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Chapter 1: Matter & Measurement

Classifying Matter

A pure substance has a fixed or definite composition Matter is anything that has mass and takes up volume A mixture is 2 or more substances physically mixed, but not chemically combined.

Element - Contains only 1 type of atom

Compound – combination of 2 or more elements always in same ratio

Classifying Matter

Identify each of the following pure substances as examples of elements or compounds.

States of Matter

Identify general characteristics for each of the three states of matter below (solid, liquid, gas).

Properties of Matter

Physical Changes

In the example below, water (H2O) is undergoing physical changes, from solid to liquid to gas, but does not change its chemical identity.

Properties of Matter

Chemical properties identify a substance based on reactions with other substances. Sodium (Na) (and other Group 1A Alkali metals) is known to react violently with water (H2O). 2Na (s) + 2H2O (l) 2NaOH + H2 (g) Chemical changes occur when one substance is converted into a different substance, thus changing the chemical identity. H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2H2O (g)

Chemical Change: Sodium in Water

2Na (s) + 2H2O (l) 2NaOH + H2 (g)

Measurements

Measurements always consist of a number and a unit.

The numbers in a measurement (measured numbers) should be carefully recorded and reported. From the example above, we know the length of the baby is 53.3 cm. We should use all of the numbers given, but we can’t use any more.

Units of Measurement

We will primarily use the metric system of units (above).

You should know the highlighted conversions (on the right) to the English system.

Units of Measurement

You MUST know the prefixes below and be able to use them as conversion factors.

Used to represent large quantities Used to represent small quantities

Precision in Measurements

• The tools that we use to measure matter can only be so precise • For example, a ruler only has so many markings on it, which limits one’s ability to determine a precise measurement between markings • This brings us to a dreaded scientific concept: SIGNIFICANT FIGURES!

Significant Figures

Exact (Defined) Values have an infinite number of SF’s. 12 eggs = 1 dozen 1 foot = 12 inches

Why are we concerned with SF’s?

If a reported result is based on several different measurements, the final result can be no more precise than the least precise piece of information in the calculation.

For example, if you take the mass of two items as 25.2 g and 1.34 g, how would you report the total mass? 26.54 g or 26.5 g or 27 g????

**Significant Figures Rules
**

(You need to memorize these rules and be able to apply them) Rule 1. All non-zeroes are significant Example 2.25 (3 significant figures)

2. Leading zeroes are NOT significant

0.00000034 (2 significant figures)

3. Trailing zeroes are significant ONLY if an explicit decimal point is present 4. Trapped zeroes are significant

200 (1 significant figure) 200. (3 significant figures) 2.00 (3 significant figures) 0.0509 (3 significant figures) 2045 (4 significant figures)

Significant Figures

Counting Significant Figures

Count all digits reading left to right, starting with the first non-zero digit. How many significant figures are in the following measurements? My answer 454 m 0.803 ft Correct Answer

0.0040 g

3000 lb 3000. lb 3.0 x 103 lb

**Significant Figures in Calculations
**

Addition & Subtraction – the number of decimal places in the answer must equal the # of decimal places in the value with the fewest decimal places.

Be careful! Your calculator doesn’t care about SF’s!!! You have to decide how many digits to report.

25.2 + 1.34 26.54 26.5

one decimal place two decimal places calculated answer answer with one decimal place

*Report the sum with the correct number of SF’s: 3.008 g + 0.5 g = ?

**Significant Figures in Calculations
**

Multiplication & Division – the number of SF’s in the answer must equal the number of SF’s in the value with the fewest SF’s.

110.5 4 SF

x

0.048 = 5.304 2 SF

= 5.3 (rounded) 2 SF

calculator

*Report the answer with the correct number of SF’s: 8.542 ÷ 420 = ?

Throughout this course you will be expected to report your answers with the correct number of significant figures!!!

**Rules for Rounding
**

When the first digit dropped is less than 5 the retained numbers remain the same. 45.832 rounded to 3 significant figures drops the digits 32 = 45.8

When the first digit dropped is greater than 5 the last retained digit is increased by 1. 2.4884 rounded to 2 significant figures drops the digits 884 = 2.5

**Rules for Rounding
**

When the first digit dropped is exactly equal to 5, the last retained digit... … stays the same if it is even. 1.45 rounded to 2 significant figures drops the digit 5 = 1.4 … increases by one if it is odd. 8.350 rounded to 2 sig figures drops the digits 50 = 8.4 *Round the following numbers to 4 significant figures: 45.385 27.2951 1.0025398 3.33359

When working a problem, do not round until all calculations are complete. This will avoid introducing round-off errors.

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