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Derives from the spectrum of light (distribution of light energy versus wavelength) interacting in the eye with the spectral sensitivities of the light receptors.
Mr. ROY G. BIV
A COLOR IS DESCRIBED IN T HREE WAYS : .
Shade and tint are terms that refer to a variation of a hue. Tint: A hue produced by the addition of white. Shade: A hue produced by the addition of black. .
. as one adds color. or through the printing process.Subtractive Color. we are using the subtractive color method. the result gets darker and tends to black. When we mix colors using paint. Subtractive color mixing means that one begins with white and ends with black.
. If we are working on a computer. Additive color mixing begins with black and ends with white. the result is lighter and tends to white. as more color is added. the colors we see on the screen are created with light using the additive color method.Additive Color.
There are 12 colors in a standard color wheel that are divided into three designations: primary colors. secondary colors. and tertiary colors. .
This system of color mixing is known as the subtractive process. These colors are placed in triangles above the corresponding primary color combination. because the resulting secondary color subtracts or absorbs even more waves from the white light than the first color did. .Primary Colors The next aspect to the color wheel is creating the secondary colors.
the primary and secondary colors shall be repeated to their corresponding segment within the surrounding ring. In these blank segments the tertiary colors will be created. Divided into 12 equal segments.Secondary Colors The secondary colors are: •orange (mix red + yellow) •green (mix yellow + blue) •violet (mix blue + red) These secondary colors are also known as The final step to creating the 12 step color wheel will be to create a ring around the newly formed primary and secondary color form. This will leave a blank segment between every two colors. .
redviolet. blue-green. We can now use our color wheel as the basis to understanding color and color combination techniques.Tertiary Colors The are: yellow-orange. blue violet. red-orange. . and yellow-green. The sequence of colors on the color wheel should resemble that of the rainbow.
.In color theory. a color scheme is the choice of colors used in design for a range of media.
They are effective at showing depth. e. Remember adjoining colors on the wheel are similar and tend to blend together. and red create a sense of harmony.T YPES Analogous: OF C OLOR S CHEME Colors that contain a common hue and are found next to each other on the color wheel. red-violet.. violet.g. .
T YPES OF C OLOR S CHEME Monochromatic: One color. . A monochromatic color scheme uses only one hue (color) and all values (shades or tints) of it for a unifying and harmonious effect.
When neutrals are added to a color only the value changes.T YPES Neutral colors: OF C OLOR S CHEME Contain equal parts of each of the three primary colors . if you try to make a color darker by adding a darker color to it the color (hue) changes. white. however. .black. and sometimes brown are considered "neutral". gray.
T YPES Warm colors: OF C OLOR S CHEME Suggest warmth and seem to move toward the viewer and appear closer..g. e. . red and orange are the colors of fire.
g. blue and green are the colors of water and trees). .. e.T YPES Cool colors: OF C OLOR S CHEME Suggest coolness and seem to recede from a viewer and fall back.
Changing the values of the hues.g. red and green.. Intensity can only be altered by mixing a color with its complement. which has the effect of visually neutralizing the color. blue and orange. they seem to vibrate and draw attention to the element Not all color schemes. . yellow and purple.T YPES OF C OLOR S CHEME Complementary: Two colors opposite one another on the color wheel. based on complementary colors are loud and demanding -. adding black or white. will soften the effect.if the hues are of low-intensity the contrast is not too harsh. e. When a pair of high intensity complements are placed side by side.
red. The contrast between triad colors is not as strong as that between complements. yellow..T YPES Triad: OF C OLOR S CHEME A color triad is composed of three colors spaced an equal distance apart on the color wheel. Primary . and blue .
.by mixing two primary colors.T YPES Triad: OF C OLOR S CHEME Secondary .
yelloworange. blue-purple. and red-purple.T YPES Triad: OF C OLOR S CHEME Intermediate . .colors are created by mixing a primary and a secondary: Red-orange. yellow-green. blue-green.
g. and green.the combination of one hue plus the hues on each side of its complement. .. blue. red-orange. This is easier to work with than a straight complementary scheme. It offers more variety. e.T YPES Triad: OF C OLOR S CHEME Split complements .
This scheme is hard to harmonize. the scheme may look unbalanced. .T YPES Triad: OF C OLOR S CHEME Double complementary . It uses four colors arranged into two complementary color pairs.two adjacent hues and their opposites. so you should choose a color to be dominant or subdue the colors. if all four colors are used in equal amounts.
COMPOSITIONAL EFFECTS OF COLORS • Spatial Effects • Balance and Proportion .
The more saturated a color.g.. . the less black it contains. S PATIAL E FFECTS Hues that are lighter at maximum saturation (yellows.Saturation is the relative brilliance or vibrancy of a color. oranges) appear larger than those that are darker at maximum saturation (e. blues and purples).
less saturated or busily detailed areas will draw attention and therefore seem to carry more weight than highly saturated or visually simpler areas.B ALANCE AND P ROPORTION Generally speaking. .
E MPHASIS An area in a work of art that attracts the viewers attention first. The element noticed first is called dominant. the elements noticed later are called subordinate. .
you could use the repetition of a color scheme to unify a composition. Unity is created by harmony.U NITY Allows the viewer to see a combination of elements. . repetition. and media as a whole. simplicity. proximity. principles. For example. and continuation.
