MULTIPLIXING DEFINTION

:
 large number of data sources signals (users)that are transmitted simultaneously using a single communication channel.

Multiplexing Schemes (MS)
 The multiplexing schemes (MS) are used to provide resources for establishing calls.  There are three basic multiplexing schemes:  frequency division multiplexing (FDM),  time division multiplexing (TDM)  code division multiplexing (CDM).
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MULTIPLEXING
 NEED TO OPTIMIZE:
        System capacity pectrum utilization Interconnectivity Flexibility Adaptability (traffic mix issue) User acceptance System power Cost
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Time Division Multipleing (TDM)
 In the TDM the transmission time is divided into frames of equal duration  each frame is divided into the same number of time slots.  All time slots have equal duration.

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 Each slot position within a frame is allocated to a different user and this allocation stays the same over the sequence of frames.  This means that a particular user may transmit during one particular slot in every frame.  During this slot it has the whole channel bandwidth at its disposal.
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 Spread spectrum has two important characteristics that distinguish it from any other modulation schemes. :  Firstly, the bandwidth of the spreader signal occupies a bandwidth much in excess of the original signal.  Secondly, the bandwidth spreading is performed by means of a code that is independent of the data sequence.  For cellular telephony, CDM is a digital multiplexing technique specified by the (TIA)
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Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM)
 (FDM) is a technique whereby several message signals are transmitted, using modulation, to different spectral locations and added to form a baseband signal.  The carriers used to form the baseband are usually referred to as sub-carriers.

Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM)
 Then the baseband signal can be transmitted over a single channel using a single modulation process.  Several different types of modulation can be used to form the baseband

Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM)
 An FDM demodulator is shown in figure ( below). The demodulator output is baseband signal.  The individual channels in the baseband are extracted using bandpass filter  Outputs are demodulated in the conventional manner.

Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM)
 Observation of the baseband spectrum illustrates that the baseband bandwidth is equal to the sum of the bandwidths of the modulated signals plus the sum of the guard bands, the empty spectral bands between the channels necessary for filtering.

Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM)
 This bandwidth is lower-bounded by the sum of the bandwidths of the message signals. This bandwidth,
B

W
i 1

N

i

------------- (5)

This bandwidth is achieved when all baseband modulators are SSB and all guard bands have zero width.

Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM)
x1(t) Mod. 1

x2(t)

Mod. 2

Baseband

RF Mod.

xC(t)

xN(t)

Mod. N (a)

Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM)
BPF 1 Demod. 1 yD1(t)

x1(t)

RF Demod.

Baseband

BPF 2

Demod. 2

yD2(t)

BPF N

Demod. N

yDN(t)

(b)

Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM)

f f1 f2 (c) fN

Figure (3): Frequency-Division Multiplexing. (a): FDM modulator. (b): FDM demodulator. (c): Baseband spectrum.

Time-Division Multiplexing:
Information source 1 Information user 1

Synchronization Information source 2 Information user 2

Channel

Baseband signal Information source N Information user N

(a)

Time-Division Multiplexing:
S1 S1 S2 SN S2 SN S1 S2 SN S1 S2

(b)

Figure (5): Time-Division Multiplexing. (a): Time-Division Multiplexing system. (b): Baseband signal.

Time-Division Multiplexing:
 The data sources are sampled at Nyquist rate or higher.  The commutator then interlaces the samples to from the baseband signal shown in figure.

Time-Division Multiplexing:
 The channel output is de multiplexed by using second commutator as illustrated.  Proper operation of this system depends on proper synchronization between the two commutators.

CDMA - 1
 SHARE TIME AND FREQUENCY
 SEPARATION OF SIGNALS IS THROUGH THE USE OF UNIQUE CODES

 EACH USER IS ASSIGNED A CODE
 user 1  user 2   CODE 1 CODE 2

 RECEIVER SEARCHES FOR CODES  CODE RATE >> DATA RATE

CDMA - 2
 SYSTEM OPERATOR - OR INDIVIDUAL PAIRS OF USERS - ASSIGN UNIQUE SPREADING OR HOPPING CODES TO EACH DUPLEX LINK  CDMA IS A SOLUTION FOR SEVERE INTERFERENCE ENVIRONMENTS, USUALLY AT A CAPACITY LOSS COMPARED WITH TDMA AND FDMA

CDMA - 3
User #N POWER

Users #1, #2, #3, and #4

TRANSPONDER BANDWIDTH

CDMA - 1
 CDMA CAN BE ONE OF THREE TYPES
 Direct Sequence (Spread Spectrum)
 Occupies full bandwidth all the time

 Frequency Hopping
 A pair of frequencies (one for “1” and one for “0”) hop over the full bandwidth randomly

 A hybrid of Direct Sequence and Frequency Hopping
We will concentrate on Direct Sequence

DIRECT SEQUENCE CDMA - 1
 Multiply the information stream (the data) by a high speed PN code  Use two codes: one for a “1” and one for a “0”  1 data bit  many “Chips” The Chip Rate is e.g. 2.4 kbit/s  1 Mbit/s essentially the code
rate from the PN sequence generator The “Spreading factor” is  400, can think of this as coding gain

DIRECT SEQUENCE CDMA - 2

Narrow-band data

Narrow-band data “spread” over the full bandwidth

Other spread signals added, filling up the channel with many noise-like signals

De-spreading process brings the wanted channel out of the noise

DIRECT SEQUENCE CDMA - 2

Each incoming bit is multiplied by the PN sequence

Spreading Sequence

DIRECT SEQUENCE CDMA - 3

Incoming bitstream multiplied by a synchronized copy of the PN sequence

De-spreading Sequence

CDMA APPLICATIONS
 MILITARY
 Anti-Jam (AJ)  Low Probability of Intercept (LPI)

 COMMERCIAL
 VSATs (due to wide beams)  GPS  Microwave Cellular Systems

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