• Over the past decade, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been in the news for their potential benefits to society • Before human cloning making transgenic plants via biochemical and molecular biological procedures was the hot topic in biotechnology

An Overview .

A) What are Transgenic Plants? .

.• Genetically modified/ Biotech crops or plants (GM crops. or bt crops) are plants whose DNA has been modified by a gene artificially inserted into that crop called a transgene for efficiency.

B) Creating Genetically Modified Plants .

Isolate and clone gene of interest Recombination Adding selectable markers Transformation Selection Regenerate whole plants .

. a promoter that effectively drives the gene & a terminator.(1) Designing and making the gene construct • Extract DNA • Put into a bacterial plasmid & then to Host cell • Construct contains gene of interest.


(2) Introducing the transgene to plants • Once the gene of interest has been amplified. • Two most common methods include the “Gene Gun and Agrobacterium method”.e. . within nucleus of plant cell. it is time to introduce it into the respective plant species i.

Using Agrobacterium • Soil-dwelling bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens whose genomic DNA (t.DNA) integrated into a plants chromosome through a Ti plasmid. .a.


Biolistic: an alternative method • High velocity micro-projectiles to deliver DNA • Can give rise to un-wanted side effects • Useful when no other options are available .b.

Some Other Methods • Microinjection • Electroporation • Lipolysis • Sonication .

(3) Confirming the plants are transgenic • Grown plants are known to contain T-DNA through antibiotic selection • We can analyze gene integration at a very early stage – even from the plantlet stage by PCR & Gel electrophoresis .

(4) Growing plantlets .

C) Applications for Genetically Modified Plants .

(1) Improved shelf life  Flavr Savr Tomato • First GM-plant developed (1994) • Delayed softening • Remains firm and fresh for a long time • Resistance • Have varieties. colors & shapes .

(2) Improved nutrition • Purple tomatoes high in Anthocyanins • Cauliflowers are claimed healthier • Tearless (Sulfoxide free) Onions • Golden rice accumulates betacarotene. inside the body betacarotene is converted to vitamin A .

• Fungal & Bacterial resistance: BtGroundnut isn’t effected by Cercospora personata and Cercospora arachidicola that develop spots on the leaves. Also Bt. . by gene from Bacillus thuringiensis. • Viral Resistance: Tobacco ringspot TMV is cured by modifying gene. Also Btcorn.brinjal isn’t effected by Mycoplasma parasites.(3) Resistance • Insect resistance: Bt-Cotton isn’t attacked by insects from Lepidopteron larvae.

produces molecules made of C & H that are found in diesel.(3) Production of biofuels • The fungus. . forms "myco-diesel”. Gliocladium roseum. • The fungus grows inside tree in the temperate rainforest of Chile and Argentina.

Corn snack (b) or Embryo or germ cells (c) • Non.allergic peanuts • Decaffeinated coffee .(4) Production of useful byproducts • Delivery of a corn-based edible vaccine: Transgenic corn kernels (a).

(5) Bioremediation • Scientists at the University of York developed a weed (Arabidopsis thaliana) that contains genes from bacteria that clean up explosive contaminants from the soil • Hg. explosive contaminants have been removed from soils by transgenic plants .e. Se and organic pollutants such as Polychlorinated biophenyls (PCBs) i.

plants with large amounts glutamic acid carboxylase. & other cool products AIDS & Tomato: Scientists are creating tomatoes with edible vaccines.  Blue Roses: Japanese Implanted the gene for Delphinidin.The Future of biotech. Diabetes: Researchers fed diabetic mice with bt.  Roots on upper part of plant: Scientist discovered a molecular switch to alter the auxin transport. primary plant pigment with a blue hue but isn’t found naturally. they incorporated HIV antigen gene. .

Effect on natural environment . Effect on human health • 2.D) What are the Disadvantages of Transgenic Crops? • 1.

Conclusion: Should We Use Transgenic Crops? • Most of us agree that the potential advantage of producing crops that provide the human population with more and cheaper food makes transgenic technology a useful invention .