In The name of god Thehran University Faculty of Chemistry

Water-borne coatings
Presentation By :Saeed Iranpour Supervisor :Dr.S.Khoei

Three Groups of Protective Coatings Organic coatings Paint Composition vehicle A Few Words About Solvents A Few Words About Binders Pigment inorganic & organic pigmens. Additives Coating Substitutes Alternative Coatings Waterborne Coatings Types of Waterborne Coatings Water-soluble paints Water-dispersible paints Waterborne Two-Component Latex paints Binders for Water borne paint Driers for Water-Borne Coatings Formation of Emulsions Emulsion Paints Patent list of formulation (wB.Paint) The Manufacture of Water-Borne Coatings. Operation in paint Mixing Waterborne coatings Applications refrences

Three Groups of Protective Coatings
• Inorganic Coatings
– Produced by chemical and anodic treatments – Include chromates, phosphates, oxides, and anodized coatings

• Metallic Coatings
– Include electroplates, prayed metal coatings, and hot-dip coatings

• Organic Coatings
– Include paints, lacquers, enamels, and varnishes

Organic Coatings
• Three basic functions include:
– Protection of surfaces – Perform special functional job (camouflage) – Serve as decorative coating

durable material with fast air-drying properties • Epoxy Resins – Chemical resistant. acids. tough. color retention. and high gloss retention • Cellulose Polymers – Tough. alkali. and durable • Polyurethane Coatings – Hard. • Alkyd Resins – Economic.) • Acrylic Resins – Excellent resistance to water. resistant. etc. durable. flexible. and possessing exterior durability . adhesion. hard.Organic Coatings (cont.

7 to 8%. 2 to 3% .Paint Composition solvents binders pigments additives 60% 30%.

." Pigment and additives are dispersed within the vehicle .vehicle • In paint. the combination of the binder and solvent is referred to as the paint "vehicle.

A Few Words About Solvents • Solvents are added to coatings to disperse the other constituents of the formulation and to reduce viscosity.) • Aromatic Hydrocarbons (toluene. alcohols. xylene. thereby enabling application of the coating. • Water is the best solvent for man & environment . (ketones (methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK)). and glycol ethers. • Aliphatic Hydrocarbons. esters. and the trimethyl benzenes).

polyvinylacetate) . polyvinylchloride). interior metal can liners (e.g. water-based acrylics. polyurethanes and polyesters. or structural wood finishes (e. metal coatings binders are: alkyds.g. epoxies. • Other Binders: • silicones have high heat resistance and superior resistance to weather and water. • They are used extensively in marine applications.A Few Words About Binders Binders are chosen based on what physical and chemical properties are desired of the finished film. • Vinyls are another binder that can have a wide range of flexibility. • In general...

Pigment Functional pigments limestone and clay (fillers). silica. blue/green phtalocyanine and gilsonite White pigments Metallic lithopone and pigments titanium dioxide vermiculite (texture). lithopone and zinc sulfide (UV stabilizers). nickel/copper/silver powders and barium titanate (conductive ability). and carbon black. flake aluminum (sparkle/metalli c appearance). and titania and surfacemodified talc (pearlescence) . barium metaborate (preservatives). Attapulgus clay and fibers (reinforcement) Colored pigments •red/yellow/black iron oxide.

Colored pigments are available in both inorganic & organic compounds.inorganic & organic pigmens. Organic pigments are brighter and clearer than inorganic pigments . Inorganic pigments have high thermal stability and ultraviolet (UV) light stability.

catalysts and antiskinning agents . freeze/thaw stabilizers. plasticizers.Additives • Additives are materials that improve the physical and chemical properties of the coating. flattening agents. colloids and thickeners. biocides and fungicides. defoamers. Additives include surfactants. coalescing agents. flow modifiers. stabilizers.A coating's characteristics can change significantly depending on which additives .

