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Force,Work and Energy

Force and Work  The force acting on a body is directly proportional to the product of its mass and acceleration. F = ma   The SI unit of force is newton ( N ) Consider .moves the body through a distance ‘S’ .a force ‘F’ acts on a body . then work done (W) = F x S    Thus . W = F cos θ x S The SI unit of work is Joule. .then . If the direction of displacement ‘S’ is inclined to ‘F’ at an angle of θ .the work done is equal to the product of force and distance moved by body in the direction of force.

   It is measured by the amount of work that can be performed. power = work done (w) / time   The unit is watt (W) .electrical energy . .light energy . Heat energy . There are many forms of energy : mechanical energy . Unit is ‘joule’.Power and Energy  The rate of doing work is called power. 1 W = 1 joule /sec. chemical and atomic energy. Energy is the ability to do work.

x.  e. microphone . Kinetic energy : The energy possessed by the body by virtue of its motion. Cycle . e.2 forms of mechanical energy 1.moving bullet # Law of conservation of energy :  Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed .x. Working of saw mill .but energy can be transformed from one form to another form. water stored up in reservoir 2.compressed air. Potential energy : The energy the body possess by virtue of its position or state of strain. Stretched rubber .fan.when we ignite crackers .x. e.

Both dynamics & statics together are called mechanics. Statics is the study of forces on bodies on rest. .direction and point of application.  Moment of a force : It is defined as the turning effect of a force on a body and is equal to the product of force and the perpendicular distance between the axis of rotation & the direction of force. Dynamics is a study of forces acting on a moving body. In statics the force is a graphical representation .Forces of the Body      The term force is defined as a push or a pull. which has magnitude .

It tends to rotate the body .and If in opposite direction are called unlike parallel forces.  Couple : 2 equal unlike parallel forces acting on a rigid body constitute a couple .they are called like parallel forces .when external forces are acting on it.  A resultant is a single force acting on a body that effectively replace all other forces acting on the body.  Parallel forces : If 2 equal forces are acting in the same direction .  Forces on a Rigid body : A rigid body is one which does not undergo any change in shape and volumem.

opening the cap of bottel.    The moment of the couple is called torque. The moment of the couple is equal to the product of one of the force and the perpendicular distance between the direction of the 2 forces. reduces efficiency of machines. produces heat .x turning a water tap . This opposing force is friction. e.   Benefits : breaks in automobiles . e. Friction : When a body slides over the surface of another body .there is an opposing force acting opposite to the direction of motion. .while walking.x wear & tear of machines . Friction provides lots of wastage.

. This work done by machine is output. The force overcome by machine is called load / weight. The force applied on simple machine is called effort / power. The load moved by machine through a certain distance. Principle of simple machine : when effort is applied on a machine . wheal and axle . pulley . Work is done by machine .Simple Machines  A simple machine is a device in which a force is applied at 1 point in one direction is made available at some other point in some other direction. and the inclined plane.x are : levers . the point of application moves through a certain    distance . gears .screw .ie input .  E.

η = M.R .R = distance moved by effort distance moved by load  Efficiency (η) : .The efficiency of simple machine is define as the ratio of the work done on the load to the work done by the effort. Mechanical advantage (M.A = Load / effort  Velocity ratio ( V.R) : V.A x 100 % V.A) : M.

in order to extend or hold it in a desired position for a long time.the bed is elevated.  To counter traction . .   It works on principals of Newton’s third law of motion. Traction : It is a clinical practice in which parts of a human body is applied with a mechanical pull .   Various types pulleys are employed in application of traction. Usually traction is applied on the head or body or limbs in two directions. The fraction is applied in the direction in which the weight is applied.

The fulcrum is situated at the joint where movement occurs.Body Mechanics    Bones of the body acts as levers for movement.acting at its center of gravity and the effort is provided by the muscles producing the movements . The load is the weight of the part to be moved . Third order : flexion of hip joint : . Examples are : first order lever : skull balance at atlanto-occipital joint Second order lever : Action of brachioradialis as flexor of elbow 3.  1.acting at their point of insertion. 2.

bony surfaces are covered with smooth hyaline cartilage and lubricated with synovial fluid. . friction . Inclined plane : the principal of inclined plane may be applied in the use of flat board for exercising muscles. forces from medical applications  Friction : In human . Angel of pull of a muscle    Pulley systems : are used for raising patients trunk in sling suspension.Inside forces : from the action of muscles .Applications of forces in nursing  Forces acting on human body : .Outside force : gravity .