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3 Kirchhoff’s Laws
Learning Outcomes :
 Define nodes, branches, loops  Describe Kirchhoff’s Law i Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) ii Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)  Solve electric circuit problems using Kirchhoff’s Laws for 3 unknown  Solve circuits using the technique of voltage and current divider

Kirchhoff’s Laws Terminology Kirchhoff’s Current Law Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law .

It is having two terminals.Terminology Node A point or junction in a circuit where three branches converge or more components are connected Represents a single element in a circuit such as voltage source or a resistor. A closed path in a circuit The voltage between any two specific points of an electrical conductor. Branch Loop Voltage drop .

branches and loops? Nodes Branches Loops – 3 nodes (A. identify number of nodes. B and C) – 5 branches – 6 loops .Terminology (Example 1)  10V A R1  R2 B  R3  R4   C   Refers to circuit above.

Terminology (Example 2) How many nodes / loops / branches does the following circuit have? .

Terminology (Solution 2) • Nodes : .

Terminology (Solution 2) • Branches : • Loops : .

charge conservation requires that i1 = i2 + i3 .Kirchhoff’s Current Law Kirchhoff's current law states that the algebraic sum of the currents entering at a node (i. any junction of wires) equals the sum of the currents leaving that node. I1 I2 I3 At a point where three wires are connected as in the diagram above.e..

Kirchhoff’s Current Law Refer to the figure above. . calculate current I3.

I5 = 6A Using Kirchhoff’s Current Law.I5 =2+4+3+6–5 =8A . I6 = 5A Current leaving node : I3 = ? .Kirchhoff’s Current Law Solution Current entering node : I1 = 2A . I4 = 3A . Current entering node = Current leaving node I1 + I2 + I4 + I6 = I3 + I5 I3 = I1 + I2 + I4 + I6 . I2 = 4A .

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law Kirchhoff‘s Voltage Law states that the algebraic sum of voltage source and voltage drop in a circuit is zero or the sum of voltage drop is equal to the total source voltage VS – VR1 – VR2 – VR3 =0 or VS = VR1 + VR2 + VR3 .

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law Voltage equation VS – VR1 – VR2 – VR3 = 0 or VS = VR1 + VR2 + VR3 .

calculate the voltage source VS .Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law Refer to the figure above.

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law Solution Using Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law VS – VR1 – VR2 – VR3 = 0 VS = VR1 + VR2 + VR3 =4 + 8 + 6 = 18 V .

Total power dissipation in the circuit. calculate a. I2 .Kirchhoff’s Law Example: 6Ω R1 I1 I3 V1 V2 A I2 12Ω R2 Loop 1 36 V R3 4Ω Loop 2 72 V Referring to the circuit above. . Current I1 . I3 b.

Kirchhoff’s Law Solution Kirchhoff current law Current entering node A = Current leaving node A I1 + I2 = I3 (1) Kirchhoff voltage law Loop 1 VR1 + VR3 .V1 = 0 VR1 + VR3 = V1 (2) Loop 2 VR2 + VR3 – V2 = 0 VR2 + VR3 = V2 (3) 6Ω R1 I1 I3 V1 36 V V2 A I2 12Ω R2 R3 4Ω Loop1 Loop 2 72 V 6Ω R1 I1 I3 V1 36 V A I2 12Ω R2 Loop 1 R3 4Ω V2 Loop 2 72 V .

Kirchhoff’s Law Substitute V = I x R into equation (2) and (3) (I1 x R1) + (I3 x R3) = V1 (4) (I2 x R2) + (I3 x R3) = V2 (5) Substitute I3 = I1 + I2 into equation (4) and (5) (I1 x R1) + ( I1 + I2 ) x R3 = V1 (6) (I2 x R2) + ( I1 + I2 ) x R3 = V2 (7) I1 x ( R1+ R3 ) + ( I2 x R3 )= V1 (8) I2 x ( R2+ R3 ) + ( I1 x R3 )= V2 (9) Substitute R1 = 6 . R2 = 12 and R3 = 4 into equation (8) and (9) 10I1 + 4I2 = 36 (10) 4I1 + 16I2 = 72 (11) .

I2 and I3 using Simultaneous Equation 40I1 + 16I2 = 144 (12) 4I1 + 16I2 = 72 36I1 = 72 I1 = 72/36 = 2A Substitute I1 = 2 into equation (11) 4I1 + 16I2 = 72 4(2) + 16I2 = 72 16I2 = 72 .Kirchhoff’s Law Solve equation ( 10) and (11) for the value of I1 .8 I2 = 64/16 = 4 A I3 = I1 + I2 =2+4=6A .

Kirchhoff’s Law Resistor power dissipation PR1 = I12R1 = 22 x 6 = 24 W PR2 = I22R2 = 42 x 12 = 192 W PR3 = I32R3 = 62 x 4 = 144 W Total power dissipation PT = PR1 + PR2 + PR3 = 24W + 192 W + 144W = 360 W .