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Chapter 4

Subjects of interest
• Introduction/objectives • Classification of extrusion processes • Extrusion equipment (Presses, dies and tools) • Hot extrusion • Deformation, lubrication, and defects in extrusion • Analysis of the extrusion process • Cold extrusion and cold-forming • Hydrostatic extrusion • Extrusion of tubing • Production of seamless pipe and tubing
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• This chapter aims to provide useful information on different extrusions processes, which can be mainly divided into direct and indirect extrusion processes. This also includes basic background on hydrostatic extrusion, extrusions of tubing and production of seamless pipe and tubing. • Principal background and concept of extrusion will be addressed along with the utilisation of mathematical approaches to understand the calculation of extrusion load. • The role of lubricants on the deformation process which results in the improvement in extrusion products will be provided. • Finally, defects and its solutions occurring in the extrusion process will be emphasised.

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What is extrusion?
Extrusion is the process by which a block/billet of metal is reduced in cross section by forcing it to flow through a die orifice under high pressure. • In general, extrusion is used to produce cylindrical bars or hollow tubes or for the starting stock for drawn rod, cold extrusion or forged products. • Most metals are hot extruded due to largeamount of forces required in extrusion. Complex shape can be extruded from the more readily extrudable metals such as aluminium. * The products obtained are also called extrusion.
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• The reaction of the extrusion billet with the container and die results in high compressive stresses which are effective in reducing cracking of materials during primary breakdown from the ingot.

• This helps to increase the utilisation of extrusion in the working of metals that are difficult to form like stainless steels, nickel-based alloys, and other high-temperature materials. • Similar to forging, lower ram force and a fine grained recrystallised structure are possible in hot extrusion. • However, better surface finish and higher strengths (strain hardened metals) are provided by cold extrusion.
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Extrusion products
Typical parts produced by extrusion are trim parts used in automotive and construction applications, window frame members, railings, aircraft structural parts. Example: Aluminium extrusions are used in commercial and domestic buildings for window and door frame systems, prefabricated houses/building structures, roofing and exterior cladding, curtain walling, shop fronts, etc. Furthermore, extrusions are also used in transport for airframes, road and rail vehicles and in marine applications.
Aluminium extrusions Brass parts

Aluminium for windows and doors

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Classification of extrusion processes There are several ways to classify metal extrusion processes. By direction • Direct / Indirect extrusion • Forward / backward extrusion By operating temperature • Hot / cold extrusion By equipment • Horizontal and vertical extrusion Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

• Hollow ram limits the applied load. ram die billet 2)Indirect extrusion extrusion container closure plate ram die billet Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • Friction is at the die and container wall requires higher pressure than indirect extrusion. • The dummy block or pressure plate. • The hollow ram containing the die is kept stationary and the container with the billet is caused to move.Direct and indirect extrusions 1)Direct extrusion extrusion container dummy plate • The metal billet is placed in a container and driven through the die by the ram. • Friction at the die only (no relative movement at the container wall) requires roughly constant pressure. is placed at the end of the ram in contact with the billet.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • Metal can also be forced to flow into recesses in the punch.Forward and backward extrusion Extrusion can also be divided to: 1)Forward extrusion • Metal is forced to flow in the same direction as the punch. see Fig. 2)Backward extrusion • Metal is forced to flow in the direction opposite to the punch movement. • The punch closely fits the die cavity to prevent backward flow of the material.

Cold extrusion Cold extrusion is the process done at room temperature or slightly elevated temperatures. This process can be used for most materials-subject to designing robust enough tooling that can withstand the stresses created by extrusion. Examples of parts that are cold extruded are collapsible tubes. gear blanks. steel. tin. Collapsible tubes Aluminium cans Jan-Mar 2007 Tapany Udomphol . vanadium.gnaent. titanium. aluminium cans. Suranaree University of Technology www. Cold extrusion Examples of the metals that can be extruded are lead. copper. • Good surface finish with the use of proper Advantages • No oxidation takes place.novelisrecycling. aluminium alloys. • Good mechanical properties due to severe cold working as long as the temperatures created are below the recrystallization temperature. cylinders.ppg. www.

