aritmetic PROGRESSION

SUM OF THE FIRST n TERMS

a (r n − 1) Sn = r −1
or

, r >1

Sn = a(1 − r n ) , r < 1
1 −r
THE n th TERM

Tn
THE r th TERM

GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION

Tn = ar
a = first term

n-1

Tr
r-1

T = S
r

r

- S

r = common ratio
SUM OF INFINITY

n = number of terms

Sn

a = 1− r

-1< r < 1

GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION
xr xr 2 xr 3 xr 4

a, ar , ar, ar, ar, …
EXAMPLE x3 x3 x3

3, 9, 27, 81, 243, 729 …

GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION
xr xr 2 xr 3 xr 4

a, ar , ar, ar, ar, …
EXAMPLE x3 x3 x3 x3 x3

3, 9, 27, 81, 243, 729 …

Find out the formula form your note.

GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION
the sum to infinity

The sum of the first n term: Sn = ______________ or Sn = ______________

a = _______________ r = _______________ n = _______________

Fill in the blank

1.1 Identify characteristics of geometric progression:
EXERCISE 1: Complete each of the sequence below to form an geometric progression.

g) 2, _____ , 8 , ______ , 32 , 64 b) 3, 9, 27 , ______ , 243 , ________ c) 4, ______ , ______ , ________ , 1024 m) -3, _____, -12, -24, _____,______ o) y, _____, _______, ________, y
5

1.2 Determine whether a given sequence is an geometric progression EXERCISE 2 :

-8, 4, -2,…… 5, 11, 17, 23,… 16, -8, 4,…..

r = common ratio 4 −2 1 − r = − 8 = 4 = 2 (true)

2. k , k + 4 , 2k + 2 are the first three terms of an geometric progression,find the value of k.
k +4 2k +2 = k k +4
Note: If x,y and z are three terms of an geometric progression ,

k + 4k + 4k + 16 = 2k + 2k 2 0 = k − 6k − 16 2 k − 6k − 16 = 0
(k – 8)(k + 2) = 0 k–8=0 ,k+2=0 Hence k = 8, k = -2

2

(k + 4)(k + 4) = k(2k + 2) 2

y z = x y

1.3

Determine by using formula:

a. specific terms in geometric progressions b. the number of terms in geometric progressions

Tn = ar

n −1

Find the 7

th

term of the geometric

- 8, 4 , -2 , …..
r=
4 1 =− −8 2

progression.

Solution: a=-8

Tn = ar n −1

T7 = (-8)( −12 )7-1
1 6 =( − )(− ) 8 2

Other method, list out the GP,

1 = (−8)( ) 64
=

-8, 4, -2, 1, -½, ¼, ( )

a (r − 1) Sn = , r >1 r −1
n

OR

a (1 − r ) Sn = , r <1 1− r
n

1.Find the sum of the first n terms of geometric progressions

1 3 2 9 4 27

a) 2, - 4, 8,………… n= 7
b) 5, 10, 20……….. n = 9

1 64

The sum of a specific number of consecutive terms of geometric progressions

1 4, 2, 1,………… 64

1 64

The sum of a specific number of consecutive terms of geometric progressions 1, 3, 9,……. 2187.

The sum of a specific number of consecutive terms of geometric progressions

24,

12, 6,

3 ……. 4

1 2

1 2
3

Example 14and If .Find the value T = 27 T =8 of 3the first6 term a and the common ratio r. T T6 Hence, find the sum 3from to 1 . Tn = ar n − 2

3

27 128  2    1

T6 = ar = 27 2 T3 = ar = 8
(I) (II)

5

r3

3 2 a( ) = 8 2 …(II) 9 a( ) = 8 4 4 27 a = × ) 8 ( = 9 8
…(I)
32 = 9
=3 5 9

ar

=8

3

27 64 3 4

3 r= 2

1 2

1 2
3

IfExample 14 and .Find the value T = 27 T =8 of 3the first6 term a and the common ratio r. T T6 Hence, find the sum 3from to n− 1 . 3 T = ar
n

3

27 128  2    1

T6 = ar = 27 2 T3 = ar =8, 8
(I) (II)

5

r = 2 …(I)
3 × 2

…(II) 12, 18, 27

3 × 2

27 r Sum= 8 from
3

T3 to T6

3

27 64 3 4

= 8r+=3+ 18 + 27 12 = 65
2

1 2

1 2
3

If 14 (a) and . Find the No T4 = 375 T3 = 75 value of the first term a and the common ratio r. T T6 Hence, find the sum 3from to 1 . T = ar n −
n