40 percent solids – Low transfer efficiency – High VOC content • High-Solids – Higher % solids and lower % VOC – Improved transfer efficiency – May require a paint heater .Coating Substitutes • Organic Solvent-Based Paints – Most common – Contains approx.

water is solvent – Benefits – Drawbacks • Catalyzed or Two-Component – One liquid contains resins – Other liquid contains catalyst to promote polymerization – Cure at low temperatures .Coating Substitutes • Water-Based – High solids content.

Coating Substitutes • Radiation Cured – Low VOC content – High capital investment • Powder Coatings – 100% resin in dry powdered form – Must be cured in an oven – Now VOC emissions – Can collect/reuse overspray – High transfer efficiency .

Environmental compliance remains the principal driver for the development of new technologies • These new technologies include: a) High-solids coatings b) Waterborne coatings c) Powder coatings d) Radiation-cured coatings e) Emerging technologies such as vapor permeation of injection coatings and supercritical carbon dioxide • These coating alternatives can reduce emissions of VOCs and. in so doing. reduce the generation of hazardous wastes and decrease worker exposure to toxic air emissions .Alternative Coatings • Vendors have developed a number of alternative coating technologies.

they contain up to 80% water with small amounts of other solvents. Usually.5 pounds per gallon less water . . such as glycol ethers .Most regulations require waterborne coatings to have a VOC content of less than 3.Waterborne Coatings General Description The term waterborne refers to coating systems that primarily use water as the solvent to disperse the resin .

Waterborne Coating Technology Waterborne Pollution Prevention Benefits   Eliminates or reduces solvent in coating (little or no VOC) Uses water for cleanup Reported Application     Operational Benefits    Limitations  Wide range Architectural trade finishes Wood furniture Damp concrete Can apply thick or thin coat Has easy color blending or changing Is compatible with conventional and electrostatic application equipment     Has coating flow properties and drying rates that can change with humidity. and "flash rusting" of metal substrates . workplace humidity control required May have poor flow characteristics due to high surface tension of water Needs special equipment for electrostatic application Has water in paint that can cause corrosion of storage tanks and transfer piping. affecting coating application Is sensitive to humidity.

repeated freezing and thawing will damage the coating) Is difficult to refinish Has reduced temperature resistance Can have poor penetration and adhesion properties.e.Advantages and Disadvantages of Waterborne Coatings Advantages Reduces VOC and HAP emissions Can use conventional application processes Reduces toxicity and odor. plastic lines. resulting in improved worker safety and comfort Has good storage life Is easy to clean up Minimizes or eliminates disposal of hazardous waste Has good to excellent surface properties. increasing transfer efficiency Some dried waterborne paint waste may be disposed of in a landfill as non-hazardous waste Disadvantages Has tendency to foam Requires clean surface for high quality application.e. including gloss..e.. surface must be free of oil and dust Requires longer drying times or increased oven temperatures Has difficulty obtaining high gloss finish Has difficult cleanup once coating is cured Has higher cost per gallon on an equivalent solids basis compared with conventional coating Does not have many resins available for waterborne formulations Is complex to convert solvent-borne coating line. particularly with emulsion coatings on porous surfaces .. rub resistance. i. i. anti-sealing effects and non-yellowing film Can recover and reuse some waterborne paints. stainless steel. reduces paint transfer efficiencies Increases runs and sags Requires good temperature/humidity control Requires storage area enclosure and heating (i. valves and other ancillary equipment are needed Has problems with atomization.

250 Total Operational Costs: Total Recovered Income: Net Annual Cost/Benefit: $31.200 $780 $0 $0 $1.027 Capital Cost for Diversion Equipment/Process: $0 Payback Period for Investment in Equipment/Process: Immediate .200 $0 $1 $2 $0 Solvent-Based Paint $31.230 Economic Analysis Summary: Annual Savings for Waterborne Paint Application: $2.203 $0 -$31.Annual Operating Cost Comparison for Waterborne Paint Application and Solvent Based Paint Application Waterborne Paint Operational Costs: Paint: Solvent: Process Water: Wastewater Disposal: Waste Paint/ Solvent Disposal: $31.203 $33.230 $0 -$33.

