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DE LA SALLE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF SAINT BENILDE

School of Multidisciplinary Studies Consular and Diplomatic affaires

Pre-History

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Geography Is an archipelago composed of 7,110 islands and islets. It is located in the Northern Hemisphere. It has an irregular coastline that extends to about 10,850 statute miles, twice as long as that of continental United States.

Climate It has a humid tropical climate. Two distinct seasons -the dry season -the wet season.

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Natural Resources Is endowed by nature with fertile soil Rich Forests Minerals Oil and Natural Gas Whale Shark Pandaka Pygmea Glory of Sea
Tridacna Gigas Natural Wonders and Scenic Spots Ifugao Rice Terraces Mayon Volcano Chocolate Hills Hundred Islands

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Origin of the Philippines The Land Bridge Theory Part of a Lost Continent
Volcanic in Origin

Migration Theory By: Dr. H.O. Beyer


-The Dawn Man Asian Migrations By: Dr. H.O. Beyer The Negritoes The Indonesians The Malays The First Filipino Discovered by Dr. Robert Fox Tabon Man

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Character Traits of the Filipinos


Hospitable, Gentle and Peaceful Religiosity Loyalty and Gratitude Adaptability and Resiliency Close Family Ties Regionalistic Respect for Elders

LIFE AND CULTURE

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Eleven Major Indices of Cultural Achievement as Criteria for Classifying Societies into Civilized and Non-civilized

Effective Technology Big Population Centers Possession of Predictive Sciences Highly Developed Art Existence of Foreign Trade Presence of Writing Religion Public Monuments System of Government Laws
Warfare

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Houses

Made of bamboo wood, nipa palm, cogon, or whatever native materials Bahay Kubo Kalingas and Igorots of Northern Luzon built their houses on tree tops for protection from their enemies. Badjaos of Sulu lived in boat-houses because they derive their living
primarily from the resources of the sea. Mode of Dressing Male Kanggan a collarless short-sleeved jacket. (upper part) Color of Kanggan -Red Kanggan for chieftain -Black or Blue Kanggan for lower rank men Bahag a strip of clothwrapped around the waist and in between the

legs. (lower part) Putong head gear. Color of Putong -Red Putong killed at least one man
-Embroidered Putong killed at least 7 person

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Female Baro or Kamisa a wide sleeved jacket. (upper part)


Saya skirt. (lower part) -In Visayans, its called Patadyong Tapis a piece of white and red cloth wrapped around the waist. -An additional cover Ornaments Golds -Kalumbiga gold armlets. -Gold rings -Gold necklaces -Gold bracelets -Gold pendants -Gold was also used as fillings between the teeth.

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Tattoos Among the men, tattoos served as their war record. Among the women, tattoos served as an enhances beauty. Pintados they are the most tattooed people. Coined by the Spanish missionaries.

Social Classes The Nobles -The chiefs, their families and their relatives. -They carried the title Gat or Lakan The Freemen -Usually, they are the freeborn persons or freed slaves. -Constituted the majority of the social classes. The Dependents (Alipin) Two Kinds of Dependents -Aliping Namamahay -Owned a house and properties. -They served the Datus everytime there is a gathering. -Aliping Saguiguilid -They have no right to own a house and properties.
-Can be sold by their masters anytime.

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Women in Society Recognized women as equal of men. They could succeed as rulers of the barangay. They could engage in trade and commerce. They have exclusive right of naming their children. Priestesses always officiated the Pre-Hispanic religious rituals. When anyone died, music of the mourning and lamentation was usually assigned to women. Women are regarded highly in Pre-Spanish times. Many women became famous in song and folklore.

