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• AM Modulator circuit. • AM Demodulator circuit.

**AM Modulator Type
**

• Non-Linear Modulator. • Linear Modulator.

**Non Linear modulator
**

• Use non-linear devices such as diode and transistor. • Fig below (next slide) show that:

**Non-Liner Modulator
**

N.L.D

fm

RL

s AM (t )

fc

Linear Modulator

• Linear Anode such as (class A, class B, class C) amplifiers. • Fig below (next slide) show that:

Linear Modulator

RF I/P

Antenna

Class B AF amp

Class C RF amp

Product Modulators

s AM (t )

sm (t )

S c (t ) Ac cos wc t

Product Modulators

• Consist of Analog product multiplier and adder. As shown below:

sm (t )

s AM (t )

sc (t )

**Modulators using the Squared Law
**

• give highest frequency than Product Modulators. As shown below:

sm (t )

S c (t ) Ac cos wc t

Non-Liner Element

Filter

Vo (t )

S AM (t )

**Modulators using the Squared Law
**

• Verifying the following relation:

Vo (t ) a1Vin(t ) a2Vin (t )

2

• This relation is verified by using Diodes and Transistors.

Balance Modulators

• Simple method to generate a DSB-SC signals

• Use two conventional AM modulators arranged in the configuration .

Balance Modulators

• Use two square-Law AM Modulators. • Select modulators must be approximately identical characteristics so that the carrier component cancels out at the summing junction.

Balance Modulator Diagram

**Balance Modulator circuit using two Diodes
**

D1

i2 (t )

V1 (t )

R1 C1 L1

sm (t )

V2 (t )

R2

Vo (t )

C1

L2

i1 (t )

sc (t ) cos wc t

D2

Analysis

• The characteristic curve for each Diodes verify the following relation:

i1 (t ) a1V1 (t ) a V (t )

2 2 1

--------------------- (1)

the amplitude of V1 (t ) is given by:

Analysis

V1 (t ) cos wct S m (t )

--------------------- (2)

**While the amplitude of V2 (t ) is:
**

V2 (t ) cos wc t S m (t )

--------------------- (3)

so

i1 (t ) a1[cos wct S m (t )] a2 [cos wct S m (t )]

2

---------- (4)

Analysis

And

i2 (t ) a1[cos wct S m (t )] a2 [cos wct S m (t )]

2

------- (5)

**So we can find the amplitude of
**

Vo (t ) [i1 (t ) i2 (t )] R

---------- (6)

Vo (t )

Is:

Vo (t ) R [2a1Sm (t ) 4a 2sm(t ) cos c t ]

---------- (7)

Analysis

Since the resonance circuit operates at the carrier frequency ( f c ) so the output Vo (t ) is:

Vo (t ) 4a2 R S m (t ) cos wct

---------- (8)

I.e. the circuit works like DSB-SC Modulator. I.e. it works like Product Modulator.

AM Demodulators (Detector )

• The restoration of the massage signal from the modulated signal is called Demodulation and detection. • There are two Method of demodulation: - Asynchronous (Envelope Detector)-Synchronous.

Demodulators (Detectors) for AM signals

s AM (t )

AM DeModulation

sm (t )

Asynchronous Envelope Detector)

• Consists of a diode and an RC circuit, which is basically a simple low pass filter. • Circuit diagram for an envelope detector is shown in Figure below:

**Asynchronous (Envelope Detector)
**

R2 12 V Vin R1 741 R4 12 V

s AM (t )

R3

741 C1

C2

D1

R5

C5

C3

C4

R6

-12 V -12 V

Asynchronous(Envelope Detector) Analysis

• During the positive half-cycle of the input signal, the diode is conducting and the capacitor charges up to the peak value of the input signal. • When the input falls below the voltage on the capacitor, the diode becomes reverse-biased and the input becomes disconnected from the output.

• During this period, the capacitor discharges slowly through the load resistor R. • On the next cycle of the carrier, the diode conducts again when the input signal exceeds the voltage across the capacitor.

• The capacitor charges up again to the peak value of the input signal and the process is repeated again. • The time constant RC must be selected so as to follow the variations in the envelope of the carriermodulated signal.

1 1 RC wc wm

• In such a case, the capacitor discharges slowly through the resistor and, thus, the output of the envelope detector closely follows the message signal.

Synchronous Detector

• We can also demodulate the signal using Balance Modulator (BM), which is called Synchronous Detector as shown below:

Synchronous Detector

s AM (t )

y1 (t )

Filter

y(t )

Local Oscillator ALo cos wc t

Synchronous Detector Analysis

• Depending on multiply the modulated signal with sine wave signal that generated form (Local Oscillator), which is denoted by .

VLo (t ) ALo cos wct

• Suppose the following:

S AM (t ) E (t ) cos wct

---------- (1)

E (t ) Ac [1 Sm (t )]

VLo (t ) ALo cos wct ---------- (2)

Where ALo is the carrier amplitude.

• For simplicity suppose the

ALo

=2

2

---------- (3)

y1 (t ) 2 E (t ) cos wct

1 2 E (t )[ (1 cos2wct )] 2

E (t )[(1 cos 2wct )]

E (t ) E (t ) cos 2wct

---------- (4)

•We can eliminate the frequency 2 wc using low pass filter (LPF),

•so we get the following o/p:

y (t ) E (t )

But

---------- (5)

E (t ) Ac [1 Sm (t )]

---------- (6)

y(t ) Ac Ac Sm (t )

Synchronous Detector Analysis

**•We can also suppress the •DC component by using
**

•capacitor, the final o/p ell be:

Ac S m (t )

Explains the AM MODEM circuit (Modulator & Demodulator)

Explains the AM MODEM circuit (Modulator & Demodulator)

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