# Prepared By

:
Nauman Khan 09PWMEC2835 Department Of Mechanical Engineering UET Peshawar

      Introduction of Air compressors Types of Air compressors Single acting and Multiple acting compressors P-V diagrams of Reciprocating compressor ( single and double) Equations related to Reciprocating compressor Applications of the Air compressor .

.   Air Compressors are machines that compress air or gas. Atmospheric air is drawn into a cylinder during the suction stroke of the piston and is compressed by the piston during the return stroke . the piston being driven by power from an external source. As a side effect of the minimization of volume. the temperature of air or gas increases. Compression is achieved through the reduction of the volume that the gas (or air) occupies.

1) Positive Displacement (PD) : It works by trapping a specific volume of gas and forcing it into a smaller volume Two types of Positive Displacement are Reciprocating compressor Rotary compressor 2) Centrifugal : Operate by accelerating the gas and converting the kinetic energy to pressure Two types of centrifugal are Centrifugal Axial .

They are commonly found in versions that produce 5 to 30 HP. Reciprocating compressors are often used with air reservoirs to provide compressed air for industrial and civil duties driving air tools etc.000 HP. which drives the pistons.    Reciprocating compressors are equipped with a crankshaft. larger ones used for industrial purposes can produce up to 1. However. . It may be single acting or double acting reciprocating compressor.

.   If air is admitted to one side of the piston only then it is single acting compressor. It has single cylinder . One revolution gives you single discharge of air.

During the suction stroke the air at the other end of piston is get compressed. In one revolution it gives double discharge of air. Operated by controlled valves. .    A double acting compressor admits air to each side of the piston alternately.

The suction valve is closed and air is compressed according to the law Pvn = c 2 -b.. a -1. Air is drawn into the cylinder on the suction stroke 1 -2... The delivery valve opens and air is delivered under pressure b -a. The delivery valve closes and the suction valve opens ......• • The figure shows a hypothetical indicator diagram for a single stage -single acting reciprocating compressor.

e.  Intercooler are present between the multistage compressor to low the temperature of air  . LPC and HPC.In multistage compressor there are multi compressors i.  Low pressure is produced in LPC and for high pressure it is sent to the HPC.

  A practical single stage compressor cylinder will have a small clearance at the end of the stroke. . This clearance will have a significant effect on the work done per cycle.

no clearance volume exists. So clearance volume must be kept around a reasonable value as instructed by the manufacturer . Also increased clearance space reduces compressor efficiency and increase its running hours. This is practically impossible because some clearance space is required otherwise piston hits on the cylinder head as it travels.    If Effective stroke = Actual stroke then efficiency =100% In other words. Also expansion of piston occurs as it travels and very little clearance may cause the same problem.

In water cooled compressors. Cooling is done to compress the air isothermally in order to save the work done. Inter cooler are used for cooling purposes.    Reciprocating compressors are generally cooled with air or water. freshwater is circulated through jackets that are built into the walls of the cylinders and cylinder heads. .

 For single acting reciprocating compressor or W= (n/n-1)*P1v1{(P2/P1)n-1/n  -1} For 2 stage reciprocating compressor W= (n/n-1)*P1v1{(P2/P1)n-1/n +(P3/P2)n-1/n -2} .

     The conditions for minimum work has been found which is P2 = (P1 P3)1/2 For minimum work. . Intermediate pressure is the geometric mean of suction pressure and delivery pressure. Work done in each stage is same. conclusion is Inter cooling should be completed. Pressure ratio in each stage should be same.

 Actually there is clearance volume in the cylinder of the compressor so due to this clearance volume the work equation become W= (n/n-1)*(Va-Vd) P1{(P2/P1)n1/n -1} Where (Va-Vd)= induced volume The volumetric efficiency become ηv= 1-vc/vs{(P2/P1) 1/n -1}  .

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