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Religion They believed in the immortality of the soul. They believed in life after death. -Deities or Gods -Bathalang Maykapal -Idianale -Sidapa -Agni -Mandarangan -Lalahobn -Siginarugan They worshipped nature. They believed in ancestral spirits. -Anitos -Diwatas

-Babaylan and Katalona

ASIAN CULTURAL HERITAGE

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Indianization Process The exodus of Indian traders, Hindu missionaries and immigrants to Southeast Asia during the first century A.D. resulted to the Indianization of the area. Indianized kingdoms such as that of Funan on the Southern coast of the Indo-Chinese peninsula, and Cambodia which built the cultural monument, the Angkor Wat, emerged and influenced the region until their decline. In Sumatra, the Sri Vidjiya, an Indianized Malayo-Buddhist empire rose. During her peak, it dominated at least 15 vassal states along its sphere of influence, until it was succeeded by another Hindu Malayan empire, the Majapahit, which was based in Java. Contemporary findings on the history of Southeast Asia showed that the Philippines was never a vassal state of these two great Malayan empires. Indian cultural influence trickled to the Philippines from the 9th to 12th centuries through Indianized traders, settlers and missionaries from various parts of Southeast Asia.

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Orang Dampuans and Banjarmassin The Orang Dampuans (men of Champa) who were vassals of the Sri Vidjaya empire, came to the Philippines from Annam (Vietnam) between 900 and 1200 A.D. They established trading posts in Sulu. They were the earliest group of immigrants who transmitted Indian culture to the Buranuns (natives of Sulu). The relations between the two peoples however, turned sour. The Buranuns due to envy killed some Orang Dampuans. The latter left Sulu and their homeland only after they had exacted their revenge by razing the villages of the natives to the ground. Another group of Indianized immigrants came to Sulu many years later. They were the Orang Banjar (men of Banjar), who came from Banjamassin, Borneo (also a vassal state of Sri Vidjiya). They established a settlement and actively participated in the pearl trade in Sulu. To win the goodwill and friendship of the natives they offered their beautiful princess as bride to the native chief. The latter accepted the offer and made the princess his queen.

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Indian Influences Indian influences were traceable in the languages, religious beliefs, literature, customs and traditions of the early Filipinos. The Suprem God of the ancient Tagalogs was Bathala, which came from Sanskrit word Bhattara (great lord). Among the pre-Islamic natives of Sulu, Indra battara was the most prominent deity, Indra being the sky god. The other gods which the natives believed were Indian or Vedic in origin such as Agni (fire god), Surya (sun god). The epics of the early Filipinos such as the Biag-ni-Lam-Ang of the Ilocano, Darangan of the Maranaws, the Ilim at Hudhud of the Cordillera people resembles the Mahabharata, the Indian epic. Some Filipino superstitious beliefs that originated from India were: 1.a comet is a bad sign, it brings war, famine, and other calamities. 2.a pregnant woman must not eat twin bananas for she will give birth to twins The putong (Headgear) of the early Filipino male was of Indian origin. So was the sarong (Indian sari), the lower part of the clothing of preSpanish women.

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Indian influence on Filipino culture are clearly manifested by the presence of Sanskrit words in Tagalog dialect, Dr. T.H. Pardo de Tavera mentions 340 Sanskrit words. Examples area:
Sanskrit 1.Ahi 2.atawa 3.ama 4.pada 5.raha 6.tumraka 7.hari 8.kotta 9.ganda 10.bhattara 11.tara 12.mutya 13.rasa 14.ina 15.varrta Tagalog ahas asawa ama paa raha (king) tumbaga (copper) hari kuta (fort) ganda bathala tala mutya (pearl) lasa (taste) ina balita

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Early Chinese Contacts Trade relations with China began during the period of the Sung Dynasty. In 982 A.D., merchants from Ma-I (old Chinese name for the Philippines) arrived in Canton and traded with the Chinese. Chinese-Filipino trade flourished with the founding of Chinese trading posts in some coastal towns of the Philippines. During the Ming dynasty Emperor Yung Lo sent a large expedition consisting of more than 60 vessels to the Philippines. The Chinese fleet under the command Admiral Cheng Ho visited the Lingayen Gulf Area, Manila Bay, Mindoro and the coast of Jolo. Yung Lo imposed nominal sovereignty over the Philippines and appointed a Chinese governor in 1424. The death of Yung Lo however ended this nominal overlordship but the Chinese continued the relations with Filipinos. The first recorded contact between Spaniards and Chinese occurred in 1570 off the coast of Mindoro, when the Manila-bound Spanish expedition, led by Martin de Goiti, captured two Chinese sampans after a brief fight. Finding out that his captives were just peaceful merchants, he set them free and returned their goods.

