# Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T

)

MANAGEMENT

DESIGN VENDORS SALES TOOLING PURCHASING PRODUCTION SERVICE INSPECTION ROUTING PLANNING PRICING

CUSTOMERS

ASSEMBLY

PART PRODUCTION COMMUNICATION MODEL

Three Categories of Dimensioning
Dimensioning can be divided into three categories: •general dimensioning, •geometric dimensioning, and •surface texture.
The following provides information necessary to begin to understand geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T)

Limit Tolerancing Applied To An Angle Block .

Geometric Tolerancing Applied To An Angle Block .

without increasing tolerances. – This allows a drawing to contain a more defined feature more accurately.Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing (GD&T)  GD&T is a means of dimensioning & tolerancing a drawing which considers the function of the part and how this part functions with related parts. .

. – Sometimes called feature based dimensioning & tolerancing or true position dimensioning & tolerancing  GD&T practices are specified in ANSI Y14.GD&T cont‟d  GD&T has increased in practice in last 15 years because of ISO 9000. how round does a round feature have to be?  GD&T is a system that uses standard symbols to indicate tolerances that are based on the feature‟s geometry.5M-1994. but how it is to be controlled. – ISO 9000 requires not only that something be required. For example.

. the following table would pass inspection. you could tighten the tolerance to ± 1/32.  However. or  If top must be flatter. now the height is restricted to 26. – As the table height is dimensioned. all surfaces have a degree of waviness. For example. or smoothness. the surface of a 2 x 4 is much wavier (rough) than the surface of a piece of glass.97 to 27.For Example  Given Table Height Assume all 4 legs will be cut to length at the same time. – However.03 meaning good tables would be rejected.

– The table height may any height between 26 and 28 inches.Example cont‟d.06 .06 26 27 28 .  You can have both.06 . (±1/32) . by using GD&T. – The table top must be flat within 1/16.

– Provides “bonus” tolerance Ensures design.WHY IS GD&T IMPORTANT      Saves money – For example. and tolerance requirements as they relate to the actual function Ensures interchangeability of mating parts at the assembly Provides uniformity It is a universal understanding of the symbols instead of words . dimension. if large number of parts are being made – GD&T can reduce or eliminate inspection of some features.

WHEN TO USE GD&T      When part features are critical to a function or interchangeability When functional gaging is desirable When datum references are desirable to insure consistency between design When standard interpretation or tolerance is not already implied When it allows a better choice of machining processes to be made for production of a part .

Allowance: Difference between the MMC of two mating parts.TERMINOLOGY REVIEW      Maximum Material Condition (MMC): The condition where a size feature contains the maximum amount of material within the stated limits of size.e... . I. I. Tolerance: Difference between MMC and LMC limits of a single dimension. smallest shaft and largest hole. largest shaft and smallest hole.e. Least Material Condition (LMC): The condition where a size feature contains the least amount of material within the stated limits of size. (Minimum clearance and maximum interference) Basic Dimension: Nominal dimension from which tolerances are derived.

003 .LIMITS OF SIZE SIZE DIMENSION WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? 2.007 2.

SIZE DIMENSION ENVELOPE PRINCIPLE MMC (2.007) LMC (2. .LIMITS OF SIZE A variation in form is allowed between the least material condition (LMC) and the maximum material condition (MMC).003) ENVELOPE OF SIZE Envelop Principle defines the size and form relationships between mating parts.

LIMITS OF SIZE ENVELOPE PRINCIPLE LMC CLEARANCE MMC ALLOWANCE .

LIMITS OF SIZE The actual size of the feature at any cross section must be within the size boundary. ØMMC ØLMC .

LIMITS OF SIZE No portion of the feature may be outside a perfect form barrier at maximum material condition (MMC). .

.Other Factors I. Parallel Line Tolerance Zones GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING TOLERANCE ZONES PARALLEL LINES PARALLEL LINES PARALLEL LINES PARALLEL PLANES PARALLEL PLANES PARALLEL PLANES PARALLEL PLANES PARALLEL PLANES CYLINDER ZONE .e.

GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC CONTROLS 14 characteristics that may be controlled TYPE OF FEATURE TYPE OF CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOL TOLERANCE FLATNESS INDIVIDUAL (No Datum Reference) STRAIGHTNESS FORM CIRCULARITY CYLINDRICITY INDIVIDUAL or RELATED FEATURES LINE PROFILE PROFILE SURFACE PROFILE PERPENDICULARITY ORIENTATION ANGULARITY PARALLELISM RELATED FEATURES (Datum Reference Required) CIRCULAR RUNOUT RUNOUT TOTAL RUNOUT CONCENTRICITY LOCATION POSITION SYMMETRY .

or Exact.Characteristics & Symbols cont‟d. – – – – – Maximum Material Condition MMC Regardless of Feature Size RFS Least Material Condition LMC Projected Tolerance Zone Diametrical (Cylindrical) Tolerance Zone or Feature – Basic. Dimension – Datum Feature Symbol – Feature Control Frame .

Feature Control FRAME FEATURE CONTROL Frame GEOMETRIC SYMBOL TOLERANCE INFORMATION DATUM REFERENCES COMPARTMENT VARIABLES THE RELATIVE TO OF THE FEATURE MUST BE WITHIN CONNECTING WORDS .

003 diametrical tolerance zone at maximum material condition relative to datums A. and C. .Feature Control Frame  Uses feature control frames to indicate tolerance  Reads as: The position of the feature must be within a . B.

Feature Control Frame  Uses feature control frames to indicate tolerance  Reads as: The position of the feature must be within a .003 diametrical tolerance zone at maximum material condition relative to datums A at maximum material condition and B. .

of the feature must be within a relative  The of the feature must be within a tolerance zone relative to Datum .Reading Feature Control Frames  The zone.  The of the feature must be within a tolerance zone relative to datums . .  The of the feature must be within a zone at relative to Datum . of the feature must be within a tolerance  The tolerance zone at to Datum .

 Applied to surface.  Applied to axis .Placement of Feature Control Frames  May be attached to a side. end or corner of the symbol box to an extension line.

Ø .  May be below or closely adjacent to the dimension or note pertaining to that feature.005 .500±.Placement of Feature Control Frames Cont‟d.

Most often used with position. angularity. profile. a basic dimension is untoleranced. orientation. or location of a feature or datum target. therefore.000 .Basic Dimension    A theoretically exact size. 1. and profile) Basic dimensions have a rectangle surrounding it.

Basic Dimension cont‟d. .

Form Features   Individual Features No Datum Reference Flatness Straightness Circularity Cylindricity .

Straightness applied to a flat surface: The straightness of the feature must be within .003 0.003 tolerance zone.500 ±. .005 .06 tolerance zone.500 ±.005 .003 0.Form Features Examples Flatness as stated on drawing: The flatness of the feature must be within .

Form Features Examples Straightness applied to the surface of a diameter: The straightness of the feature must be within .003 tolerance zone.500 0.030 at MMC.  0.010 0.505 1. .990  .500 0.003  0.030 M .505 Straightness of an Axis at MMC: The derived median line straightness of the feature must be within a diametric zone of .

Dial Indicator DIAL INDICATOR BEZEL CASE 2 4 6 8 10 12 2 4 6 8 10 CLAMP PROBE .

Verification of Flatness .

¼” grid.Activity 13  Work on worksheets GD&T 1.) . and GD&T 3 – (for GD&T 3 completely dimension. GD&T 2 #1 only.

Features that Require Datum Reference  Orientation – Perpendicularity – Angularity – Parallelism  Runout – Circular Runout – Total Runout  Location – Position – Concentricity – Symmetry .

not every GD&T feature requires a datum. Flat 1. – As you know. tooling. axis. and planes) on the object that are used as reference surfaces from which other measurements are made. Used in designing.000 . inspecting.e.Datum  Datums are features (points. manufacturing. and assembling components and subassemblies. i..

Datums cont‟d.
Features are identified with respect to a datum.  Always start with the letter A  Do not use letters I, O, or Q  May use double letters AA, BB, etc.  This information is located in the feature control frame.

Datums on a drawing of a part are represented using the symbol shown below.

Datum Reference Symbols

The datum feature symbol identifies a surface or feature of size as a datum.

A A ANSI 1982 ASME 1994

A

ISO

Placement of Datums

Datums are generally placed on a feature, a centerline, or a plane depending on how dimensions need to be referenced.
A A OR A

ANSI 1982 ASME 1994

Line up with arrow only when the feature is a feature of size and is being defined as the datum

005  Sometimes a feature has a GD&T and is also a datum A Ø .500±. such as holes A Ø .005 .500±.500±.Placement of Datums  Feature sizes.005 Ø .

