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- Notes to Study for Physics Paper 6 (2)
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Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

A fixed mass of gas can be described in terms of:

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

**A fixed mass of gas can be described in terms of:
**

•Its Volume, V

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

**A fixed mass of gas can be described in terms of:
**

•Its Volume, V •Its Pressure, P

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

**A fixed mass of gas can be described in terms of:
**

•Its Volume, V •Its Pressure, P •Its Temperature ,T

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

**A fixed mass of gas can be described in terms of:
**

•Its Volume, V •Its Pressure, P •Its Temperature ,T

These can also be related to the movement of the molecules within the gas:

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

**A fixed mass of gas can be described in terms of:
**

•Its Volume, V •Its Pressure, P •Its Temperature ,T

These can also be related to the movement of the molecules within the gas:

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws There are three laws which relate two of these quantities While the third is kept constant:

1 Boyles Law – this relates the Volume ,V of a fixed mass of a gas to its Pressure, P while its temperature remains constant. 2 Charles’Law – this relates the Volume, V of a fixed mass of a gas to its temperature, T while its pressure remains constant 3 Pressure Law – this relates the Pressure, P of a fixed mass of gas to its temperature, T while its volume remains constant.

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Fixed Mass of Dry Air

Volume of Air, V

Oil Column to Compress Air

Pressure Gauge to Measure Pressure of Air,P

Pump Oil Reservoir

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

V (cm 3)

P (Pa)

V-1 (cm-3)

PxV

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Volume V (cm 3) 13.80 15.20 17.20 19.80 23.30 28.00 35.40 46.50 53.90

Pressure/105 P (Pa) 4.00 3.60 3.20 2.80 2.40 2.00 1.60 1.20 1.00

1/Vol V-1 (cm-3) 0.072 0.066 0.058 0.051 0.043 0.036 0.028 0.022 0.019

PxV

55.20 54.72 55.04 55.44 55.92 56.00 56.64 55.80 53.90

**Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws
**

Graph of Pressure Against Volume for a Fixed Mass of Gas at Constant Temperature

4.50 4.00

Pressure/105 (Pa)

3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00

Volume (cm3)

**Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws
**

Graph of (Volume-1) of a Fixed Mass of Gas at Constant Temperature Against its Pressure

0.080 0.070

1/Volume (cm )

-3

**0.060 0.050 0.040 0.030 0.020 0.010 0.000 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50
**

57.00 56.00 55.00 54.00

2.00

2.50

3.00

3.50

4.00

4.50

Pressure/105(Pa)

0.000 0.050 0.100

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Since the graph is a straight line through the origin:

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Since the graph is a straight line through the origin: Pressure is Proportional to 1/Volume or, P is proportional to 1/V

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Since the graph is a straight line through the origin: Pressure is Proportional to 1/Volume or, P is proportional to 1/V or, P = constant x 1/V

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Since the graph is a straight line through the origin: Pressure is Proportional to 1/Volume or, P is proportional to 1/V or, P = constant x 1/V Therefore, P x V = constant

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws Consider a fixed mass of gas which is compressed at constant temperature

Initial Volume = V1 Initial Pressure = P1

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws Consider a fixed mass of gas which is compressed at constant temperature

Final Volume = V2 Final Pressure = P2 (Higher)

Initial Volume = V1 Initial Pressure = P1

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws Consider a fixed mass of gas which is compressed at constant temperature

Final Volume = V2 Final Pressure = P2 (Higher)

Initial Volume = V1 Initial Pressure = P1

Boyles Law tells us: P1 x V1 = P2 x V2

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

2m3 of gas at 2 x 105 Pa is compressed to a new volume of 0.5m3. What is its new pressure?