physical properties and performance depend on which resins are used. • Within each category. . The three main types are: water-soluble/water-reducible (solutions).  water-dispersible/colloidal (dispersions) Waterborne Two-Component and  emulsions (latex) paints (the most commonly used form) .Types of Waterborne Coatings • Waterborne coatings are classified based on how the resin is fluidized .

wetting and stabilization . glycol ethers or other oxygen-containing solvents that are soluble or miscible with water (organic content less than 10 to 15%). • Despite their sensitivity to water. • As a result. they generally contain organic co-solvents like alcohols.Water-soluble paints • Water-soluble paints are paints whose individual molecules of water-soluble resins dissolve completely in water. along with good pigment. • Water-soluble resins are generally produced via polycondensation or polymerization reactions in an organic medium. water-soluble paints have a high gloss and a high level of corrosion protection.

or colloidal coatings. • Small amounts of organic solvents (usually less than 5% by weight) are used as coalescing agents that evaporate on drying. . acrylatemethacrylate copolymers. Mechanical agitation is sufficient to suspend the clusters . Colloidal dispersions are used mainly to coat porous materials such as paper or leather . vinyl propionate copolymers. are paints that have small clusters of insoluble resin particles that are suspended in water. & styrene-butadiene copolymers and polymers . • Resins used in dispersion paints include vinyl acetate copolymers.Water-dispersible paints • Water-dispersible paints.

For example.Waterborne Two-Component • With this new technology. . an epoxy curing agent for water-based epoxy coating formulations has been designed for use with solid epoxy dispersions. properties and ease of use that manufacturers have with the solvent-borne analogs. coatings manufacturers can formulate high-performance coatings without cosolvents and achieve the same appearance. This epoxy curing agent provides corrosion resistance when used as a primer in general metal applications.

Emulsion paints are widely used in the architectural market segment . • Emulsion paints are manufactured using a variety of resins including styrene-butadiene copolymers. alkyds and polystyrene. or as they are more commonly known. latex paints. are similar to water-dispersibles. polyvinyl acetate (the most common)." reducing the chances for blistering or peeling. . and an emulsifier is required to keep the clusters in suspension . acrylics. However. resin clusters in emulsions tend to be larger.Latex paints • Emulsions. The increased permeability of latex paints allows these coatings to "breathe.

Binders for Water borne paint • Almost all types of resins are available in a waterborne version.  polyesters.  two-component acrylics.  styrene-butadiene.  carboxyl-terminated alkyd  and urethanes .  epoxies. including  vinyls.  amine-solubilized.

These water-reducible driers represent a major innovation in driers for water-dispersible systems.Driers for Water-Borne Coatings • Hydro-Cure® And Hydro-Cem® Driers are water-reducible driers were developed while working with major water-reducible resin manufacturers. overcoming the problems encountered with earlier water dispersible driers or conventional driers when used in aqueous systems HYDROCURE and HYDRO-CEM driers include: • 5% COBALT HYDRO-CURE • 5% COBALT HYDRO-CURE II • 5% MANGANESE HYDRO-CURE • 8% MANGANESE HYDRO-CURE II • 9% MANGANESE HYDRO-CURE III • 5% CALCIUM HYDRO-CEM • 12% ZIRCONIUM HYDRO-CEM • 10% CERIUM HYDRO-CEM • 8% ZINC HYDRO-NAP • 14% BISMUTH HYDRO-NAP .

Formation of Emulsions 1)Rapid Stirring of two liquid 2)By surface active agents (surfactants) .


Emulsion Paints • Vinyl emulsion paints • Acrylic emulsion paints .

Vinyle emulsion paint .

Acrylic emulsion paint .

