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What , Why, and How to Manage Public Service
Prof.Dr.M.Irfan Islamy,MPA FIA UB 2009
MANAGING PUBLIC SERVICE
“ If you take care of your customer , they will take care of your business ”
1. DESIGNING SERVICE EXCELLENCE * Core Values * Vission * Mission * Systems * Principles * Standards * Policy * Citizen Engagement * Customer Satisfaction Index 2. SERVICE DELIVERY * Models * Leadership * Instruments * Networks * Service Operating Procedures * Quality Control and Assurance 3. SERVICE EVALUATION AND IMPACTS * Service Criteria * Quality -Based Evaluation * Impacts and Benefits * Satisfaction Index * Follow-Ups
President Barack Obama
January 20, 2009:
“The question we ask today is not whether our government is too big or too small, but whether it works — whether it helps families find jobs at a decent wage, care they can afford, a retirement that is dignified. Where the answer is yes, we intend to move forward. Where the answer is no, programs will end.”
SERVICE DEFINITIONS 4 .
Contemporary definition of SERVICE Kotler and Armstrong ( 1991 ) . “ 5 . Its production may or may not be tied to a physical product. Principles of Marketing: “ A service is an activity or benefit that one party can offer to another essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything.
SERVICE AND PUBLIC SERVICE SERVICE … “ a system that provides something that the public needs. organized by a government or a private company “ PUBLIC SERVICE … “ a service that a government or an official organization provides for people in general in a particular society “ 6 .
ROLE OF SERVICE 7 .
SERVICE CHARACTERISTICS 8 .
SERVICE CHARACTERISTICS 9 .
INTANGIBILITY 10 .
INTANGIBILITY 11 .
HETEROGENEITY 12 .
HETEROGENEITY 13 .
PERISHABILITY 14 .
PERISHABILITY 15 .
INSEPARABILITY 16 .
SIMULTANEITY 17 .
SERVICE CHALLENGES 18 .
CHALLENGES 19 .
DISTINCTIVE SERVICE CHARACTERISTICS 20 .
SERVICE CLASSIFICATION 21 .
Characteristics of goods and services ( Dibbs. 1994 ) Services • • • • • • • Intangible Cannot be stored Cannot be owned Difficult to standardize Produced with the consumer Quality difficult to guarantee Do not persist through time • • • • • • • Goods Tangible Storable Can be owned Normally standardized Produced without the consumer Quality can be built into product Are persistent through time 22 .S.. . et al.
OPEN SYSTEMS OF SERVICE 23 .
INTEGRATED APPROACH 24 .
SERVICE VARIABLES 25 .
2006 ) 1. Inseparability 3. Inability to own a service 26 . Variability 4.Service Characteristics ( Andrew Gilmore & Clare D’Souza . Intangibility 2. Perishability 5.
STANDARDISED SERVICES ? 27 .
STANDARDISED SERVICES ? Cont’d 28 .
K.QUALITY CHARTER to improve the quality of public services ( U. 1992 ) To obtain a charter mark : • Give users a choice • Ensure value for money • Set challenging standards • Tell users what the standards are • Collect evidence of user satisfaction • Provide friendly complaints procedure • Plan innovations that improve services • Tell users what standards are achieved • Ask users about the services they need • Ask users how services can be improved • Collect evidence of quality improvements 29 . .
30 . • Agreement includes specific rewards and sanctions for performance. for less money. • Agency agrees to produce specific results over 2-3 year time frame. • Agreement specifies new flexibilities granted to charter agency.“Charter Agencies” • Governor negotiates “Flexible Performance Agreements” with charter agency directors.
QUALITY MANAGEMENT 31 .
SERVICE STANDARDS MODEL 32 .
MANAGEMENT 33 .
CUSTOMERS 34 .
SERVICE PROCESSES 35 .
SERVICE PRODUCTS 36 .
INFRASTRUCTURE/ PERSONNEL 37 .
BASIC STANDARDS 38 .
SERVICE PRINCIPLES 39 .
SIX PRINCIPLES OF SERVICE 40 .
2000 ) • • • • • • • • • • • • Quality Service Standards Equality / Diversity Physical Access Information Timeliness and Courtesy Complaints Appeals Consultation and Evaluation Choice Official Languages Equality Better Co-ordination Internal Customer 41 .Principles of Quality Customer Service ( Civil Service Departments & Public Service .