The pressures can range from 35-700 MPa (5076 .Hot extrusion www.525 psi). Oil and graphite work at lower Jan-Mar 2007 Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol . • The most commonly used extrusion process is the hot direct Hot extrusion is done at fairly high temperatures. good lubrication is necessary. • Due to the high temperatures and pressures and its detrimental effect on thedielife as well as other components. www. whereas at higher temperatures glass powder is used. approximately 50 to 75 % of the melting point of the metal.101.ansoniacb. The cross-sectional shape of the extrusion is defined by the shape of the die.gspsteelprofiles.

The clearance between the mandrel and the die wall determines the wall thickness of the tube.Tube extrusion Tubes can be produced by extrusion by attaching a mandrel to the end of the ram. Tubes are produced either by starting with a hollow billet or by a twostep extrusion in which a solid billet is first pierced and then extruded. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2006 .

large numbers. • Requires soft materials such as aluminium. * Small objects. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . It may be either direct or indirect extrusion and it is usually performed on a highspeed mechanical press. lead. soft metal. • A small shot of solid material is placed in the die and is impacted by a ram. such as collapsible toothpaste tubes or spray cans. good tolerances*. which causes cold flow in the material. considerable heating results from the high speed deformation. copper or tin are normally used in the impact extrusion.Impact extrusion • Produce short lengths of hollow shapes. • Although the process is generally performed cold.

Extrusion was originally applied to the making of lead pipe and later to the lead sheathing on electrical cable. Extrusion of lead sheath on electrical cable. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . 1) Presses • • Most extrusions are made with hydraulic presses.Extrusion equipment (Presses. dies and tools) Extrusion equipment mainly includes presses. These can be classified based on the direction of travel of the ram. Die materials 3) Tools Typical arrangement of extrusion tools. dies and tooling. 1) Horizontal presses 2) Vertical presses 2) Extrusion dies Die design.

Horizontal extrusion presses (15. HYDRAULIC EXT PRESS Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . DUISBURG.50 MN capacity or upto 140 MN) • Used for most commercial extrusion of bars and shapes. Disadvantages: • deformation is non-uniform due to different temperatures between top and bottom parts of the billet. 600 Tonne.

due to uniform cooling of the billet in the container.20 MN capacity) Chiefly used in the production of thin-wall tubing. • A floor pit is necessary. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Vertical extrusion machine Jan-Mar 2007 .Vertical extrusion presses Advantages: (3. • Easier alignment between the press ram and tools. • Higher rate of production. • uniform deformation. • Require less floor space than horizontal presses. Requirements: • Need considerable headroom to make extrusions of appreciable length.

6 m s-1 for refractory metals hydraulic accumulator with the press. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . requires a • Ram speeds of a few mm s-1 for aluminium and copper due to hot shortness requires direct-drive pumping systems to maintain a uniform finishing temperature.4-0. • Ram speeds of 0.Ram speed • Require high ram speeds in high-temperature extrusion due to heat transfer problem from billet to tools.

thermal shock.Diedesign • Die design is at the heart of efficient extrusion production. Tapany Udomphol Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 . • Dies must withstand considerable amount of stresses. Die design consideration Die design CAD/CAM Milling Wire sparkling erosion www. • Simple shapes: the more simple shape the more cost Die design • Wall thickness: different wall thicknesses in one section should be avoided. Finishing Inspection • Size to weight ratio: • Tolerlances: tolerances are added to allow some distortions (industrial standards).co. • Sharp or rounded corners: sharp corners should be avoided. • Symetrical: more accurate. and oxidation.capalex.

www. There are two general types of extrusion dies: 1) Flat-faced dies 2) Dies with conical entrance mm (on hollow dies) can be made for aluminium extrusion. Si3N4 ).Diematerials • Dies are made from highly alloy tools steels or ceramics (zirconia.capalex. • Heat treatments such as nitriding are required (several times) to increase hardness (1000-1100 Hv or 65-70 HRC).de Ceramic extrusion dies www. good wear resistance).nitrex. This improves die steel extrusion dies Jan-Mar 2007 .5 mm (on flat dies) or 0. avoiding unscheduled press shutdown.uni-stuttgart. (for cold extrusion offering longer tool life and reduced lubricant Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol www. • Wall thickness as small as 0.

