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Human Resource Management & Competitive Advantage

HR & Competitive Advantage


Non-human resourcessuch as land, capital and equipment Managing human resources is essential in order for a business to thrive and survive. People determine the organizations goals and of course people run the organization to ensure goals are met/exceeded People are the competitive advantage to an organizations success

HRM
In HR we deal with issues such as pre-selection, selection, and post-selection Pre-selection we planorganizations decide what types of jobs are going to exist and what are the qualifications. During the selection phase, the organization selects the employees:
Recruiting applicants Assessing their qualifications Selecting those most qualified

HRM
Post-selection phase the organization develop sound HR practices for effectively managing their key talent The firm provides them with training and development opportunities to have the necessary skills to perform at satisfactory levels. (Mission, Vision, Strategic Business Objectives)

HRM
Chapter 3 we talk about HR Planning. Here managers anticipate and meet changing needs relating to acquisition, deployment, and utilization of its employees The strategic planning process takes shape here Demand and supply forecasting we determine the number and types of employees we need (i.e. electrical engineers recruitment process)

HRM
Chapter 4 we discuss job analysis a process for gathering, analyzing and documenting information about specific jobs Steps: --Determining job qualifications for recruitment purposes --Choosing the most appropriate selection techniques --Developing training programs

HRM
Steps: --Developing performance appraisal rating forms --Helping to determine pay rates --Setting performance standards for productivity improvement programs (i.e. assessment testing for administrative positions)

HRM
Selection Practices we mean policies and procedures used by organizations to staff positions Chapter 5 Recruitment to locate and attract applicants for specific positions (local, regionally, or nationally)/ internally Our goal is to identify a suitable pool of applicants quickly, cost efficiently, and legally

HRM
Selection involves assessing and choosing job candidates. Again this process needs to be sound and legal HRM Post-Selection Practicesthese practices maintain or improve a companys workers job performance levels:
Training & Development (Chapter 7) planned learning experiences that teach workers to perform their current or future jobs effectively

HRM
Training focuses on ones current job and development focuses on possibly preparing employees for future jobs. What is the organizational goal? The improvement of organizational performance to meet/exceed goals and objectives

HRM
HRM Post-Selection Practices:
--Performance Appraisal (Chapter 8)

--where we measure an employees

job performance and communicate on an on-going basis (how of performance, what of performance and development plan) --Decisions on promotions, demotions, discharges, and pay raises

HRM
Compensation (Chapter 9) --entails pay and benefits. Pay refers to the wage or salary an employee earns --Benefits are a form of compensation in addition to pay, such as health insurance or employee discounts --Goal is to maintain a competent and loyal workforce at an affordable cost

HRM
Productivity Improvement Programs (Chapter 10) --Tie behavior to rewards. We can have financial rewards (e.g., bonuses, pay raises) or non-financial (i.e., improved job satisfaction) --Goal of such programs is to motivate employees to engage in appropriate behaviors

HRM
HRM is also influenced by external factors --Legal & Environmental Issues (Chapter 2) --federal, state and local laws (rights to fair and safe treatment) --selection process must be conducted by the book (what are the needed job qualifications and choose selection methods that accurately measure those qualifications

HRM
Social, economic, and technological events that influence HRM: --cultural diversity of workforce --work and family issues --part-time temporary workers --emphasis on quality and teamwork --mergers and acquisitions --downsizing and layoffs --rapid advances in technology --continuous quality improvement --high rate of illiteracy in the workforce

HRM
How do these events influence HRM? --families-through maternity leave, child care, flextime, and job sharing --older workers through skill upgrading and training handle new techniques --educating employees on basic reading and writing, and math skills keep up with rapidly advancing technologies (Motorola)

HRM
Workplace Justice Laws (Chapter 11)
Addresses the issue of employee rightstreat workers in a non-discriminatory manner --workplace rules, disciplinary and discharge procedures

Union Influences (Chapter 12)


Adherence to written contracts (i.e., discipline, promotions, grievance procedures, and overtime allocations

HRM
Safety & Health Concerns (Chapter 13)
Legal, social, and political pressures on organizations to ensure the health and safety of their employees Wellness and Employee Assistance Programs (EAP)

HRM
International Influences (Chapter 14)
Globalization has required companies to enter foreign markets in order to compete as part of the globally interconnected set of business markets Managers need to be more globally oriented (i.e., understanding foreign cultures and languages and the dynamics of foreign marketplaces)