. When the values in a work jump quickly from very high-key to very low-key.M OVEMENT Color can create a sense of movement. When all of the values are close together the work seems much calmer. When you want to create movement with color remember to use values of pure hues as well as those of tints and shades. a feeling of excitement and movement is created. Movement creates the illusion of action or physical change in position.
. Visual rhythm is perceived through the eyes. regular. There are five types of rhythm: random. and progressive. alternating. flowing. and is created by repeated positive spaces separated by negative spaces.RHYTHM The use of repeated elements to create the illusion of movement.
Color Effects (Architectural Implications) USES AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS .
and India. . A more prominent use of color therapy occurs in environmental design (the effect of color on health and behavior). Today. China.Physiological Effects Mystics have long held we emanate a colored glow. This form of treatment dates back thousands of years to the ancient "color halls" of Egypt. or aura. chromotherapy is used to heal with colors. which is thought to effect the state of a person's health and spirituality.
Color Symbolism Our responses to color are not just biological. They are also influenced by color associations from our culture. .
. but we also respond to colors in individual ways. Research has revealed some variables that help explain individual differences in color responses. One thing remains the same in color and that is our own color preferences are important to us.Personal Color Preferences Not only have we inherited cultural associations.
To be surrounded by blue lighting in an installation is quite different from seeing a small area of blue in a larger color context.Emotional Effects The actual emotional effect of a specific color in an artwork depends partly on its surroundings and partly on the ides expressed by the work as a whole. . For many of us the emotional effects of art may be difficult to articulate.
.the color that something appears from nearby when viewed under average lighting conditions. At one extreme is the local color . We think of the local color of a banana as yellow. for example.Local and Expressive Color There are two opposite ways of using color in representational art. At the other end of the extreme is the expressionistic use of color. whereby artists use color to express an emotional rather than a visual truth.
violence and strength. speed. Red is said to raise blood pressure or increase your heartbeat. red is the color of purity. The Chinese believe that red symbolizes luck and celebration. emergency exit and stop signs come in red. Red is associated with love thus it is he color of Valentine ’s Day.RED the warmest and the most energetic color of the spectrum. It is used from birthdays to weddings. Red represents anger. It could also mean danger which is why most warning labels. For the Indians. . Red would not be ideal for hospitals. prisons or psychiatric wards.
truth. Blue is also commonly used for business because it communicates reliability and trustworthiness. The Jews believe blue is a holy color. In Colombia blue is associated with soap. Blue reduces one’s appetite. blue is the color of protection. . cleanliness. it is the color of Krishna.Blue Blue means calm and tranquility. water. security. stability. It may mean peace. For the Hindus. confidence. slows the pulse rate and lowers your temperature. and harmony. cold. The Chinese associate blue with immortality. These may be the reasons why blue is considered t be the safest global color. In the \middle East. order. sky and loneliness. Blue is also the color of trust.
green may mean danger. The coolness of green soothes. envy. In some tropical countries. spring. In India.green The color of nature. Surgeons wear green in most operating rooms. fertility. . It represents the environment. good health. luck. youth. It also has religious significance for Catholics in Ireland. calms and is said to have great healing powers. green is the color of Islam. inexperience or misfortune. vigor.
Asian see yellow as sacred and imperial. Sunshine. dishonesty. gold. hope. cowardice. . imagination. summer. joy. illness and inspiration. The yellow rose symbolizes friendship.yellow Yellow is happiness. idealism.
sophistication. fear. remorse and death.black The color of power. sexuality. In fashion. . Clothes also look more expensive when they come in black. evil. Black is said to be the absence of light or color. elegance. depth. It is associated with formality and class. black is a favorite color. wealth. sadness.
This is why most warning signs come in orange. vibrance and flamboyancy. . It also means warmth.orange Orange is an energetic color. It is probably the most attention-getting color. balance. enthusiasm.
.purple Purple is the color of royalty. cruelty and enlightenment. Purple may also mean arrogance. spirituality and nobility. Wizards in fairy tales often wear purple. It also represents wisdom and mystery. Purple is also associated with creativity.
simplicity. cleanliness. . In Japan. white is usually associated with the good guys. It is the color if purity. innocence. precision. we see white. The Chinese likewise see white as a color for mourning. white carnations signify death. winter. In visual representations of good and evil. birth.white When colors come together in perfect balance. snow and good.
•Acts as signaling device which is evidence of certain conditions and. .Color as an integral part of perceptual system which help us to: •Identify and define objects in space. •Conveying information about the surroundings.
•Size •Outline/contour •Attention •Feeling .
5.Uses of color and lighting in building: 1. 3. 7. 4. 6. 2. To give direction To warn or call attention to an object or event To modify or change structure To establish a desired environment For sheer physical relief Simply for pleasure or enjoyment To arouse human instinct (psychological) .
. namely: •It creates an atmosphere •It suggests either unity or diversity •It expresses character of materials •It defines form •It affects proportions •It brings out scale •It gives a sense of weight •It projects value in physical properties •It brings out composition/organization of structures.Color serves many aesthetic purposes in the design of the building.
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