increasing homogeneity. • A parallel land on the exit side of the die helps strengthen the die and allow for reworking of the flat face on the entrance side of the die without increasing the exit diameter. • for most operation.1) Flat-faced dies Die entrance α 2) Dies with conical entrance angle Die entrance α • Metal entering the die will form a dead zone and shears internally to form its own die angle. • decreasing dieangle . transfer equipment (for hot billets) is required. 45o < α < 60o Remarks. lower extrusion pressure (but beyond a point the friction in the die surfaces becomes too great. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . prior heating of the container. • requires good lubricants.

Typical arrangement of extrusion tooling Typical arrangement of extrusion tooling Extrusion dies wedge container die head liner die holder bolst er die • The die stack consists of the die. all of which are held in a die head. which is supported by a die holder and a bolster. • The entire assembly is sealed against the container on a conical seating surface by pressure applied by a wedge. • The follower pad is placed between the hot billet and the ram for protection purpose. Follower pads are therefore replaced periodically since they are subject to many cycles of thermal shock. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • A liner is shrunk in a more massive container to withstand high pressures.

1) Type of extrusion (direct / indirect) 2) Extrusion ratio 3) Working temperature 4) Deformation 5) Frictional conditions at the die and the container wall. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .Hot extrusion The principal variables influencing the force required to cause extrusion.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . the metal begins to flow through the die at the maximum pressure. the pressure rises up rapidly and it is usual to stop the ram travel so with increasing ram travel and as to leave a small discard in the container. • For direct extrusion. Extrusion pressure. the breakthrough pressure. MPa Direct extrusion Indirect extrusion Ram travel. represent the stress required to deform the metal through the die.Extrusion pressure = extrusion force /cross sectional area • The rapid rise in pressure during initial ram travel is due to the initial compression of the billet to fill the extrusion container. extrusion pressure is ~ constant • At the end of the stroke. • As the billet extrudes through the die the pressure required to maintain flow progressively decreases with decreasing length of the billet in the container. mm Extrusion pressure vs. ram travel • For indirect extrusion. • Since hollow ram is used in indirect extrusion. size of the extrusions and extrusion pressure are limited.

1 R ~ 40:1 for hot extrusion of steels. Extrusion ratio. r r =1− Af Ao …Eq. Af . Ao. R. Fractional reduction in area. of steel could be40:1 whereas R for aluminium can reach 400:1.2 and R= 1 (1 − r ) …Eq. R= Ao Af …Eq. is the ratio of the initial cross-sectional area . Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .95 and 0.3 Note: R is more descriptive at large deformations! Ex: R = 20:1 and 50:1 r = 0.Extrusion ratio Extrusion ratio.98 respectively. after extrusion. R. R ~ 400:1 for aluminium. of the billet to the final cross-sectional area .

5 where k = extrusion constant. an overall factor which accounts for the flow stress. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .4 Extrusion force may be expressed as P = kA ln o Ao Af …Eq. friction.The velocity of theextruded product is given by Velocity of the extruded product = ram velocity x R …Eq. and inhomogeneous deformation.

• Use minimum temperature to provide metal with suitable plasticity. • The top working temperature should be safely below the melting point or hot-shortness range. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • Softening of dies and tools. • Oxidation of billet and extrusion tools. Note: Working temperature in extrusion is normally higher than used in forging and rolling due to relatively large compressive stresses in minimising cracking. The temperature of the workpiece in metal working depends on. 1) The initial temperature of the tools and the materials 2) Heat generated due to plastic deformation 3) Heat generated by friction at the die/material interface (highest) 4) Heat transfer between the deforming material and the dies and surrounding environment.Effects of temperature on hot extrusion • Decreased flow stress or deformation resistance due to increasing extrusion temperature. • Difficult to provide adequate lubrication.

