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Definition:- Exercise is a cortical phenomenon and is under the feedback control of cerebellum. During exercise metabolic activity increases so O2 & energy requirement increases. Factors which brings changes are :1) Chemical Factors a. PO2 decreases b. PCO2 increases c. pH decreases
2) Nervous Factor:i) Cerebral Cortex- Impulses from cerebral cortex through pyramidal tract gives collaterals to the respiratory, Vasomotor & cardiac centers. • Which increases respiration & heart rate. ii) Proprioceptive impulses from the muscles and Joints :- increases respiration during the exercise. • Both plays an important role in initiation & maintenance of exercise
3) Hormonal Factors:i) Secretion of catecholamines from the Adrenal Medulla. ii) Secretion of Thyroid hormones 4) Rise in Body Temperature through hypothalamus. It again increases respiration
Classification of Exercise
1) Pulmonary Ventilation Increases I. Cerebral Cortex – Stimulates RC before & during exercise. II. Proprioceptive impulses- Stimulates RC during exercise III. Body Temp. also increases RMV RMV increases from 6L to 100L /min during heavy exercise. Both frequency & depth increases. If ventilation does not upto desired level PO2, PCO2& pH cause finer & final adjustments.
2) Diffusion capacity of Lungs Increases :• Increases 3 times in heavy exercise (21 ml/min./Hg to 65 ml/min/Hg). • Due to A) Surface area of respiratory membrane B) Blood Flow C) Opening of more capillaries. D) PO2 in blood 40mmHg to 25 mmHg 3) Changes in V/Q ratio • Normal – 0.8 • In moderate exercise – 0.85 to 0.89 • In Severe exercise – 1.5 to 2.0
4) Shift of O2 dissociation curve to Right Due to A. 2,3 DPG B. PCO2 C. pH
Def. – The amount of O2 that can be consumed by a person per minute, when he/she is working maximally. Normal Value:- 0.2 – 0.25 L/min. In Athletes – 4L/min. • It depends on 1) Circulatory system 2) Respiratory system 3) Muscular System
• Performance of a person mainly depends upon his cardiovascular efficiency not on respiratory efficiency. No matter what is the requirment. • VO2max is the single best index of the person’s capacity to maintain the extremely heavy exercise.