135 Photoactivatable water borne coating composition 2 6. NO.673 Nonionically stabilized polyester urethane resin for water-borne coating compositions 13 4. method of forming a coating film using same.939.716.197 Water-borne coating for metal surfaces • • • • • • • • • • .987.248.303.233. and method of forming a multilayer coating film 6 6. polymeric acid and tertiary amine 20 4.819 Thermosetting water-borne coating composition.165 Water-borne coating composition made from epoxy resin.160 Method for the preparation of water-borne coating compositions using thermoplastic polyhydroxyether resins having narrow polydispersity 8 5. polymeric acid and tertiary amine 17 4.017.439 Water-borne coating composition made from epoxy resin.474 Stain resistant water-borne coating composition 5 6.289.128 Process for the production of a multi-layer finish and a water-borne coating 9 5.901 Water-borne coating composition 14 4. Title 1 6. tertiary amine and second polymeric acid 16 4.079 Method for the preparation of water-borne coating compositions using thermoplastic polyhydroxyether resins having narrow polydispersity 10 5.156 Metallic pigment composition and water borne coating composition thereof 12 5.106.760.423.373 Water-borne coating composition made from modified epoxy resin.057.189 Water-borne coating composition 15 4.704 Water-borne coating compositions comprising half esters of anhydride polymers crosslinked by epoxies 11 5. polymeric acid and tertiary amine 18 4.981.627.034.316 Resin composition for water borne coatings and water borne coating composition 4 6.574.488 Electrocoating with water-borne coating composition made from epoxy resin.896 Process for applying a water-borne coating to a substrate with compressed fluids 7 6. first polymeric acid.909 Water-borne coating composition and method of forming multilayer coating film 3 6.376.247.826 Water-borne coating for metal surfaces 19 4.Patent list • • • • • • • • • • • PAT.420.302.

5%Additives . • Production of paints usually in tree step: • Wetting • 10%Pigment+1% Binder +3%Solvent • Dispersion • 1%Binder +3%Solvent • Mixing • 29%Binder +51%Solvent+1.The Manufacture of Water-Borne Coatings.

Roll mill .

.Fluid Forces Shaft Vibration Torque Applied loads Bending Thrust Ref: Handbook of Industrial Mixing: Science and Practice By North American Mixing Forum Publisher: WileyInterscience Number Of Publication Date: 2003-11-21 Figure 22-18 Applied loads on a mixer shaft due to fluid forces.


45. Ref: Handbook of Industrial Mixing: Science and Practice .Figure 22-11 High-shear impeller: used when a fine dispersion is required: Np = 0.

High shear disperser .

including orbital. side-to-side. only 24 lbs. Portable . and up/down To achieve these multiple motions. the portable shaker spins and eccentric weight rather than using crankshafts.115 Volt motor .Paint Shaker Tornado II Mixes paints completely utilizing three axis of motion. Light weight.Blair 51000 .

Operation in paint Mixing .

there has been a lot of talk about the durability of these automotive paints. General Motors and BMW. For Auto Manufactures such as Daimler/Chrysler Corporation. environmental and occupational safety concerns have put great pressure on the oil-based coatings industry. Since this change. Many industries have seen the migration of coatings toward water-based formulations. . waterborne coatings also reduce risk of fire. These changes moved approximately 20% world's automotive industry to water borne coating by 1999. the advantages for moving to water borne finishes are aimed at reducing VOC emissions during application.Waterborne coatings Applications 1-Car Painting: In the past twenty years. are easier to clean up (creating less hazardous residues) and result in reduced worker exposure to organic vapors.

Retro-fitted air movement devices for curing and drying Place in 4 corners of spray booth .

2-Trafic paints 3-Artist paint 4-metal coating (water borne anti corresive primer .

USPTO... Third edition G.A. TURNER.اوتشارات اميركبير‬ • ‫5)كاتالُگٍاي شركت روگسازي ٌاَيلُكس‬ :‫َ.مىابع ايىتروتي‬ • 5) WWW.وشر آرَيه‬ • ‫4) .شيمي تجربي روگ .P. • 2)Handbook of industrial mixing • ‫3)مقدمً اي بر شيمي روگ (اصُل تكىُلُژي روگ) ترجمً دكتر ترپُگُسيان َ ٌميرا‬ ‫آگاي.OUTLINES OF PAINT TECHNOLOGY..Refrence • 1)W..Introduction to paint chemistry.تاليف َ ترجمً عليرضا عظيمي .MORGANS.M.GOV • 6)http://ep.


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