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Submitted by: Kasturi Haloi Roll no: R010209028 B.

Tech APE(Upstream) Semester 7

What is logging?
Logging is the measurement and recording of formation

properties with respect to depth. It is the in-situ measurement which helps in determining the porous and permeable zones, and the figurative values of porosity, resistivity, densities, water saturation, gas saturation and oil saturation in correlation with the core analysis studies. Logs can be carried out both before and after casing, as well as during production to detect any anomalies and know the properties of the well from time to time.

Porosity logs
Porosity logs are the ones which are used to determine the

porosity of the required zone by means of correlation with the densities of either the formation or formation fluid. The basic porosity logs are: Neutron log Density log Acoustic log

Neutron logs:
Neutron log works on the principle of neutron interaction with the

nuclei present in the formation. Neutrons lose energy on collision with nuclei, the maximum being in case of nuclei with same mass, eg-hydrogen. Therefore, in the formation basically it is hydrogen nuclei which are responsible for slowing down of high-energy neutrons to thermal energy level. These thermal neutrons are captured and emit capture gamma rays. Tool responds to Hydrogen Index (HI) of the formation, which can be related to the total porosity of the formation. The more the energy is lost, the more is the amount of either water or hydrocarbons present in the rocks and this is thus a direct indicator of porosity.

As the measurement is indicative of relative measurement of the

amount of hydrogen in the formation, it thus is correlated with the amount of fluid present. However this fluid can be in the interconnected pores as well as in the non-interconnected void space. Neutron tool responds to the bound water also i.e. water of hydration. Thus neutron logs give total porosity. Since Hydrogen Index (H.I.) of oil is very near to 1, the Neutron log does not differentiate much between oil and water (H.I. of water is taken as 1). However, hydrogen index of gas is small compared to that of water and this feature is used to identify gas zones.

As clay/shale have high amount of pore water (though non-

interconnected), Hydrogen Index (H.I.) of shale is high giving high apparent porosity (n)sh creating anomalies.
Depth of investigation of Neutron tool depends upon the

hydrogen Index of the formation. It is more for low porosity and small for high porosity (high hydrogen index).It generally responds up to 5-10 in the formation.

Density logs
Density logging tool measures the electron density of the

formation which in turn is proportional to the bulk density of the formation. The relationship between can be best understood in clean formation. If measured bulk density of reservoir be denoted by , matrix grain density by reservoir porosity by , formation fluid density by , then for a unit volume reservoir, volume of matrix is given by . Volumetric material balance equation can now be written for the reservoir as follows-

Value of bulk density can be directly taken from density log. Value of matrix porosity depends upon the lithology of the

formation. It is 2.65 gm/cc for sandstone, 2.71 gm/cc for limestone and 2.86 gm/cc for dolomite. Value of fluid density is 1 gm/cc for fresh water, 1.1 gm/cc for saline water, 0.7 0.9 gm/cc for oil and 0.2-0.7 gm/cc for gas and light hydrocarbons. As a first approximation for porosity estimation, value of rf can be taken as 1 gm/cc. When porosity is estimated using density log measurement, it is referred as density porosity and denoted by fD. It depends upon lithology of matrix and density of matrix.

Number of collisions is proportional to density of formation.

Gamma photon moves randomly between collisions and may also escape from the formation. Suitable detector detects these escape gamma rays. Number of the escaped photons is proportional to the electron density of the formation.

Acoustic/sonic log
In acoustic logging, mechanical waves of ultra sonic frequencies

are used from down hole transmitter in the logging tool. A detector system receives the acoustic signal at some distance from transmitter. The transmitter sends compressional (longitudinal) waves into the borehole fluid (mud) incident to the borehole wall (formation)and gets refracted into formation. Some of energy is refracted back in to borehole and received by the receiver . These waves do not reach the receiver at the same time, but at different times depending on the path traversed and the velocity of propagation.

Acoustic travel time measurements of sub-surface formation can

be interpreted in terms of formation porosity. The travel time is influenced by total makeup of the rock.

Thus by relating the porosity values of these three logs we are

able to find the accurate value of porosity of the reservoir.

Formation micro scanner-

It was first developed in 1986 in Saudi Arabia, after which a lot of improvements have been made. It is an advanced dipmeter tool capable of producing high resistivity dipmeter images. Integrating with core and open hole logs, FMS images are of great utility in evaluating thin bed reservoir sequences and sedimentary features as small as 0.5 inches

Recent developments by Schlumberger have greatly increased the

usefulness and ease of interpreting the FMS images which are now better than the dipmeter because they allow calculation of dips in the presence of fractures and in zones of poor lateral continuity. They use arrays of micro resistivity sensors to make high resolution images of the borehole which are displayed on a variable intensity colour scale to enable comparison to core photographers.