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

**2m3 of gas at 2 x 105 Pa is compressed to a new volume of 0.5m3. What is its new pressure?
**

Initial Volume = V1 = 2m3 Initial Pressure = P1 = 2 x 105 Pa

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

**2m3 of gas at 2 x 105 Pa is compressed to a new volume of 0.5m3. What is its new pressure?
**

Initial Volume = V1 = 2m3 Final Volume = V2 = 0.5m3 Initial Pressure = P1 = 2 x 105 Pa Final Pressure = P2 = ? Pa

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

**2m3 of gas at 2 x 105 Pa is compressed to a new volume of 0.5m3. What is its new pressure?
**

Initial Volume = V1 = 2m3 Using Boyles Law: P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 Final Volume = V2 = 0.5m3 Initial Pressure = P1 = 2 x 105 Pa Final Pressure = P2 = ? Pa

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

**2m3 of gas at 2 x 105 Pa is compressed to a new volume of 0.5m3. What is its new pressure?
**

Initial Volume = V1 = 2m3 Using Boyles Law: P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 Therefore: P2 = P1 x V1 V2 Final Volume = V2 = 0.5m3 Initial Pressure = P1 = 2 x 105 Pa Final Pressure = P2 = ? Pa

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

**2m3 of gas at 2 x 105 Pa is compressed to a new volume of 0.5m3. What is its new pressure?
**

Initial Volume = V1 = 2m3 Final Volume = V2 = 0.5m3 Initial Pressure = P1 = 2 x 105 Pa Final Pressure = P2 = ? Pa Using Boyles Law: P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 Therefore: P2 = P1 x V1 = 2 x 105 x 2 = 8 x 105 Pa V2 0.5

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws There are three laws which relate two of these quantities While the third is kept constant: 1 Boyles Law – this relates the Volume ,V of a fixed mass of a gas to its Pressure, P while its temperature remains constant. 2 Charles’Law – this relates the Volume, V of a fixed mass of a gas to its temperature, T while its pressure remains constant 3 Pressure Law – this relates the Pressure, P of a fixed mass of gas to its temperature, T while its volume remains constant.

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws Glass tube Sealed at one end Ruler Atmospheric Pressure Plug of sulphuric acid Trapped dry air Thermometer

Water

Volume, V

HEAT

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

T (oC)

V (cm3)

T (K)

V (cm3)

V/T (cm3K-1)

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Temperature Volume Temperature T V T (oC) (cm3) (K) 6.0 16.0 25.0 31.0 37.0 44.0 54.0 12.5 13.1 13.4 13.7 14.0 14.3 14.7 279 289 298 304 310 317 327

Volume V (cm3) 12.5 13.1 13.4 13.7 14.0 14.3 14.7

V/T (cm3K-1) 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045

**Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws
**

Graph of the Volume of a Fixed Mass of Gas against Temperature ( oC)

16.0 14.0 12.0 10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 -300 -250 -200 -150 -100 Temperature ( oC) -50 0 50 100

Volume (cm 3)

**Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws
**

Graph of the Volume of a Fixed Mass of Gas Against its Absolute Temperature

16 14 12

Volume (cm 3)

10 8 6 4 2 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Temperature (K)

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Conclusion

Since the graph of Volume against Temperature (K) is a straight line through the origin:

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Conclusion

Since the graph of Volume against Temperature (K) is a straight line through the origin: Volume is Proportional to Temperature (K) or, V is proportional to T (K)

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Conclusion

Since the graph of Volume against Temperature (K) is a straight line through the origin: Volume is Proportional to Temperature (K) or, or, V is proportional to T (K) V = constant x T (K)

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Conclusion

Since the graph of Volume against Temperature (K) is a straight line through the origin: Volume is Proportional to Temperature (K) or, or, V is proportional to T (K) V = constant x T (K)

Therefore:

V/T(K) = constant

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws Consider a fixed mass of gas which is cooled at constant pressure

Initial Volume = V1 Initial Temperature = T1

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws Consider a fixed mass of gas which is cooled at constant pressure

Final Volume = V2 Final Temperature = T2 (Cooler) Initial Volume = V1 Initial Temperature = T1

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws Consider a fixed mass of gas which is cooled at constant pressure

Final Volume = V2 Final Temperature = T2 (Cooler) Initial Volume = V1 Initial Temperature = T1

Charles’ Law tells us: V1/T1 = V2/T2

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

2m3 of a fixed mass of gas at 27oC is heated at constant pressure until its volume has increased to 8m3. What is its new temperature?

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

2m3 of a fixed mass of gas at 27oC is heated at constant pressure until its volume has increased to 8m3. What is its new temperature?

Initial Volume = V1 = 2m3 Initial Temperature = T1 = 27oC

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

2m3 of a fixed mass of gas at 27oC is heated at constant pressure until its volume has increased to 8m3. What is its new temperature?