TWELVE DEGREES OF FREEDOM UP BACK LEFT 6 LINEAR AND 6 ROTATIONAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM FRONT DOWN RIGHT UNRESTRICTED FREE MOVEMENT IN SPACE .

Example Datums  Datums must be perpendicular to each other – Primary – Secondary – Tertiary Datum .

shafts. such as. get in the way? . and repeatability. – Accessibility » Does anything. A primary datum is chosen to reference the location of the mating features. – Functional Relationships » A standardization of size is desired in the manufacturing of a part. accessibility. – For example. » Consideration of how parts are orientated to each other is very important.Primary Datum  A primary datum is selected to provide functional relationships. legos are made in a standard size in order to lock into place.

. castings. The surface established must produce consistent » Measurements when producing many identical parts to meet requirements specified. » The primary datum chosen must insure precise measurements. etc. For example. sheet metal.Primary Datum – Repeatability cont‟d.

Primary Datum  Restricts 6 degrees of freedom FIRST DATUM ESTABLISHED BY THREE POINTS (MIN) CONTACT WITH SIMULATED DATUM A .

– Tertiary Datum » This datum is always perpendicular to both the primary and secondary datums ensuring a fixed position from three related parts. accessibility.Secondary & Tertiary Datums  All dimension may not be capable to reference from the primary datum to ensure functional relationships. . – Secondary Datum » Secondary datums are produced perpendicular to the primary datum so measurements can be referenced from them. and repeatability.

SECOND DATUM PLANE ESTABLISHED BY TWO POINTS (MIN) CONTACT WITH SIMULATED DATUM B .Secondary Datum  Restricts 10 degrees of freedom.

Tertiary Datum  Restricts 12 degrees of freedom. THIRD DATUM PLANE ESTABLISHED BY ONE POINT (MIN) CONTACT WITH SIMULATED DATUM C 90° MEASURING DIRECTIONS FOR RELATED DIMENSIONS .

Coordinate Measuring Machine COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE BRIDGE DESIGN PROBE GRANITE SURFACE PLATE Z DATUM REFERENCE FRAME .

Size Datum (CIRCULAR) THIS ON THE DRAWING A MEANS THIS PART DATUM AXIS SIMULATED DATUMSMALLEST CIRCUMSCRIBED CYLINDER .

Size Datum (CIRCULAR) THIS ON THE DRAWING A MEANS THIS SIMULATED DATUMLARGEST INSCRIBED CYLINDER PART DATUM AXIS A .

and cylindrical .Orientation Tolerances –Perpendicularity –Angularity –Parallelism Controls the orientation of individual features    Datums are required Shape of tolerance zone: 2 parallel lines. 2 parallel planes.

. Ex: The perpendicularity of this surface must be within a . The tolerance zone is the space between the 2 parallel lines. They are perpendicular to the datum plane and spaced . center plane.005 apart.PERPENDICULARITY:  is the condition of a surface.005 tolerance zone relative to datum A. or axis at a right angle (90°) to a datum plane or axis.

005 tolerance zone to plane 2.Practice Problem  Plane 1 must be perpendicular within . BOTTOM SURFACE .

005 tolerance zone to plane 2 BOTTOM PLANE .Practice Problem  Plane 1 must be perpendicular within .

005 Tolerance Zone . But the bottom plane is restricted to the red tolerance zone. .01 .02 Tolerance With GD & T the overall height may end anywhere between the two blue planes.02 Tolerance Without GD & T this would be acceptable 2.01 .00±.00±.Practice Problem 2.

PERPENDICULARITY  Cont‟d. Location of hole (axis) This means „the hole (axis) must be perpendicular within a diametrical tolerance zone of .010 relative to datum A‟ .

The surface is at a 45º angle with a .ANGULARITY:  is the condition of a surface. . or median plane which is at a specific angle (other than 90°) from a datum plane or axis.   Can be applied to an axis at MMC. axis. Typically must have a basic dimension.005 tolerance zone relative to datum A.

or an axis. or surfaces. ±0. The distance between the parallel lines. is specified by the geometric tolerance.PARALLELISM:   The condition of a surface or center plane equidistant at all points from a datum plane.01 .

GD&T-4.Activity 13  Cont‟d. Complete worksheets GD&T2. – ¼” grid . and GD&T-5 – Completely dimension.

