducing the impact on each AMP is important Gain scalability for two reasons: Individual queries execute faster freeing the AMPs to execute other queries 25 Decrease in resource consumption allows more queries to use the shared resources, such as spool space, or CPU

Miscellaneous DDL
Triggers Triggers function just the same (pre- and post-, insert / update / delete) as in Teradata Oracle Options not in Teradata Database Links Reference (use) objects in another instance Synonyms Named references to objects Sequences Number generators E Often used to generate surrogate keys Hierarchies K L
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ANALYZE/Collect Statistics

ANALYZE/DBMS_STATS package are intended for collecting database object statistics for Oracles Cost Based Optimizer (CBO) Goal is to collect statistics give queries good access paths Once Plans are good and stable, stop analyzing tables to preserve plans Teradatas Collect Statistics command collects database object statistics Optimizer reacts to changing demographics (growing tables, changing column value cardinality, etc.) Keeping statistics up to date ensures good plans Dont freeze statistics - old statistics encourage old access plans that may not be effective as the database changes
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Data Control Language


Data Control Language (DCL) is used in

both Oracle and Teradata to assign user access Oracle users may be granted:

Object Privileges

Easily relate to Teradata Can be simulated within Teradata

System Privileges

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User Access Rights


Teradata enables you to assign access

rights:

To individual users To logical groups of users On individual objects On groups of objects

Tables
Views
Macros

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Object Privileges
Granting Oracle Privileges Grant Alter Grant Delete Grant Index Grant Select Grant Insert Grant Update Grant Execute Granting Teradata Privileges Grant Drop Grant Delete Grant Index or Grant Drop Table Grant Select Grant Insert Grant Update Grant Execute Procedure/ Grant Execute
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System Privileges
Granting Oracle Privileges
Grant Create Table Grant Alter Any Table Grant Delete On Any Table Grant Drop Any Table Grant Insert Any Table Grant Update Any Table

Granting Teradata Privileges


Grant Create Table or Grant Table Grant Create Table or Grant Table Grant Delete on Database Grant Drop Table or Grant Table Grant Insert on Database Grant Update on Database/Grant Update (column list, all but column list) Grant Select on Database Grant Create View or Grant View on Database Grant Create View or Grant View on Database Grant Drop View or Grant View on Database

Grant Select Any Table Grant Create View Grant Create Any View Grant Drop Any View

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Questions ?

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