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Business Data Communications and Networking

8th Edition Jerry Fitzgerald and Alan Dennis

John Wiley & Sons, Inc

Prof. M. Ulema Manhattan College Computer Information Systems
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Chapter 1

Introduction to Data Communications

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Brief history
Communications, Information Systems and the Internet

Data Communications Networks

Network components, network types

Network Models
OSI model, Internet model, Layers

Network Standards
Standards making, common standards

Future Trends
Pervasive networking, integration of voice, video, and data, new information services
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Information Age
First Industrial Revolution
Introduction of machinery New organizational methods Changed the way people worked

Second Industrial Revolution Information Age

Introduction of computers
Introduction of networking and data communication Changed the way people worked again Faster communication Collapsing Information lag Brought people together Globalization

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Collapsing Information Lag

Electronic communications sped up the rate of transmission of information,

telegraph 1850
Information took days or weeks to be transmitted 1900


2004 huge quantities of information transmitted in a fraction of a second.

Information transmitted in minutes or hours

growth of telecommunications and especially computer networks

globalization phenomenon (WWW)


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Three Faces of Networking

Fundamental concepts of networking
How data moves from one computer to another over a network Theories of how network operate

Technologies in use today

How theories are implemented, specific products
How do they work, their use, applications

Management of networking technologies

Security Network Design Managing the network
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Advances in Phone Technology

first transcontinental and transatlantic Phone phone invented connections
1915 1919

Telstar (Telecommunications via satellite), Fax services, digital transmission (Tcarriers)

1948 1962

Packet-switched data communications

1976 1984


Strowger (stepper) switch, rotary dial phones (enabling automatic connections)

Microwave trunk lines (Canada)

Picturefone (failed commercially)

Cellular telephone

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Invention to Regulation
FCC established
A time for technological change

Regulation began in the USA (ICC)


Carterfone court decision allowing non-Bell CPE

1934 1968 1970

US Telecom Act
1996 1984



Phone invented (rapid


Bell System: de facto monopoly

Consent decree by US federal court MCI wins court case; begins providing some long distance services

millions of phones in use in the US

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1984 Consent Decree

AT&T broken up into a long distance company (AT&T) & 7 Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs)
South Western Bell US West AT&T Bell Atlantic

Pacific Bell

NYNEX Ameritech Bell South


Competitive long distance (IXC) market; MCI & Sprint enter LD market (among others) Local Exchange Carrier (LEC) service markets remained under RBOC monopoly
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US Telecom Act of 1996

Replaced all current laws, FCC regulations, 1984 consent decree, and overrules state laws Main goal: open local markets to competition

To date, though, local competition slow to take hold

Large IXCs expected to move into the local markets, happening only recently Likewise, RBOCs expected to move into long distance markets, happening only recently
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Worldwide Competitive Markets

Internet market
Extremely competitive with more than 5000 Internet Service Providers (ISPs) in the US alone. Heavy competition in this area may lead to a shake out in the near future.

World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement (1997)

commitments by 68 countries to open, deregulate or lessen regulation in their telecom markets

Multi-national telecom companies

US companies offering services in Europe, South America European companies offering services in USA
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History of Information Systems

Batch processing mainframes Online real-time, transaction oriented systems (replaced batch processing. DBMSs become common)
1970 1980

PC LANs become common





Data communications over phone lines (became common and mainframes became multi-user systems)

PC revolution Networking everywhere

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Internet Milestones
Originally called ARPANET, the Internet began as a militaryacademic network
1969 1983

NSFNet created as US Internet backbone

commercial access to the Internet begins

1990 1994


ARPANET splits: Milnet - for military Internet - academic, education and research purposes only

Government funding of the backbone ends

Over 240 million servers and 400 million users

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Datacom Basics
transmission of voice, video, data, - imply longer distances - broader term

Data Communications
movement of computer information by means of electrical or optical transmission systems

convergence Broadband Communications

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Components of a Local Area Network

To other networks (e.g., Internet)

File Server



Web Server


Print Server Printer

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Network Types (based on Scale)

Local Area Networks (LANs) - room, building
a group of PCs that share a circuit.

Backbone Networks - less than few kms

a high speed backbone linking the LANs at various locations.

Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) - (< few 10

connects LANs and BNs at different locations leased lines or other services used to transmit data.