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Chinese Influences The Chinese, who came to the Philippines, whether as traders or settlers, were primarily interested in trade, so their influences on Filipino life were mainly economic and social. The early Filipino learned from the Chinese the art of metallurgy the manufacture of gunpowder, mining methods, and the use of porcelain, gongs, umbrellas, leads and kites. From Chinese originated the dishes lumpia, siopao, mami, okoy, bihon, chopseuy, and pansit. Sauces like toyo, and tawsi came from the Chinese. Some Chinese customs were adopted by the Filipinos. The arrangement of marriage of children by parents, the use of go-between in negotiating marriage, the use of white clothes or dress during the period of mourning and the filial respect for elders accorded by the children were examples of practices borrowed from the Chinese.

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About a thousand words are found in the Filipino language. Among them are the following:
Chinese 1.chiensi 2.pansit 3.ampau 4.a-chi 5.bi-koe 6.dikiam 7.kili 8.pin-to 9.sosi 10.miki 11.bakkiah 12.bagtai 13.sangle 14.ingkong 15.hebi Filipino siyansi pansit ampaw ate biko dikiam kiri pinto susi miki bakya bantay sangla ingkong hibi

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Japanese Relations The Filipinos had been trading with the Japanese long before the coming of the Spaniards. Japanese bahan (merchants) and wakos (pirates) sailed the South China sea seeking for Sung and Yuan wares, which were buried in Philippine graves, for these products commanded high profits in Japan. The Japanese also traded their cloths, perfumes, iron and woolens for Filipino gold and wax. The Japanese immigrants who came to the Philippines during the pre-Spanish times settled at the mouth of the Cagayan River, the Lingayen Gulf area and Manila

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Arabic Contributions The Muslim religion was practiced in some areas (Sulu, Mindanao, Cebu, and Manila) for more than a century before the arrival of Magellan in the Philippines. The Arabian trader and scholar Mudum first introduce Islam in the Malay Peninsula reaching Sulu during the 14th century, About 1390, Rajah Baginda, one of the petty rulers of Sumatra went to Sulu and continued preaching the doctrines of Muhammad. Abu Bakar another Muslim missionary arrived and continued propagating the Islamic Faith. After his marriage to Bagindas daughter, Paramisuli, he established the first Sultanate of Sulu. In Mainland Mindanao, Serif Kabung suan arrived from Johore, Malaysia and converted the natives to Islam. He later on became the first Sultan of Mindanao. Arabias most enduring legacy to the peoples of Sulu and Mindanao is Islam. The Arabs also introduced the sultanate form of government; Arabic art, and literature; the Arabic alphabet; the Koranic Law; the mosque; the art of warfare lantaka (cannon), vinta (warboat) and the kuta (fort).

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The LUwaran, a code of laws and compilation of the customs and traditions of the early Muslims, was written in Arabic. The Maranaws Darangan (epic poetry), Maguindanaos Indrapatra and Sulayman and Sulus Parang Sabil were deeply inspired by Islam. Arabic influence is clearly seen in decorative and ornamental art of the Maranao, who are the best known wood carvers and painters of the region. Arabic words are also found in the Filipino language. Examples are surat (letter), apu (oldman), akma (appropriate), arak (wine), alamat (legend), maalem (knowing), pirate (scar), and salam (thanks).

GOVERNMENT

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I. The government of the Pre-Spanish Filipinos was patriarchal in form.