Initial Volume = V1 = 2m3 Initial Temperature = T1 = 27oC Final Volume = V2 = 8m3 Final Temperature = T2 = ?

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

2m3 of a fixed mass of gas at 27oC is heated at constant pressure until its volume has increased to 8m3. What is its new temperature?

Initial Volume = V1 = 2m3 Initial Temperature = T1 = 27oC Final Volume = V2 = 8m3 Final Temperature = T2 = ?

Using Charles’ Law: V1 = V2 T1 T2

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

2m3 of a fixed mass of gas at 27oC is heated at constant pressure until its volume has increased to 8m3. What is its new temperature?

Initial Volume = V1 = 2m3 Initial Temperature = T1 = 27oC Final Volume = V2 = 8m3 Final Temperature = T2 = ?

Using Charles’ Law: V1 = V2 T1 T2 Therefore T2 = V2 x T1 V1

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

Initial Volume = V1 = 2m3 Initial Temperature = T1 = 27oC Final Volume = V2 = 8m3 Final Temperature = T2 = ?

Using Charles’ Law: V1 = V2 T1 T2 Therefore T2 = V2 x T1 = 8 x (27+273) = 1200K V1 2 = (1200-273) oC = 927oC

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws There are three laws which relate two of these quantities While the third is kept constant:

1 Boyles Law – this relates the Volume ,V of a fixed mass of a gas to its Pressure, P while its temperature remains constant.

2 Charles’Law – this relates the Volume, V of a fixed mass of a gas to its temperature, T while its pressure remains constant 3 Pressure Law – this relates the Pressure, P of a fixed mass of gas to its temperature, T while its volume remains constant.

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Temperature T (oC)

Pressure P (kPa)

Temperature T (K)

P/T

(kPaK-1)

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Temperature

Pressure

Temperature

Pressure

P/T

T

P

T

P

(oC)

(kPa)

(K)

(kPa)

(kPaK-1)

0.0

95

278.0

95

0.34

20.0

104

298.0

104

0.35

35.0

109

313.0

109

0.35

55.0

116

333.0

116

0.35

100.0

130

378.0

130

0.34

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Graph of the Pressure of a Fixed Mass of Gas Against Tem perature ( 0C) at Constant Volum e

140

Pressure (kPa)

120 100 80 60

-2780C

40 20 0

-300.0

-250.0

-200.0

-150.0

-100.0

-50.0

0.0

50.0

100.0

150.0

Tem perature ( oC)

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Graph of Pressure of a Fixed Mass of Gas Against Absolute Tem perature

140 120 100

Pressure (kPa)

80 60 40 20 0 0.0 50.0 100.0 150.0 200.0 Tem perature (K) 250.0 300.0 350.0 400.0

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Since the graph of Pressure against Temperature(K) is a straight line through the origin:

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Since the graph of Pressure against Temperature(K) is a straight line through the origin: Pressure is Proportional to Temperature(K)

or,

P is proportional to T (K)

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Since the graph of Pressure against Temperature(K) is a straight line through the origin: Pressure is Proportional to Temperature(K) or, P is proportional to T (K)

or,

P = constant x T (K)

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Since the graph of Pressure against Temperature(K) is a straight line through the origin: Pressure is Proportional to Temperature(K) or, or, P is proportional to T (K) P = constant x T (K)

Therefore:

P/T(K) = constant

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws Consider a fixed mass of gas heated at constant volume: Initial Pressure = P1 Initial Temperature = T1

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws Consider a fixed mass of gas heated at constant volume: Initial Pressure = P1 Initial Temperature = T1 Final Pressure = P2 Final Temperature = T2

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws Consider a fixed mass of gas heated at constant volume: Initial Pressure = P1 Initial Temperature = T1 Final Pressure = P2 Final Temperature = T2

**The Pressure Law tells us:
**

P1/ T1 = P2/ T2

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

2m3 of a fixed mass of gas at 127oC and 105 Pa is heated at constant volume until its Pressure has increased to 106Pa. What is its new temperature?

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

2m3 of a fixed mass of gas at 127oC and 105 Pa is heated at constant volume until its Pressure has increased to 106Pa. Initial is its = P1 105 Pa WhatPressurenew=temperature?

