Heavy Oil

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Presented by: Ali Samin
1/6/13

Heavy oil properties
What is heavy oil?
Heavy oil is a dense, viscous crude oil that

has an API gravity between 10 and 21.5 degrees.

Most heavy oil has a viscosity between 100

and 10,000 centipoise (cp), and does not flow readily in the reservoir without dilution (with solvent) and/or the introduction of heat.

1/6/13

Heavy oil properties 1/6/13 .

Heavy oil properties 1/6/13 .

heavy metal. sulfur and nitrogen. 1/6/13 .Heavy oil properties The common characteristic properties of heavy oil are: High viscosity High specific gravity Low hydrogen to carbon ratios High carbon residues High contents of asphaltenes.

high permeability (one to several darcies). 1/6/13 . The oil saturations tend to be high (50-80% pore volume) and formation thicknesses are 50 to several hundred feet. high porosity (around 30%) poorly consolidated sand formations.Heavy oil properties Reservoir Properties Most heavy oils deposits occur in shallow (3000ft or less).

The oil saturations tend to be high (50-80% pore volume) and formation thicknesses are 50 to several hundred feet.Heavy oil properties Reservoir Properties Most heavy oils deposits occur in shallow zones (3000ft or less). 1/6/13 . high permeability (one to several darcies). high porosity (around 30%) poorly consolidated sand formations.

the difficult it is to produce. Primary recovery is very low Alternative recovery methods include: Ø Ø Thermal methods Non-Thermal methods 1/6/13 .Recovery methods The more viscous the oil. Conventicle methods are rarely applicable.

Recovery methods 1/6/13 .

Recovery methods Thermal methods used: Hot Waterflooding Steam injection : Cyclic Steam Stimulation Steam flooding In-situ combustion 1/6/13 .

Recovery methods Non thermal methods are considered for : Thin formations less than 30 ft Excessive depth > 3000 ft Low permeability < 1 darcy Moderate Oil viscosity in between 50-200 cp Low oil saturation Low porosity 1/6/13 .

1/6/13 .Recovery methods Steam flooding • A method of thermal recovery in which steam generated at surface is injected into the reservoir through specially distributed injection horizontal wells.

or even pure oxygen must be injected to oxidize the oil 1/6/13 .oxygen enriched air . This process has a high thermal efficiency Air .Recovery methods In-situ combustion In-situ combustion or fireflooding is a process where a portion of oil (about 10%) of original oil in place is oxidized to generate heat.

inert gas Increase the viscosity of the drive fluid by Polymers. emulsions Reduce the interfacial tension 1/6/13 . CO2.Recovery methods Non thermal methods : Non-thermal method Mechanism: Lower the viscosity of the oil by Solvents.

Recovery methods Non thermal methods are considered for : Thin formations less than 30 ft Excessive depth > 3000 ft Low permeability < 1 darcy Moderate Oil viscosity in between 50-200 cp Low oil saturation Low porosity 1/6/13 .

and thus increase oil displacement efficiency by a waterflood.Recovery methods Surfactant And Wettability Alteration Flooding: Use of surfactants in order to reduce the oil-water interfacial tension . Wettability alteration flooding : is based upon changing 1/6/13 an oil-wet rock surface to water-wet .

Recovery methods Electromagnetic Heating of Oil : • The main effect is the reduction of the viscosity of heavy and extra heavy crudes with the corresponding increase in production The source of the heat. 1/6/13 • . is the electrical energy supplied from the surface This energy is then transmitted to the reservoir either by cables or through metal structures that reach the reservoir. generated either in the wells or in the volume of the reservoir.

Recovery methods Methods of Electromagnetic Heating: Low Frequency Electrical Heating (Resistive Heating):energy is supplied directly from the 60 Hz distribution grid 1/6/13 .

Recovery methods  Distributed Microwave Heating Scheme: High frequency electromagnetic energy can be transferred from power supplies situated at the surface to the reservoir region either : 1/6/13 .

Recovery methods Schemes for high-frequency electromagnetic power transfer 1/6/13 from the surface to the reservoir (the hatched area indicates .

1/6/13 . Heat flow is conductive and convective in the reservoir and well volumes. a heating unit is located in the well at the depth of the producing zone. and conductive in the rest of the system. The heating is generated locally over the heater volume and then transferred to the system.Recovery methods Concentrated Heating Scheme( Resistive and Inductive : In this concentrated case.

Recovery methods 1/6/13 .

an external power supply generating low-frequency currents and voltages is connected by cable to a pressure device in contact with the perforated section of the production casing. In either case. electrical current flows through the 1/6/13 .Uprising Technologies Distributed Heating Scheme : In this case. it dissipates electrical power in accordance with the value of the resistance and capacitance per unit volume of the different media.. while the other terminal is either connected to ground at the surface or at some lower level. and in each volume element of material. reservoir.

5-7 % out of HC resources make it valuable 1/6/13 .Recovery methods Conclusion The potential of heavy oil recovery is high Technology is progressing very well.

1/6/13 THANK YOU .

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