Two kinds of Government 1.The barangay government in the Visayas and Luzon 2.The sultanate government of the Moros Minadanao and Sulu

Barangay is the more popular form of government and also the government from which developed the present government of the Philippines

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II. The Barangay Unit of government Derived from the Malay word balangay meaning boat Consists of 30 to over 100 families

Big barangays with a population of more than 2,000

Sugbu Cebu
Maynila Manila Bigan Vigan

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II. 3 classes of people Nobles - datus Freemen maharlikas or timaguas Slaves alipin or oripuen

Village union of barangay, about 10 or 12 barangays

Datu superior ruler of the whole village


Superior Datu ruler of the village Cebu one of the largest village

Rajah Humabon ruler of Cebu


Datu, Rajah or Hari king or chief

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IV. Datus obtain their position by


Inheritance Wisdom Physical Prowess

Wealth

V. Powers of Datu Ruler or the chief executive Law-maker or the legislator Judge Military Commander

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V. Confederation of Barangays
Oldest known baranganic confederation in the Confederation of Madya-as in pre-hispanic Panay It consisted of the settlements of Hanitk (Antique) Aklan (Capiz) Irong-irong (Iloilo) Under the overall rule of Sumakwel, the wisest of the early Malayan datus in Ancient Panay Other Baranganic Confederation Sugbu under Rajah Humabon Maynila under Rajah Soliman Philippines

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VI. Early Filipino Laws Oral mostly traditions and customs which were handed down orally from generation to generation. Written laws made by Datus and old men

1.Maragtas Code it was found in the Maragtas, a prehispanic chronicle of Panay. Amragtas is a sankrit term meaning Great People. It is the consensus of opinion among Filipino scholars and researchers that the code was written about 1250A.D. by Datu Sumakwel, oldest and the wisest Bornean datus who colonized ancient Panay. This is sometimes called Sumakwel code

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The full text of the Maragtas Code is as follows


I. Deliberate refusal to work in the fields or to plant anything for daily subsistence is a most serious crime which deserves severe penalty a. The lazy person shall be arrested and sold to a rich family to serve as a slave and, as such, to learn the lesson of service and the value of work in the house and in the fields. b. Later, when he has been trained d\for work and has come to love it, he shall be restored to his family. The price paid for him shall be returned and he shall be no longer considered a slave, but a free man who has been regenerated and desires to live by the fruit of his labor. c. If much later it is found out that he has not reformed in any way that he wastes his time in idleness, he shall be arrested again by the authorities and sent to the forest. He shall not be allowed to associate with the rest of the community because he is a bad example.

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II. Robbery of any sort shall be punished severely. The fingers of the thief shall be cut off.
III. Only those who can support the family or several families can get married more than once and have as many children as they can. a. The poor family cannot have more than two children because it cannot support and properly bring up in the community a greater number of children. b. The children who cannot be supported by their parents shall be killed and thrown into the river IV. Of a man has had a child by a woman and he runs away from her because he does not want to marry her, his child by this woman shall be killed because it is difficult for a woman without a husband to support a child. a.The parents of the woman shall disinherit her b.The village authority shall look for the man and when they catch him and he still refuses to marry he shall be executed before the child of the woman he has abandoned. The father and child shall be buried in the same grave.

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2. Kalaniaw Code the second oldest known written code of the Filipino People is the Penal code of Rajah Kalantiaw, the third chief of Panay. It was written in 1433 A.D. after which he submitted it to his overlord Rajah Besar. Consisting of 18 orders (sugo)
FIRST ORDER Do not kill, nor steal, nor hurt the aged, for your life will be exposed in the danger of death. All those who violate this order will be drowned with a stone in the river or in boiling water.

SECOND ORDER See to it that all your debts to the chief are readily paid. He who fails to comply will be lashed with a whip one hundred times for the first offense. If debt is large, the debtors hand must be immersed in boiling water three times. For the second offense, the debtor will be put to death by blows.