the final average material temperature Tm at a time t is Tm = Td + Tf + T Dieter p.6 ρcδ Where To T1 h δ = temperature at the workpiece = temperature at the die = heat transfer coefficient between the material and the dies = material thickness between the dies. the average instantaneous temperature of the deforming material at the interface is given by T = T + (T − T ) 1 o 1 − ht exp …Eq.524-526 …Eq.7 Td Tf = Temp for frictionless deformation process = Temp increase due to friction Tapany Udomphol Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 . If the temperature increase due to deformation and friction is included.• Usually the temperature is highest at the material/tool interface due to friction. • If we neglect the temperature gradients and the deforming material is considered as a thin plate.

•The selection of the proper extrusion speed and temperature is best determined by trial and error for each alloy and billet size. • Therefore.Ram speed. • The higher the temperature of the billet. extrusion ratio and temperature • A tenfold increase in the ram speed results in about a 50% increase in the extrusion pressure. the greater the effect of low extrusion speed on the cooling of the billet. • Low extrusion speeds lead to greater cooling of thebillet. high extrusion speeds are required with high-strength alloys that need high extrusion temperature. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

a larger extrusion ratio R can be obtained with a higher extrusion extrusion pressure. extrusion ratio R increases with increasing Extrusion temperature. heat dissipation . Extrusion temperature Extrusion pressure Extrusion ratio (R) Relationships between extrusion speed and heat dissipation • extrusion speeds • extrusion speeds Suranaree University of Technology .Relationships between extrusion ratio. temperature and pressure • For a given extrusion pressure. allowable extrusion ratio Jan-Mar 2007 Tapany Udomphol . heat dissipation . • For a given extrusion temperature.

Deformation in extrusion. In the sticky friction. Essentially pure elongation in the centre and extensive shear along the sides of the billet. The latter leads to redundant work c) For high friction at the container-billet interface. producing a dead zone of stagnant metal at corners which undergoes little deformation. b) Increased container wall friction. d) Low container friction and awell lubricated billet in indirect extrusion. metal flow is concentrated toward the centre and an internal shear plane develops – due to cold container. Tapany Udomphol Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 . A thin skin will be left in a container and a new metal surface is obtained. the metal will separate internally along the shear zone. lubrication and defects (a) Low container friction and a well-lubricated billet – nearly homogeneous deformation.

• Molten glass is the most common lubricant for steel and nickel based alloys (high temp extrusion). • Stable enough to prevent breakdown at high temperature. Ugine-Sejournet process • Graphite-based lubricants are also be used at high extrusion Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .Hot extrusion lubricants • Low shear strength. RAM Billet Still unmolten glass padding Chamber Ugine-Sejournet process Molten glass www.

Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . • The coating thickness depends on a complex interaction between the optimum • This glass coating is soften during extrusion to provide a lubricant film (~25 µm thick). too low ram speed too high ram speed Suranaree University of Technology thick lubricant coatings with low initial extrusion pressure limit the length of extrusions. The glass pad placed between the die and the billet provide the main source of lubricant. dangerously thin coatings. otherwise defects such as surface crack will results. the temperature and the ram speed.metalforming-inc. • Lubricant film must be complete and continuous to be successful. Ugine-Sejournet process Still unmolten glass padding Chamber RAM Billet Molten glass www.Ugine-Sejournet process • The billet is heated in an inert atmosphere and coated with glass powder before being pressed. which serves not only as a lubricant but also a thermal insulator to reduce heat loss to the tools. Aluminium extrusion process Tapany Udomphol Aluminium extrusion part Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 . Hot aluminum billet (450-500oC) Press through dies Length cutting Stretching both ends Heat treatment Finishing and inspection Reorientation of grains Improve mechanical properties Dies are preheated www. hollow shapes.Example: Extrusion of aluminium • Aluminium billet is heated to around 450-500oC and pressed through flat die to produce solid sections such as bars. tubes. • Aluminium heat treatments may be required for higher strength in some applications. rods.capalex.