Principles of Public Service ( Wigan Council . 2009 ) = CITIZEN’S CHARTER= • • • • • • Service Standards Information and Openess Choice and Consultation Courtesy and Helpfulness Putting Things Right Value for Money 42 . UK .
work together • Collaboration : actively committed and involved • Accountability : responsibility for the transaction and affairs and accountable to Parliament • Billingualism : support and encourage the use of both official languages • Rule of Law : fully cognizant of the duties and responsibilities attached to the exercise of its administrative. transparency. and investigative roles 43 . self-examination. policy.Operating Principles of the Public Service ( Public Service Comission of Canada . core values • Values and Ethics : trust. respect for all • Collegiality : collective responsibility. mission. audit. fairness. regulatory. 2006 ) • Strategic Leadership : vision.
and honest manner without prejudice and favortism 44 . 2007 ) • Trustworthiness : honesty and integrity in conduct and communication • Responsibility : responsibility for actions. impartial. peers. and courtesy • Caring : build professional relationships with colleagues. decisions. and the public based on the highest standards of fairness and consideration • Citizenship : strive to be good stewards of the public trust and public resources • Fairness : conduct business with the public and co-workers in an equaitable. consideration. and statements • Respect : treat others with profeesionalism.Principles of Public Service ( Dallas Independent School District .
Fundamental Principles of the Public Service ( Office of Government Ethics . Commenwealth of Puertorico. 1999 ) • • • • • • • • • Commitment Trust Respect Service Responsibility Integrity Independence of Criteria and Objectivity Honesty Justice 45 .
CUSTOMER CARE 46 .
because: • • It rewards those who do more procedures. 47 .The Fee-For-Service Problem Fee for service payment is the biggest driver of high costs and low quality. • It punishes those who figure out how to prevent disease or treat it with fewer. It even rewards those who make mistakes and must readmit patients and/or perform more procedures. more effective procedures--they make less money.
SERVICE EXCELLENCE ? 48 .
WHY SERVICE EXCELLENCE ? 49 .
CULTURE OF SERVICE EXCELLENCE 50 .
ORGANIZATION’S CULTURE 51 .
MAINTAINING A GREAT CULTURE 52 .
STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE 53 .
CREATING A CULTURE OF EXCELLENCE 54 .
and treat them well 4. Develop and Drive a customer service strategy 2. Train the entire workforce every four to six months 6. Empower everyone in the oganization 5. Eliminate policies and procedures that impede a service culture 3.Six Steps to Creating A Service Culture ( John Tschohl.customer-service. Hire the right people. Service Quality Institute. http://www.com ) 1. Measure the results 55 .
2001 • The public’s expectation on the quality and standard of service provided by the government has increased. better understand their needs and improve efficiency and quality of the service and timeliness of respons.Promoting a Customer Service-Culture in the Civil Service Bureaux . • Government should work hard towards building up in the civil service a customer service culture that recognizes the public as the paying customers and offers the best services . • Government should launch a customer service program to encourage civil servants to place greater emphasis on serving the community. 56 . Dec.
4. Making performance pledges Developing vision.Major Programme of Promoting Customer Service Culture 1. 2. 3. 7. Way forward 57 . mission and values Enhancing work process Enhancing communication with customers Securing staff commitment Customer Service Exellence Award Central financial support for projects to promote quality customer service 8. 6. 5.
CUSTOMER EXPECTATIONS 58 .
STEPS TOWARDS CULTURE OF SERVICE EXCELLENCE 59 .
FOUNDATION OF EXCELLENCE 60 .
MEASURING CUSTOMER SUCCESS 61 .
ASSESSING STAKEHOLDER COMMUNICATIONS 62 .
SERVICE DELIVERY 63 .
APPROACHES TO SERVICE QUALITY • • • • Transcendental Approach Product – Based Approach User – Based Approach Manufacturing – Based Approach • Value – Based Approach 65 .
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION 66 .
CUSTOMER SATISCFACTION 67 .
LEVELS OF CUSTOMER EXPECTATIONS 68 .
CUSTOMER SERVICE CYCLE 69 .
DRIVING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
SATISFACTION IN SERVICE AREAS 73 .
DISSATISFACTION IN SERVICE AREAS 74 .
REASONS FOR DISSATISFACTION 75 .
REASONS FOR DISSATISFACTION (2) 76 .
THE STAGE FOR SERVICE EXCELLENCE 77 .
CONVERTING PROBLEMS TO PATIENT SATISFACTION 78 .
CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE = LOYALTY AND ADVOCACY 79 .
CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE IN WORKSPACE 80 .
Factors that transformed BMTC to SUCCESS 81 24 .
Quality Assurance 3. 2. Cost Effectiveness 3. 5. Customer’s Satisfaction BETTER VALUE FOR MONEY 1.SERVICE QUALITY BETTER SERVICE 1. Quality Service 2. 3. Economy BETTER ACCOUNTABILITY 1. Cost efficiency 2. Administrative / Managerial Political Legal Professional Moral 82 . 4.