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THIRD ORDER No one should marry very young girls no marry more than he can take care of, nor be excessively lustful. He who disobeys this order for the first time will be compelled to swim for three hours. For the second offense, he will be put to death with prongs and spine.

FOURTH ORDER Follow and obey: Do not disturb the graves; in passing before them, wherever they may be, whether in caves or trees show your respect for the dead. He who disobeys this order will be put to death by exposure to ants or be whipped to death by prongs.

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FIFTTH ODER Agreements for bartering food should be fulfilled to the letter. If one fails to comply with this order, he will be whipped for one hour. For the second offense, he will be placed among the ants for one day.

SIXTH ORDER Respect holy places, such as trees or recognized worth and other spots. For the first offense, one will be fined the equivalent of one months labor in gold or in honey. For the second offense, the punishment is five years.

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SEVENTH ORDER The death penalty will be imposed to the following: Those who killed sacred trees; those who shoot arrows at night at old men and women; those who enter the homes of chiefs without permission; those who kill sharks and slash crocodiles.

EIGHT ORDER The death penalty will be imposed to the following: Those who killed sacred trees; those who shoot arrows at night at old men and women; those who enter the homes of chiefs without permission; those who kill sharks and slash crocodiles.

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NINTH ORDER To be beaten for two days: Those who sing in their night walk; those who kill birds know as Manaul; those who destroy the chiefs records; those who deceived with wicked intention; those who trifle with the dead.

TENTH ORDER It is the duty of the mother to instruct her daughter secretly in sex hygiene and prepare them for motherhood. Husbands should punish their wives if they catch them in adultery in flagranti. Whoever disobeys this order will be cut into pieces and pieces thrown into the crocodiles.

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ELEVENTH ORDER The following will be burned alive: Those who, through force or cleverness, escape and evade punishment; those who kill too young children; those who try to steal the wives of the old men.

TWELTH ORDER The following will be drowned: the slaves who attack their chiefs or owners and masters; those who are lascivious; those who kill their idols by breaking them and throwing them away.

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THIRTEENTH ORDER The following will be placed among ants for a half day: Those who kill black cats at the new moon; those who steal objects, however insignificant, from their chiefs and elders.

FOURTEENTH ORDER The following will be reduced to slavery for life: Those who refuse to marry off their beautiful daughters to sons of the chiefs or hide them in bad faith.

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FIFTEENTH ORDER Regarding beliefs and superstitions, the following will be whipped: Those who eat the bad meat of sacred insects or useful herbs; those who injure or kill chickens of Manaul or white monkeys.

SIXTEENTH ORDER The fingers of the following will be cut off: Those who destroy idols made of wood or clay on their altars; those who break the pick used for priestesses for sacrificing pigs, or who break wine vessels.

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SEVENTEENTH ORDER The following will be put to death: Those who desecrate the places where idols and sacred objects pertaining to their gods and chief are found. Whoever does his necessities in these places will be brunt.

EIGHTEENTH ORDER Those who disobey the above orders, if they are elders, will be thrown into the river to be eaten by sharks and crocodiles.

Done in the Year 1433 Kalantiaw, Third Chief Aklan,Panay

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VII. The Making of Laws 1.Superior Datu will invite all other Datu of the village to his house 2.He then proposed the law s which ne considerd necessary 3.Lesser Datus, if in favor, will approve the law 4.The law will be put into writing 5.A messenger called umalohocan will go the barangays 6.Umalohocan will ring the bell to attract the attention of the people. 7. He will announce the new proposed law.