Container wall friction extrusion defects Container wall temp extrusion defects • If lubricant film is carried into the interior of the extrusion along the shear bands.Extrusion defects 1)Inhomogeneous deformation in direct extrusion provide the dead zone along the outer surface of the billet due to the movement of the metal in the centre being higher than the periphery. Solutions: • discard the remainder of the billet (~30%) where the surface oxide begins to enter the die not economical. this will show as longitudinal laminations in a similar way as oxide. resulting in internal oxide stringers. . • After 2/3 of the billet is extruded.transverse section can be seen as an annular ring of oxide. • use a follower block with a smaller diameter of the die to scalps the billet and the oxidised layer remains in the container (in brass extrusion). Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . the outer surface of the billet (normally with oxidised skin) moves toward the centre and extrudes to the through the die.

ranging from a badly roughened surface to repetitive transverse cracking called fir-tree cracking.2)Surface cracking . see Fig. Surface cracks from heavy die friction in extrusion • In hot extrusion. • At lower temperature. sticking in the die land and the sudden building up of pressure and then breakaway will cause transverse cracking. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . this form of cracking usually is intergranular and is associated with hot shortness. • The most common case is too high ram speed for the extrusion temperature. This is due to longitudinal tensile stresses generated as the extrusion passes through the die.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .3)Centre burst or chevron cracking . Centre burst or chevron cracks • High friction (at a the tool-billet interface) • Low friction centre burst. can occur at low extrusion ratio due to low frictional conditions on the zone of deformation at the extrusion die. a sound product. see Fig.

see Fig.4)Variations in structureand properties within the extrusions due to non-uniform deformation for example at the front and the back of the extrusion in both longitudinal and transverse directions. Extrusion direction Grain growth 200 µm Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . due to high hot working temperature. • Regions of exaggerated grain growth.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . Hot shortness High temperatures generated cause incipient melting. which causes cracking.5)Hot shortness (in aluminium extrusion).

_ …Eq.11 Jan-Mar 2007 .8 W = U pV = V ζ ln R = pAL = force × dis tan ce Where ζ is the effective flow stress in compression so that * Neither friction nor redundant deformation.10 The actual extrusion pressure pe is given by Where the efficiency of the process η is the ratio of the ideal to actual energy per unit volume. the plastic work of deformation per unit volume can be expressed for direct extrusion as U p = ζ ∫ dε = ζ The work involved is _ _ Af A o ∫ d ln A = ζ ln A _ Af o = − ζ ln R _ …Eq.Analysis of the extrusion process Using the uniform deformation energy approach.9 p= ζ ln R = ζ ln R AL _ V _ _ …Eq. Suranaree University of Technology p ζ pe = = ln R η η Tapany Udomphol …Eq.

Assuming the billet frictional stress is equal to ηi ~ k. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . Where Pd is the die force Pfb is the frictional force between the container and the upset billet. the ram pressure required by container friction is Pe = Pd + Pfb + P ff p f πD 2 4 = πDη L i and p =p +p =p + e d f d 4η i L D …Eq.12 Where ηi = uniform interface shear stress between billet and container liner L= length of billet in the container liner D= inside diameter of the container liner.DePierre showed that the total extrusion force Pe is the summation of the forces below. Pff is the frictional force between the container liner and the follower ~0.

13 Where B α R = µ cot α = semi die angle = extrusion ratio = A o/A * This analysis includes die friction but excludes redundant deformation. p =ζ B ) d xb =ζ 1+ B o (1 − R B …Eq.8 and b = 1.Using a slab analysis to account for friction on extruding through a conical die. …Eq. pd = ζ o (a + b ln R) Where typically a = 0.5 for axisymmetric extrusion. Using slip-linefield theory for plane-strain condition without considering friction. Sash has performed the analysis for Coulomb sliding friction. the solution is as follows.14 Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

Where m pd = ζ o (a + b ln R ) + mk cot α ln = η R and a and b are evaluated as follows: /k i …Eq.419 0. Depierre use the following equation to describe die pressure in hydrostatic extrusion.006 1.034 Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .15 Using upper-bound analysis based on a velocity field.945 b 1. Kudo found the following expression for extrusion through rough square dies (2α = 180o) p d = ζ o (1.55 ln R) …Eq.659 0.Using upper-bound analysis.016 1.06 + 1.16 α 30 45 60 a 0.