The method involves the development of an understanding of the perceived service needs of target customers. # SERVQUAL is an empirically derived method that may be used by a service organization to improve service quality. The resulting gap analysis may then be used as a driver for service quality improvement. 83 . are then compared against an organization that is “excellent”. This allows an organization to prioritize. These measured perceptions of service quality for the organization in question . # SERVQUAL takes into account the the perceptions of customers of the relative importance of service attributes.Description : What is Servqual ? # SERVQUAL is a technique that can be used for performing a gap analysis of an organization’s service quality performance against customer service quality needs. And to use its resources to improve the most critical service attributes.
1999 ) 84 . Innovation in Public Service Management. ( Adrienne Curry .# The servqual approach begins with the assumption that service quality is critically determined by the difference between customer’s or consumer’s expectations and their perceptions of the service actually delivered.
Tangibles : Appearance of physical facilities. and communication materials 2.5 KEY DIMENSIONS Servqual 1. personnel. equipment. Reliability : Ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately 3. Empathy : The firm provides care and individualized attention to its customers --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------# Reliability is the most important contributing factor to service quality and Tangibles is the least important --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Customization : R-A-T-E-R 89 . Responsiveness : Willingness to help customers and provide prompt service 4. Assurance : Knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to convey trust and confidence 5.
Gaps in the process of Service Delivery 91 .
poor employee-job fit and poor technology-job fit. word of mouth recommendation and past service experiences . inadequate task standardization and an absence of goal setting as a result of role ambiguity and conflict. inadequate upward communications and too many layers of management as a result of inadequate commitment to serve quality . inappropriate supervisory control systems.Gaps in the process of service delivery Gap 1 : customer’s expectations perceptions vs management Their Causes a result of lack of a marketing research orientation . and -. lack of perceive d control and lack of teamwork As a result of inadequate horizontal communications and a propensity to over-promise Gap 2 : management perceptions vs service specifications Gap 3 : service specifications vs service delivery Gap 4 : service delivery vs external communications Gap 5 : the discrepancy between customer expectations and their percetions of the service delivered -.influenced by the extent of personal needs.as a result of the influences exerted from the customer side and the shortfalls on the part of the service provider 92 . a perception of unfeasibility.
14. 2. 5. 12. 5. 3. INDIKATOR KUALITAS PELAYANAN ( DI NEGARA-NEGARA MAJU ) Appropriateness .DIMENSI-DIMENSI PELAYANAN YANG BERKUALITAS INDEKS KEPUASAN MASYARAKAT ( INDONESIA ) 1. Accuracy Effectiveness & Efficacy Reliability Responsiveness Warmth. 13. 9. 8. Caring. 11. 2. Concern Assurance Efficiency Durability / Continuity Consistency Convenience Safety Timeliness Aesthetics Accessibility / Service Availability Completeness Perceived Quality 93 . 7. 13. 8. 12. 10. 10. 4. 14. 3. 6. 9. 15. 7. 16. Kesederhanaan Prosedur Pelayanan Kesesuaian Persyaratan Pelayanan Kejelasan Petugas Pelayanan Kedisiplinan Petugas Pelayanan Kejelasan Wewenang & Tanggungjawab Petugas Pelayanan Keahlian dan Ketrampilan Petugas Pelayanan Kecepatan Pelayanan Keadilan Mendapatkan Pelayanan Kesopanan & Keramahan Petugas Kewajaran Biaya Pelayanan Kepastian Biaya Pelayanan Kepastian Jadwal Pelayanan Kenyamanan Lingkungan Keamanan Pelayanan 1. 4. 6. 11.
Citizen’s Charter : (1) Quality Standards (2) Information & Openess (3) Choice and Consultation (4) Courtesy and Helpfulness (5) Putting Things Right (6) Value for Money 94 .
Key Features of Citizen’s Charter 1. 95 . There should be a strong focus on quality. Charters should look at services through the user’s eyes and not simply reflect organizational structure. Charters should be regularly reviewed and updated. 3. 5. Performance against charter standards should be effectively reviewed and monitored and the results published. 2. 4. Users and Front-line Staff should be involved in the charter’s development.
Why is Leadership Important?
• To provide overall policy direction and guidance on health programmes
– Good policies Vs bad policies – Priority setting
• To advocate for the necessary support
– Good advocacy if health seen as priority by leaders
• To mobilize and make resources available for health programmes
– Allocation of funds
Why is Leadership Important?