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VIII. Trials in Ancient Philippines Trials were public Datu will act as the Judge with the assistance of old men There were no lawyers Datu and the old men will investigate the case and cross examined the witnesses Decision was handed down

IX. How Crimes are Tried Candle ordeal Water or River ordeal

Fire ordeal Ordeal of Battle

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Penalties of Crime Crimes Insulting a woman or Datu Murder or Attacking, especially Datu Adultery Robbery Arson Destroying sacred idols Violating graves of the dead Killing sacred animals Failure to pay debts

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Punishments Flogging fines Slavery Drowning

Cutting off fingers Death

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X. Relations among Barangays The relations between barangay were sometimes peaceful and sometime warlike Peaceful

1. Intermarried with one another


Warlike Wars between them were frequent and were caused by Stealing of a mans wife by a warrior of another barangay Killing of a person by somebody belonging to another barangay The bad treatment of a trader while visiting another barangay These reasons Prevented the unification of the Philippines XI. No national Government The union of Barangays did not include the entire Philippines. There was no single government ruling the entire Philippines.

Thank You!

MARRIAGE CUSTOMS

MARRIAGE CUSTOMS

-Traditionally, the early Filipinos Married within their class. -There was no rigid prohibition against intermarriages. -As a Condition to a marriage, the man gave the bigay-kaya (dowry) to the family of the bride. -The groom also served the brides parents for months or for the certain period of time. He fetched water, and chopped wood for the girls family. He helped the girls father in his farming chores.

-Ancient Filipinos allowed divorce. The just causes of divorce were:

1. 2.

Adultery of the wife. Childlessness

3.
4.

Loss of love
Abandonment on the part of the husband

BURIAL AND MOURNING PRACTICES

BURIAL AND MOURNING PRACTICES


-Because of the belief in life after death and in the immortality of the soul ancient Filipinos were very respectful of their dead. They embalmed their dead like the Egyptians and buried them near their houses, complete with gold, cloth and other objects of value, for if they departed rich, they would be well received in the other world, but coldly if they went to poor. The Cordillera natives mummified their dead in sitting posture placed them in caves, the mouths of which were covered with stones.

-The early Filipinos believed that tatoo was a passport to the other world, thus in life men and women tattoed their boddies with elaborate figures.

EDUCATION

EDUCATION
-Pre-Magellanic Filipinos had no formal schools. PreSpanish children were taught reading and writing in their homes. The fathers trained their sons to be warriors, hunters and fishermen. Music, arithmetic, religion and household crafts were also taught. According to Father Chirino, almost all pre-Spanish Filipinos knew how to read and write.

LANGUAGES
-More than a hundred languages and dialects ere spoken by ancient Filipinos. The eight major languages were the Tagalog, Iloko, Pangasinan, Kapangpangan, Sugbuhanon, Hiligaynon, Samarnon and Maguindanaw. Almost all of these languages and dialects originated from one linguistic family- the Malayo-Polinesyan language, the mother tongue of the malay and pacific races.

Literature
-The pre-colonial Filipinos had both written and oral literature. Their oral literature consisted of the awit (songs), the salawikain (proverbs), hele (craddle song), bugtong (riddles), ihiman (wedding song), and the kumintang (war song). -Example of their written literature were the myths and epics like the ifugaos epics, the Hudhud and the Alim.

MUSIC AND DANCES

Music and Dances


-The early Filipinos were music and dace lovers. Their Musical instruments were the Kudyapi, The Tagalog guitar; the tultogan, the Visayan bamboo drum; the silbay, the ilocano reed flute; and the Kutibeng, another Ilocano five-stringed guitar.

THE ARTS

The Arts

-The generally practical arts of the pre-Spanish Filipinos may be studied through their implements, ornaments and potteries

ECONOMIC LIFE

Economic Life
-Agriculture was the main source of livelihood of the early Filipinos. -Other industries were mining, shipbuilding, fishing, lumbering, weaving, poultry and livestock. -Foreign and domestic trade existed long before the Spaniards came to the Philippines. Inter-baranganic trade and commerce was carried through the water system, as most of the barangays were in coasts, near coastal communities of Bohol, Cebu, Samar in the Visayas, and Butuan and Jolo in Mindanao.