Wide Area Networks (WANs) - (> few 10 kms)

Same as MAN except wider scale
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LAN vs. BN vs. MAN vs. WAN

Figure 1.2 goes here

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Intranet vs. Extranet

A LAN that uses the Internet technologies Open only those inside the organization Example: insurance related information provided to employees over an intranet

A LAN that uses the Internet technologies Open only those invited users outside the organization Accessible through the Internet Example: Suppliers and customers accessing inventory information in a company over an extranet
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Implementation of Communications Functions

Applications OS Applications OS

Single layer implementation

Applications OS

Applications OS

Multi layer implementation

-Breaking down into smaller components -Easier to implement
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Multi-layer Network Models

The two most important such network models: OSI and Internet

Open Systems Interconnection Model

Created by International Standards Organization (ISO) as a framework for computer network standards in 1984 Based on 7 layers

Internet Model
Created by DARPA originally in early 70s Developed to solve to the problem of internetworking Based on 5 layers Based on Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite
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7-Layer Model of OSI

Physical DataLink Network Transport Session Presentation Application Please Do Not Touch Steves Pet Alligator

Application Layer
set of utilities used by application programs

Presentation Layer
formats data for presentation to the user provides data interfaces, data compression and translation between different data formats

Session Layer
initiates, maintains and terminates each logical session between sender and receiver
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7-Layer Model of OSI

Transport Layer
deals with end-to-end issues such as segmenting the message for network transport, and maintaining the logical connections between sender and receiver

Network Layer
responsible for making routing decisions

Data Link Layer

deals with message delineation, error control and network medium access control

Physical Layer
defines how individual bits are formatted to be transmitted through the network
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Internets 5-Layer Model

Physical DataLink Network Transport Application Please Do Not Touch Alligator

Application Layer
used by application program

Transport Layer
responsible for establishing end-to-end connections, translates domain names into numeric addresses and segments messages

Network Layer - same as in OSI model

Data Link Layer - same as in OSI model Physical Layer - same as in OSI model
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Comparison of Network Models

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Message Transmission Using Layers



A receiving layer wraps incoming message with an envelope Adds layer related addressing information
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A receiving layer removes the layer related envelope and forwards the message up
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Used by Network model layers

Sets of rules to define how to communicate at each layer and how to interface with adjacent layers
Layer N+1 Layer N Layer N-1
sender receiver
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Layer N+1 Layer N Layer N-1

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Message Transmission Example

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Important Points to Observe

Many different software packages (protocols) and many different packets (at different layers)
Easy to develop new software Simple to change the software at any level

Matching layers communicate at different computers

Accomplished by standards e.g., Physical layer at the sending computer must be the same in the receiving computer

Somewhat inefficient
Involves many software and packets Packet overhead (slower transmission, processing time)
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Provide a fixed way for hardware and/or software systems (different companies) to communicate Help promote competition and decrease the price

Types of Standards
Formal standards
Developed by an industry or government standardsmaking body De-facto standards

Emerge in the marketplace and widely used

Lack official backing by a standards-making body
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Standardization Processes
Developing the nomenclature and identifying the problems to be addressed

Identification of choices
Identifying solutions to the problems and choose the optimum solution

Defining the solution, getting it recognized by industry so that a uniform solution is accepted
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Major Standards Bodies

ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
Technical recommendations for data communication interfaces Composed of each countrys national standards orgs. Based in Geneva, Switzerland (

ITU-T (International Telecommunications Union Telecom Group

Technical recommendations about telephone, telegraph and data communications interfaces Composed of representatives from each country in UN Based in Geneva, Switzerland (
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Major Standards Bodies (Cont.)

ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
Coordinating organization for US (not a standardsmaking body)

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)

Professional society; also develops mostly LAN standards

IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)

Develops Internet standards No official membership (anyone welcomes)
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Some Data Comm. Standards

5. Application layer 4. Transport layer

Common Standards
HTTP, HTML (Web) MPEG, H.323 (audio/video) IMAP, POP (e-mail) TCP (Internet) SPX (Novell LANs)

3. Network layer

IP (Internet) IPX (Novell LANs)

Ethernet (LAN) Frame Relay (WAN) PPP (dial-up via modem for MAN) RS-232c cable (LAN) Category 5 twisted pair (LAN) V.92 (56 kbps modem)
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2. Data link layer

1. Physical layer

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Emerging Trends in Networking

Pervasive Networking

Integration of Voice, Video and Data

New Information Services

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Pervasive Networking
Means Network access everywhere

Exponential growth of Network use

Many new types of devices will have network capability

Exponential growth of data rates for all kinds of networking

Broadband communications
Use circuits with 1 Mbps or higher (e.g., DSL)

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Relative Capacities of Telephone, LAN, BN, WAN, and Internet Circuits.

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Integration of Voice, Video & Data

Also called Convergence
Networks that were previously transmitted using separate networks will merge into a single, high speed, multimedia network in the near future

First step (already underway)

Integration of voice and data

Next Step
Video merging with voice and data Will take longer partly due to the high data rates required for video
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New Information Services

World Wide Web based
Many new types of information services becoming available Services that help ensure quality of information received over www

Application Service Providers (ASPs)

Develop specific systems for companies Providing and operating a payroll system for a company that does not have one of its own

Information Utilities (Future of ASPs)

Providing a wide range of info services (email, web, payroll, etc.) (similar to electric or water utilities)
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Implications for Management

Embrace change and actively seek to apply networks to improve what you do
Information moved quickly and easily anywhere and anytime Information accessed by customers and competitors globally

Use a set of industry standard technologies

Can easily mix and match equipment from different vendors Easier to migrate from older technologies to newer technologies Smaller cost by using a few well known standards
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