Initial Temperature = T1 = 127oC

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

2m3 of a fixed mass of gas at 127oC and 105 Pa is heated at constant volume until its Pressure has increased to 106Pa. Initial is its = P1 105 Pa Final WhatPressurenew=temperature? Pressure = P2 = 106Pa

Initial Temperature = T1 = 127oC Final Temperature = T2 = ?

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

2m3 of a fixed mass of gas at 127oC and 105 Pa is heated at constant volume until its Pressure has increased to 106Pa. Initial is its = P1 105 Pa Final WhatPressurenew=temperature? Pressure = P2 = 106Pa

Initial Temperature = T1 = 127oC Using Pressure Law: P1 = P2 T1 T2 Final Temperature = T2 = ?

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

2m3 of a fixed mass of gas at 127oC and 105 Pa is heated at constant volume until its Pressure has increased to 106Pa. Initial is its = P1 105 Pa Final WhatPressurenew=temperature? Pressure = P2 = 106Pa

Initial Temperature = T1 = 127oC Using Pressure Law: P1 = P2 T1 T2 Therefore T2 = P2 x T1 P1 Final Temperature = T2 = ?

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

2m3 of a fixed mass of gas at 127oC and 105 Pa is heated at constant volume until its Pressure has increased to 106Pa. Initial is its = P1 105 Pa Final WhatPressurenew=temperature? Pressure = P2 = 106Pa

Initial Temperature = T1 = 127oC Final Temperature = T2 = ? Using Pressure Law: P1 = P2 T1 T2 Therefore T2 = P2 x T1 =106 x (127+273) = 4000K P1 105 = (4000-273) oC = 3727oC

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

The Ideal Gas Equation

The three gas laws give the following results:

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

The Ideal Gas Equation

The three gas laws give the following results: •P x V = a constant (T is constant)

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

The Ideal Gas Equation

The three gas laws give the following results: •P x V = a constant (T is constant) •V/T = a constant (P is constant)

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

The Ideal Gas Equation

The three gas laws give the following results: •P x V = a constant (T is constant) •V/T = a constant (P is constant) •P/T = a constant (V is constant)

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

The Ideal Gas Equation

The three gas laws give the following results: •P x V = a constant (T is constant) •V/T = a constant (P is constant) •P/T = a constant (V is constant) Combining all three gas laws: P x V = a constant T

Which is known as the Ideal Gas Equation

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Example

Consider a fixed mass of gas heated such that its volume and pressure changes:

Initial volume = V1 Initial Pressure = P1 Initial temperature = T1

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Example

Consider a fixed mass of gas heated such that its volume and pressure changes:

Initial volume = V1 Initial Pressure = P1 Initial temperature = T1

Final volume = V2 Final Pressure = P2 Final temperature = T2

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Example

Consider a fixed mass of gas heated such that its volume and pressure changes:

Initial volume = V1 Initial Pressure = P1 Initial temperature = T1

Final volume = V2 Final Pressure = P2 Final temperature = T2

The Ideal Gas Equation tells us: P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 T1 T2

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

Consider 2m3 of a fixed mass of gas at 2 x 105 Pa and 27oC. What will be its volume if it is heated to 327oC at 4 x 105Pa?

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

Consider 2m3 of a fixed mass of gas at 2 x 105 Pa and 27oC. What will be its volume if it is heated to 327oC at 4 x 105Pa? The Ideal Gas Equation tells us: P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 T1 T2

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

Consider 2m3 of a fixed mass of gas at 2 x 105 Pa and 27oC. What will be its volume if it is heated to 327oC at 4 x 105Pa? The Ideal Gas Equation tells us: P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 T1 T2 Therefore: V2 = P1 x V1 x T2 = T1 P2

Kinetic Theory and the Gas Laws

Numerical Example

Consider 2m3 of a fixed mass of gas at 2 x 105 Pa and 27oC. What will be its volume if it is heated to 327oC at 4 x 105Pa? The Ideal Gas Equation tells us: P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 T1 T2 Therefore: V2 = P1 x V1 x T2 = 2 x 105 x 2 x (327 + 273) T1 P2 (27 + 273) 4 x 105 = 2m3

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