# Pressure in Fluid

A fluid exerts pressure in all directions. At any point in a fluid at rest, the pressure is the same in all direction. The force due to the fluid pressure always acts perpendicular to any surface it is in contact with.

Hydrostatic pressure
http://www.mste.uiuc.edu/murphy/PicnicCooler/default.html

The pressure in a liquid is due to the weight of the column of the liquid above it. P=gh
where  is the density of the liquid, h is the depth.

Fluid Flow Fluid Element A fluid element is the smallest volume of a fluid which follows the flow. Flowline A flowline is the path which an individual fluid element describes. . Each fluid element follows the overall drift of the fluid motion.

Successive particles passing a given point have the same velocity. . The flow is steady.Laminar Flow (Streamline Flow) Each particle of the fluid follows a smooth path. and these paths do not cross over one another.

Turbulent Flow Turbulent flow is characterized by erratic. . small. whirlpool-like circles called eddy currents. The velocity of particles at a given point depends on the instant of observation. Fluid elements passing a given point do not follow the same path.

it/~irro/lecture_e. The instantaneous velocity of a fluid particle at a point lies along the tangent to the streamline at that point. http://www.html .Streamline (1) A streamline is a flowline in which every fluid element along the line follows the same path.unige. Streamlines can never cross.idra.

. The density of the streamlines indicates the speed of the fluid.Streamline (2) A given fluid element moving along a streamline may change its speed and direction as it moves along the streamline. the velocity of the fluid is fixed. The crowded streamlines indicate that the speed of the fluid is high. At any fixed point on a stream.

Continuity Consider steady flow along a pipe as shown below. v2t v1t A1 A2 The mass per second entering the pipe = the mass per second leaving 1 A1v1t m1 1V1   m1 m2 t t t  t t m2  2 V2  2 A2 v2 t   t t t .

html . then we get A1v1=A2v2 The product Av represents the volume rate of flow.net/~mmc1919/venturi.earthlink.Equation of Continuity vA = constant where  = fluid density v = fluid speed A = cross-sectional area of the pipe If the fluid is incompressible. http://home.

consider the fluid flowing in a tube of non-uniform cross section that varies in height above some reference level.utexas. Assume that the flow is steady and laminar.edu/prof/KINNAS/319LAB/Applets/Venturi/venturi.ce. The viscosity is small enough to be ignored. http://www. the fluid is incompressible.Bernoulli’s Principle (1) To be general.html .

the sum of the pressure at any point plus the kinetic energy per unit volume plus the potential energy per unit volume there is always constant. .Bernoulli’s Principle (2) Bernoulli’s equation 1 p  v 2  gh  constant 2 For streamline motion of an incompressible non-viscous fluid. the pressure is low where the velocity is high. For horizontal flow.

Perfume Atomizer (Paint sprayer) The larger force of the slow moving air in the container pushes down on the surface of the liquid while the faster moving fluid reduces the pressure on the open end of the tube. .

air from the chamber is removed. .Filter Pump Water stream To chamber to be evacuated Water and air The pressure inside the pump is reduced by the rapid stream of water. Because of the difference in pressure.

. This draws the petrol vapor into the air stream.Carburettor Air stream Air-petrol mixture Petrol Tank The flowing air speeds up as it passes the constriction so the pressure is reduced.

nasa. http://www. The thinner the airfoil is in height.lerc.Aerofoil lift The faster the wing goes.gov/WWW/K-12/aerosim/applet/vj402. the less lift it will create. the more lift it produces.html .

. creating a decrease in pressure.Sailing against the Wind Sails are arranged so that the air velocity increases in the narrow constriction between the two sails.

causing the ball to curve downward. http://www.lerc.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/foil2b.nasa. The air pressure above the ball is greater than the pressure below.html .Spinning Baseball The top of the ball is moving forward against the air and meeting resistance while the lower half is spinning backward and moving in the same direction as the air.

. This in turn causes the flow to remain attached longer on a dimpled golf ball which implies a reduction in drag.Spinning Golf Ball The dimples cause the flow to become turbulent at a lower velocity than on a smooth sphere.

Venturi meter A1v1 A2v2 A venturi meter is usually use to measure the flow speed of fluid. The flow speed can be obtained by 2 1 2 A p1  p2  v1 ( 1  1) 2 2 A2 .

cfm . Total pressure The total pressure (PT) at a point is the pressure on a small surface at rest placed head-on to the flow.com/designstandards/sensors/pitot_tubes/pitot_tubes_intro. http://www.efunda.Pitot-Static Tube (1) Static tube h Total tube Fluid flow Static pressure The static pressure (PS) at a point is the pressure on a small surface parallel to the flow.

That is. The fluid at the tip of the total tube is at rest.Pitot-Static Tube (2) At any given point. vT=0. vS=v where v is the undisturbed flow speed. The difference between PT and PS depends on the fluid speed. . PT>PS. According to Bernoulli’s principle. The fluid flow is unaffected on passing the mouth of the static tube. vs  [ 2( PT  PS )  ] 1 2 Where ( PT  PS ) is called the dynamic pressure of the fluid. That is.

Pitot-Static Tube (3) The diagram shows a version of Pitot-static tube to measure speed of air. .