HRM
Who is responsible for Developing & Implementing HRM Practices?
Most companies have an HRM department but there is a shared partnership with the line organization (Reviews HR Models) Effective managers attempt to solve HR problems by: --providing input into the selection decisions --trying to supervise people in a way that creates a team feeling

HRM
Effective managers attempt to solve HR problems by: --providing training and coaching --providing opportunities for employee advancement --providing flexible scheduling for students and other part time workers

HRM
HR consults to the line organization Managers carry out many procedures and methods devised by HR professionals: --Interview job applicants --Provide orientation, coaching, and onthe-job training --Provide and communicate job performance ratings --Recommend salary increases

HRM
Managers carry out many procedures and methods devised by HR professionals: --Carry out disciplinary procedures --Investigate accidents --Settle grievance issues Gaining a competitive advantage: --Cost leadership strategyfirm provides the same services or products as its competitors, but produces them at a lower cost (Class discussion)

HRM
Gaining a competitive advantage:
Product differentiationoccurs when a firm produces a product or service that is preferred by buyers: --creating a better quality product or service than its competitors --providing innovative products or services that are not offered by its competitors --choosing a superior locationone more accessible to customers --promoting and packaging its product to create the perception of higher quality

HRM As A Competitive Advantage


1994 study examined the HRM practices and productivity levels of 968 firms across 35 industries
Effectiveness of each companys set of HRM practices was rated based on the presence of such things as:
Incentive plans Employee grievance systems Formal performance appraisal systems Workers participation in decision making

HRM: Competitive Advantage


Strong link between HR competitiveness and productivity --one standard deviation in HRM ratings translated to a productivity difference of 5%. Means that a company with a high HRM effectiveness ratings (e.g., 86th percentile) out-produced the average company by 5%

HRM: Competitive Advantage


Another study conducted by Chris Ryan and Associates evaluated the impact of a broad range of HRM practices on shareholder return. Found that 15-30% of the total value of a company could be attributed to the quality of HRM practices Where is the greatest impact?
Providing employees with effective orientation training Letting employees know what is expected of them Discharging employees that are chronically poor performers

HRM: Competitive Advantage


Discuss Model on Linking HRM Practices to Competitive Advantage Direct Paththe way HRM practice is carried out can have an immediate impact on competitive advantage Indirect Pathan HRM practice can impact competitive advantage by causing certain outcomes, which, in turn, create competitive advantage

HRM: Competitive Advantage


Firms can achieve cost leadership through the use of effective HRM practices
HRM costs through recruitment, selection, training and compensationall big expenses for a firm Service industries 70% of their budget is made up of payroll

HRM: Competitive Advantage


Indirect Impact of HRM practices:
HRM practices------Employment centered outcomes Employment-centered outcomes--Organization-centered outcomes Organization-centered outcomes Competitive advantage

HRM: Competitive Advantage


Employee-centered outcomes:
Competenceknowledge, skills, and abilities an employee has that the job requires Motivationis the employee willing to exert the necessary effort to perform the job well Work-related attitudesis the employee satisfied with their job, committed to the organization, and act as a good corporate citizen

HRM: Competitive Advantage


Employee-centered outcomes--organization-centered outcomes
Organization centered outcomes consist of output, employee retention, legal compliance, and company reputation or image.
Output refers to the quantity, quality, and innovativeness of the product or service offered by the firm Retention rates reflect the amount of employee turnover a firm experiences

HRM: Competitive Advantage


Organization centered outcomes:
Retention rates reflect the amount of employee turnover a firm experiences Legal compliance concerns the issue of whether the firms HRM practices conform to the requirements imposed by the various employment laws Company reputation concerns how favorably outsiderspotential applicants and customers view the organization

HRM: Competitive Advantage


What drives employee retention?:
Career growth and learning opportunities Fair pay Company pride/organizational commitment Employee empowerment High involvement HR systemslet employees use skills as they see fit or provide financial incentives

HRM: Competitive Advantage


Organization-Centered Outcomes--Competitive Advantage
Most common ways to cut HRM costs is to employ technology to replace some of the more expensive HR professional-delivered services (i.e., e-learning vs. in class training) Low turnover of employees you will have better customer retention (recruiting, selection, and training costs of a new employee)

HRM: Competitive Advantage


Management of HR is less susceptible to imitation therefore competitive advantage achieved through HRM practices is likely to be more sustainable:
Competitors rarely have access to a firms HRM practices Even when practices are visible, their impact may not be as favorable by competitors due to interrelated system (i.e., incentive pay system may only work when used in conjunction with selection practices that favor hiring risk takers. (Marriott Case Revisited)