3

27 128  2    1

T4 = ar = 375 2 T3 = ar = 75
(I) (II)

3

…(I) …(II)

ar = 75
2

2

a (5)

= 75

375 r = 75

a ( 25) =75

3

27 64 3 4

r =5

75 a= 25
=3

1 2

1 2
3

If No 14(a) and .Find the = = value of the first term a and the common ratio r. Hence, find the sum from to .
=

=

3

×
75, 375,

×
1875,

×
9375

27 128  2    1

Sum from
= 11700

to

3

= 75 + 375 + 1875 + 9375

27 64 3 4

If 14 (b) and . Find the No =− = value of the first term a and the common ratio r. Hence, find the sum from to − . =

= =
     

= =−
=−

…(I) …(II)

=−
=−

(I) (II)

− = −
=

=−

If No 14(b) and .Find the =− =− = value of the first term a and the common ratio r. Hence, find the sum from to .
= −

×−
-12,
     

×−
48,

×−
768

×−
- 3072

- 192,

Sum from
= - 2448

to

= 48 + (-192) + 768 + (-3072)

If and . Find the = =− value of the first term a. Hence, find the sum from to = .

No 14 (c)

− −

=

[−− ]
− −

[
     

−−

]=
=

=

=

If = and .Find the =− value of the first term a. Hence, find the sum from to .
×− ×− ×− ×− ×−

No 14(c)

   

Sum from
= +−

to
+ +−

= −

Example 15 Determine the maximum number of terms for Sn < 95 with a= , r = 2.

=

− −

=

− − 1

<

<

− <
− < <

×

<
<

<

Maximum n = 10

Example 15 Determine the maximum number of terms for Sn < 95 with a= , r = 2.

=

− −

=

− − 1

<

<

− <
− < <

×

<
<

<

Maximum n = 10

No 15(a) Determine the maximum number of terms for each of the following GP so that their sum is equal to or less than the value given.

a. Sn = 2730, with a = 2, r = 4.

=

− −

=
=

=

− −

− =

×

− = =
n=6

=

No 15(b) Determine the maximum number of terms for each of the following GP so that their sum is equal to or less than the value given.

b. Sn < 1500, with a = 3, r = 2.

=

− −

=

1

<

− −

− <
− < <

÷

<
<

<
<
Maximum n = 8

No 15(c) Determine the maximum number of terms for each of the following GP so that their sum is equal to or less than the value given.

b. Sn < 1600, with a = 0.8, r = 1.5.

=

− −

=

<

− −


<
<

<
<
Maximum n = 17

− < < <

No 15(d) Determine the maximum number of terms for each of the following GP so that their sum is equal to or less than the value given.

b. Sn < 1.4 x 10 , with a = 1, r =3

=

=

− −

<

×

− −


<
<
< < <

<
<
Maximum n = 11

, , , ,, , , , ,

。。。

8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.03125, 0.015625, 0.0078125, 0.00390625, 0.001953125, 0.000976562, 0.000488281, 0.00024414, 0.00012207, 0.000061, 0.000030517, =0
If cor r to 4 d ect p

=

− −

If n bigger enough and |r| < 1

=

=

− −

Find the sum to infinity. 8, 2, ½ ,
= =



=
=

=

Example:
 
=
  

=−

=

=

∞ = Example 17 Find the common ratio if given the sum to infinity is 30 and the first term is 10. a = 10

r=?


  

=

=
= −

=
=
=


− =

Example 18 Rearrange 48, 3, 12, -1.5, -96, -6 and -24 to form a geometric progression. -96, 48, -24, 12, -6, 3, -1.5
=
  

=−
=−

=
=


=−
=−

=

=

=−

=

=−

=

=

=

=

=

GP: -96, 48, -24, 12, -6, 3, -1.5

=

18a. a=5 A geometric progression has a first term of 5 and a fifth term of 80. Find the two possible values of the common ratio.

=
  

=
=

=

=
= −

Express each of the recurring decimal below as a fraction in its simplest form.

= 0.33333333333…
= 0.3 + 0.03 + 0.003 + ….. 0.3



0.03 0.003 +… 0.333…
= =

= =

=

Express each of the recurring decimal below as a fraction in its simplest form.
••

= 4.121212121212….
= 4 + 0.12 + 0.0012 + …..
•• ••

0.12
  

0.0012 0.000012 +… 0.121212…
= =

= +

= +
= +
=

If 0.3333333333…
  

r = 0.1 r = 0.01 r = 0.001

If 0.1212121212… If 0.456456456…

=? If 0.123412341234… r =r 0.0001



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