s -1.5. and along the centre line of the extrusion.Variation of local strain rate • Using the techniqueof visioplasticity to map out the distribution of strain and strain rate and to calculate the variation of temperature and flow stress within the extrusion. ram speed = 210 mm. Strain rate distribution in a partially extruded steel billet. R = 16. Temp =1440 K. • There are local maxima near the exit from the die on the surface. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

Db >> De Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . the volume extruded per unit time is πD 2 + e υ b 4 4 4 4 where (D − De ) h= b 2 so And the time to fill the volume of the deformation zone is then 3 3 Db − De = υ ( D 2 / 4) 6υDb2 πb V 3 3 Db − De t= Db 6υ π V= (Db3 − De 3 ) 24 Suranaree University of Technology D 2 b ≈ Db .The average strain rate for extrusion is usually defined by the time for material to transverse through a truncated conical volume of deformation zone. which is defined by the billet diameter Db and the extrusion diameter De. For a 45 o semicone angle. πh V= 3 D2 D2 b DD + b e For a ram velocity ν.

_ ε t = ε = 6υ ln R • …Eq. Db εt = • 2 6υD b ln R tan α …Eq.17 t For the general semidie angle α.18 Db2 − De3 Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .The time average mean strain rate is given by For a 45 o semicone angle.

15 (MPa).13 pe = p d + 4η i L D pd = ζ o We need to know. ηi. ζ and R . ε.s-1 from 150 mm diameter to 50 mm diameter. determine the force required for the operation. If the billet is 380 mm long and the extrusion is done through square dies without lubrication.39) 0.39s −1 Db 150 _ 2 ζ = 200(4.25) = 250MPa Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .12 and Eq.15 = 200(1. The extrusion load is P = peA and from Eq. 1+ B B (−R ) 1 B 150 R= =9 2 50 • 6υ ln R 6(50) ln 9 ε= = = 4. pe.Example: An aluminium alloy is hot extruded at 400oC at 50 mm. The flow stress at this temperature is given by ζ = 200(ε)0. pd.

15)2 = 39. We can assume that this is equivalent to a semi die angle α = 60 o. a deadmetal zone will form in the corners of the container against the die.9MN 4 Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .0577 p d = 250(18.Since we use square dies without lubrication.1 B = µ cot α = 0. ηi ≅ k = then ζo 3 = 250 3 = 144MPa p =p + e d 4η i L D = 797 + 4(144)(380) 150 = 2.174) = 797MPa The maximum pressure due to container wall friction will occur at break-through when L = 380 mm. Therefore the extrusion pressure due to flow through the die is pd = ζ o + 1 B B (−R ) 1 B .256MPa finally P = p e A = 2256 π (0. Aluminium will tend to stick to the container and shear internally. see Fig. µ is assumed ~ 0.33)(1 − 1.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . Cold forming also includes other processes such as upsetting. expanding and coining. shafts. pins and hollow cylinders or cans. Precision cold-forming can result in high production of parts with good dimensional control and good surface finish.Cold extrusion and cold forming Cold extrusion is concerned with the cold forming from rod and bar stock of small machine parts. such as spark plug bodies.

it is often possible to use cheaper materials with lower alloy content.DIES FOR EXTRUSION OF HELICAL GROOVES Cold extrusion products • Because of extensive strain hardening. • The materials should have high resistance to ductile fracture and the design of the tooling to minimise tensile-stress concentrations. Dies for cold extrusion Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .

• The billet is forced through the die by a high hydrostatic fluid pressure. •The rate. but is proportional to the displaced hydrostatics medium volume. with which the billet moves when pressing in the direction of the die. Hydrostatic extrusion Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . is thus not equal to the ram speed.Hydrostatic extrusion • The billet in the container is surrounded with fluid media. is also called hydrostatics medium. • The billet should may have large lengthto-diameter ratio and may have an irregular cross section.