Material Conditions Maximum Material Condition (MMC)  Least Material Condition (LMC)  Regardless of Feature Size(RFS)  .

pin.Maximum Material Condition   MMC This is when part will weigh the most.250±. » MMC of Ø0.005?    Permits greater possible tolerance as the part feature sizes vary from their calculated MMC Ensures interchangeability Used – With interrelated features with respect to location – Size. etc.005? – MMC for a hole is the smallest allowable size. – MMC for a shaft is the largest allowable size. » MMC of Ø0. such as. . hole.240±. slot.

» LMC of Ø0.250±.005? . » LMC of Ø0.005? – LMC for a hole is the largest allowable size.  – LMC for a shaft is the smallest allowable size.Least Material Condition LMC  This is when part will weigh the least.240±.

pins. etc.Regardless of Feature Size RFS  Requires that the condition of the material NOT be considered.  This is used when the size feature does not affect the specified tolerance. slots.  . such as holes. with an axis or center plane.  Valid only when applied to features of size..

Location Tolerances – Position – Concentricity – Symmetry .

Position Tolerance       A position tolerance is the total permissible variation in the location of a feature about its exact true position. The position tolerance is typically associated with the size tolerance of the feature. Datums are required. For cylindrical features. . For other features. The exact position of the feature is located with basic dimensions. the center plane of the feature must fit in the space between two parallel planes. the position tolerance zone is typically a cylinder within which the axis of the feature must lie.

– Total tolerance diagonally is . . equidistant from true position may not be accepted.014.Coordinate System Position  Consider the following hole dimensioned with coordinate dimensions:  The tolerance zone for the location of the hole is as follows:  Several Problems: – Two points.750 2.000 . which may be more than was intended.

Coordinate System Position  Consider the following hole dimensioned with coordinate dimensions:  The tolerance zone for the location (axis) of the hole is as follows: Center can be anywhere along the diagonal line. equidistant from true position may not be accepted.4*.000  Several Problems: – Two points. (1.750 2.014) .014. which may be more than was intended.010=. 1. – Total tolerance diagonally is .4 Xs >. .

. The same tolerance is applied.. regardless of the direction. but add GD&T:  Now.500 . overall tolerance zone is: MMC = .Position Tolerancing  Consider the same hole.497  The actual center of the hole (axis) must lie in the round tolerance zone.003 = .

497. .Bonus Tolerance  Here is the beauty of the system! The specified tolerance was: This means that the tolerance is . we get a bonus tolerance equal to the difference between the MMC size and the actual size.010 if the hole size is the MMC size. or . If the hole is bigger.

003 .006 ? (.499 (. .504  This system makes sense… the larger the hole is.497 = .502 Ø .012) (.015 . Zone .012 .503 (LMC) Ø .013) Φ of Tol.Bonus Tolerance Example This means that the tolerance is . or . 0 . we get a bonus tolerance equal to the difference between the MMC size and the actual size.497 = .005 . the more it can deviate from true position and still fit in the mating condition! .010 + .500 (.500 .. If the hole is bigger.003 = .499 .010 if the hole size is the MMC size.497 (MMC) Ø .010 + .003) Ø .002) Bonus Tol.497.010 ..002 .503 Actual Hole Size Ø .016 ? Ø .002 = .013 .

010 Shaft .Hole .497 = BONUS 0 TOL ZONE .497 = BONUS .002 BONUS + TOL. ZONE = .012 ..499 .

ZONE = ..497 = BONUS .004 BONUS + TOL.. ZONE = .014 .501 .006 BONUS + TOL.497 = BONUS .503 .016 ..

 VIRTUAL CONDITION: The worst case boundary generated by the collective effects of a size feature‟s specified MMC or LMC material condition and the specified geometric tolerance. GT = GEOMETRIC TOLERANCE . This means that the position tolerance is . which stands for regardless of feature size.010 at all times. the tolerance is RFS. There is no bonus tolerance associated with this specification. What if the tolerance had been specified as: Since there is NO material modifier.

997 (MMC) 1.003 Bonus Tol.010 at MMC relative to datum A. Zone .001 Vc = 2.002 2.000 2.998 1. Ø of Tol.999 2. Means “the hole (AXIS) must be perpendicular within a diametrical tolerance zone of .PERPENDICULARITY Cont‟d.” Actual Hole Size 1.

Worksheet GD&T 6 .Activity 13  Cont‟d.