• To monitor and evaluate health programmes
– Concept of all stakeholders participating in M&E – Support for using lessons learnt for improvement
• To enforce accountability by service providers, to the population
– Accountability by leaders themselves
The Need for Leadership At All Levels
For effective health service delivery, leadership is needed in all sectors and different levels, for example: • Political leadership (President, Ministers, MPs) • Professional leadership by health professionals • Leadership at central and local levels • Household and community level leadership so that communities and households take charge of their health programmes • Leadership by partners that collaborate in health service delivery
Evidence of Good Leadership • When those in leadership are showing political commitment • When the political commitment is translated into adequate resource allocation for health programmes • When good policies are formulated • When leaders lead by example • When people begin to see leaders as role models • When there is good governance and there is accountability to the public 99 .
these professionals need to be placed in positions of influence • In 2000.Professional Leadership • Professionals must be leaders in their fields. To be good leaders. was observed that limited participation of nurses and midwives adversely affected the influence of these cadres in policy formulation 100 . leadership training • In addition.g. e. these professionals need to be trained and equipped with skills • Training and equipping the professionals with skills promotes leadership ..
quality. cost. timeliness… • Public service delivery is a public sector management and a governance matter 102 . accessibility.Who is responsible for delivering public services? • It is a public responsibility that public services are available & delivered • Standards: quantity.
The long and short route of accountability World Bank World Development Report 2004 103 .
poor education) – Unresponsive to diverse clientele (gender.What are the problems with public service delivery? • Availability/accessibility (for the poor) – Limited transport or number of facilities (hospitals) – Limited coverage (water supply. religion) 104 . sanitation) • Affordability (for the poor) – Poor often pay more than the better-off (water by the bucket. transport) => associated with less use • Quality (the poor particularly affected) – Dysfunctional (vacancies. corruption) – Low technical quality (poor medical advice. equipment. attendance. maintenance.
girls in Pakistan etc.Basic rules about service delivery modality • Central or local delivery? – The greater the heterogeneity of clients the greater the benefits of decentralized decisions (immigration.) • Publically or privately provided? – The easier to monitor service outputs (the easier to write and enforce contracts) the more services should be sub-contracted 105 .
How are public services delivered? • Central or local government – – – – – – Direct provision (central or local) Inter-municipal cooperation (local government only) Through public providers (national or local) Jointly with private sector (PPP) Contracted to the private sector Contracted to NGOs. CBOs and social enterprises 106 .
DEFINITION OF CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT 107 .
CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT 108 .
CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT AS SERVICE DELIVERY 109 .
PURPOSE OF ENGAGEMENT 110 .
Continued… 111 .
ENGAGEMENT TOOLS 112 .
DIFFERENT STAGES OF ENGAGEMENT
Participation in Service Production
NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT
POSITIVE CONSEQUENCES OF CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT 116 .
THROUGH ITS OWN CAPACITY OR COLLABORATION WITH OTHER STAKEHOLDERS .VISION OF PUBLIC SERVICE “ TO PRODUCE AND PROVIDE SERVICE EXCELLENCE . FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE WHOLE SOCIETY “ 117 .
TO BE ACCOUNTABLE ADMINISTRATIVELY. QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION . COST EFFECTIVE . POLITICALLY. TO BE ABLE TO PROVIDE BETTER SERVICE : QUALITY SERVICE . FOR THE CITIZEN 2.MISSIONS 1. TO ACHIEVE BEST VALUE FOR MONEY : COST EFFICIENT. ECONOMICALLY. AND ECONOMY IN PRODUCING AND PROVIDING SERVICES FOR THE CITIZEN 3. AND MORALLY IN PRODUCING AND PROVIDING SERVICES FOR THE CITIZEN 118 .
Perbedaan Antara Barang dan Jasa 119 .
VISI PELAYANAN MISI PELAYANAN PANTAU DAN UKUR MUTU YANG DICAPAI LIBATKAN SEMUA STAKEHOLDER YG TERKAIT TUJUAN PELAYANAN TETAPKAN STANDARD MUTU UPAYA YANG PERLU DILAKUKAN IDENTIFIKASI MUTU PELAYANAN 120 .D.Inisiatif Kebijakan NILAI PRESTASI YG.DICAPAI DAN TENTUKAN UPAYA DI MASA Y.A.
Quality Assurance . Customer Care Benchmarking SERVQUAL Six Sigma Quality Management System eGovernment & eGovernance • • • • 121 .Methods for Improving Service Quality = QUALITY WAVE = • • • Citizen’s Charter Delphi Technique TQM : Quality Control.
Focused discussion: Preventative Health Care • Effectiveness – Preventing health problems is more effective than treating • Economic issues – More cost effective • Equity and ethical issues – Fair treatment – Restricting legal activities 122 .
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