Mild steel R should be less than 20:1 Aluminium R can achieve up to 200:1. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .7 GPa currently exists because of the strength of the container. Limitations: • Not suitable for hot-working due to pressurised liquid. • A practical limit on fluid pressure of around 1. • Possible to use dies with a very low semicone angle (α ~ 20 o) • Achieving of hydrodynamic lubrication in the die. • The liquid should not solidify at high pressure this limits the obtainable extrusion ratios. extrusion pressure vs ram travel curve is nearly flat.Advantages and disadvantages in hydrostatic extrusion Advantages: • Eliminating the large friction force between the billet and the container wall.

• The fluid pressure is kept at less than the value required to cause extrusion and the balance is provided by the augmenting force much better control over the movement of the extrusion. • This is however solved by augmented hydrostatic extrusion in which the axial force is applied either to the billet or to the extrusion.Augmented hydrostatic extrusion • Due to the large amount of stored energy in a pressurised liquid. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . the control of the extrusion on the exit form die maybe a problem.

only hollow. As the ram moves forward. causing a long hollow tube. a rod that matches the diameter of the cast hole in the billet (but slightly smaller than the hole in the die at the opposite end of the chamber) are used. Just like toothpaste. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 .Extrusion of tubing Extrusion of tubing from a solid billet Anodized aluminium extrusions: square tubing. the ram may also be fitted with a piercing mandrel. the metal is forced over the mandrel and through the hole in the die. Extrusion of tubing from a hollow billet • If the billets are hollow. • Note: the bore of the hole will become oxidized resulting in a tube with an oxidized inside surface. • To produce tubing by extrusion from a solid billet.

Tapany Udomphol A Exit face Cross section A-A Entrance face A sketch of a porthole extrusion die Porthole extrusion Example: pyramid porthole dies Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 . • The separate streams of metal which flow through the ports are brought together in a welding chamber surrounding the mandrel. which supports a short mandrel. a perfectly sound weld is obtained. • Porthole extrusion is used to produce hollow unsymmetrical shapes in aluminium alloys. • Since the separate metal streams are jointed within the die. and the metal exits from the die as a tube. where there is no atmosphere contamination.Extrusion tubing with aportholedie A • The metal is forced to flow into separate streams and around the central bridge.

Tapany Udomphol Titanium seamless pipes Stainless steel seamless pipes Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 . The action of the rolls causes the metal to flow over and about the mandrel to create a hollow pipe shell.exe See animation • Extrusion is suited for producing seamless pipe and tubing. • After reheating. the shell is moved forward over a support bar and is hotrolled in several reducing/sizing stands to the desired wall thickness and diameter. or mandrel. • The red-hot billet is rotated and drawn by rolls over a piercing rod. especially for metals which are difficult to work.Production of seamless pipe and tubing Seamless.

(d) The reeling mill burnishes the outside and inside surfaces and removes the slight oval shape. (b) Plug rolling mill (a) Mannesmann mill (b) The plug rolling mills drive the tube over a long mandrel containing a plug. which is usually one of the last steps in the production of pipe or tubing. which are set at an angle to each other. Tapany Udomphol Production of seamless pipe and tubing Suranaree University of Technology Jan-Mar 2007 . The axial thrust is developed as well as rotation to the billet.(a) The Mannesmann mill is used for the rotary piercing of steel and copper billets using two barrel-shape driven rolls. (c) Three-roll piercing machin e (d) Plug rolling mill (c) The three-roll piercing machine produces more concentric tubes with smoother inside and outside surface.

L. ISBN 0-7506-2754-9.References • Dieter.E. 1988. 1990. J. and Bibbly M. ISBN 0-470-35241-8. Arnold. Prof Manas.J. McGraw-Hill.. • Metal forming processes. Manufacturing with materials. and Endean. Mechanical metallurgy.. • Edwards. Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Jan-Mar 2007 . ISBN 0-07-100406-8. Butterworth Heinemann.. 1999. Principles of metal manufacturing process. • Beddoes. M. G. SI metric edition.