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IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MOST BENEFICENT THE MOST MERCIFUL

GROUP MEMBERS
Muhammad Irfan Muzamil Mehmood Naima Zarar [SP09-BET-053] [SP09-BET-064] [SP09-BET-066]

PROJECT TITLE
DESIGN OF MULTIBAND RF FILTER FOR MOBILE NETWORKS

FILTERS
Filters are electronic circuits which are able to perform signal processing functions, specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal and pass the wanted ones.

RF FILTERS
Radio frequency (RF) filters represent a class of electronic filter, designed to operate on signals in the megahertz to gigahertz frequency ranges. This frequency range is the range used by most broadcast radio, television, wireless communication (cell phones, Wi-Fi, etc.),most RF and microwave devices will include some kind of filtering on the signals transmitted or received.

FILTER FUNCTIONS
Four desirable general filter functions are as fallows; Band-pass filter: select only a desired band of frequencies. Band-stop filter: eliminate an undesired band of frequencies. Low-pass filter: allow only frequencies below a cutoff frequency to pass. High-pass filter: allow only frequencies above a cutoff frequency to pass.

MULTI-BAND FILTER
Multi-band filters are used to separate the frequency components of a signal and pass certain selected frequency ranges while filtering out other frequency ranges. This divides the frequency spectrum into a series of pass bands and stop bands separated by transition bands. A multi-band filter is characterized by the limits and characteristics of each band and by a few overall characteristics.

FILTER TECHNOLOGIES
On basis of technology filters are categorized as; Lumped-Element LC Filters. Planar Filters. Coaxial Filters. Cavity Filters. Dielectric Filters. Electro-acoustic Filters. Waveguide Filters.

PLANAR FILTERS
Microstrip transmission lines can make good RF Planar filters and offer a better compromise in terms of size and performance. The processes used to manufacture micro-strip circuits is very similar to the processes used to manufacture printed circuit boards and these filters have the advantage of largely being planar. Precision planar filters are manufactured using a thin-film process. Higher Q factors can be obtained by using low loss tangent dielectric materials for the substrate.

MICRO STRIP
Micro strip is a type of electrical transmission line that serves the purpose of conveying microwavefrequency signals. It consists of a conducting strip differentiated from ground by a dielectric layer known as the substrate. Figure shows the micro-strip structure.

Figure :General Micro-Strip Structure

GOAL
Our Goal is to design a multiband filter on Advance Design System (Software) with following specifications;

Substrate: FR4. Technology: Microstrip Transmission Line. Bands: Minimum two bands. Gain: Greater than 10dB for each band. Bandwidth: In MHz . Operating Range: Between 0.5GHz to 4GHz.

Design Strategies

Classical approach with an input/output power


divider/combiner.

Use of input multiplexer with power combiner.


Micro-strip Technology.

Classical Approach
Channel # 1

Bandpass Filter

Input Power Divider


Channel # 2

Output Bandpass Filter Power Combiner

. . . .
Channel # N

Bandpass Filter

Draw Back

Large circuit size. High power loss in signal splitting.

Critical matching process.


Costly.

Multiplexer/Combiner Strategy
Channel # 1

Input Multiplexer

. Channel # 2 . . .

Output Power Combiner

Channel # N

Draw Back
Wide band power combiner. Critical matching process.

Micro-strips
We designed our project using Micro-strips because of ;

Low cost. Small size.

Less losses.
Easily to tune. No complex matching. Less complex hardware.

DESIGN

Figure: Dual-Band Pass Filter Schematic

DESIGN (CONT.)

Figure: Multi-Band Band Pass Filter Schematic

DESIGN (CONT.)

Figure: Dual-Band Pass Filter

Figure: Multi Band Pass Filter

LIMITATIONS
These schematics are providing very good gain but they provide very limited bandwidth up to few hertz. So these are not reliable. So we move on towards new spectral shape using micro-strips. This give us good gain and good bandwidth in Mhz.

DESIGN (CONT.)

Figure: Dual-Band Pass Filter Schematic

DESIGN (CONT.)
FILTER BAND 1 Gain Central Freq. Lower Bound Upper Bound Band width -47.30 dB 2.135 GHz 2.004 GHz 2.205 GHz 201 MHz BAND 2 -26.56 dB 3.384 GHz 3.364 GHz 3.400 GHz 36 MHz
Figure: Dual-Band Pass Filter

DESIGN (CONT.)
FILTER Gain Central Freq. Lower Bound BAND 1 -26.082 dB 2.185 GHz 1.971 GHz BAND 2 -31.185 dB 3.832 GHz 3.789 GHz

Upper Bound
Band width

2.251 GHz
28 MHz

3.878 GHz
46 MHz
Figure: Dual-Band Pass Filter

DESIGN (CONT.)
FILTE R BAND 1 BAND 2

Gain

30.388 dB

27.794 dB

Central Freq. Lower Bound Upper Bound Band width

1.994G 3.728G Hz Hz 1.892G 3.706G Hz Hz 2.156H z 162MH z 3.691G Hz 15MHz


Figure: Dual-Band Pass Filter

DESIGN (CONT.)
FILTER Gain Central Freq. Lower Bound BAND 1 -64.857 dB 1.154 GHz 1.024 GHz BAND 2 -58.997 dB 3.475 GHz 3.386 GHz

Upper Bound
Band width

1.275 GHz
121 MHz

3.549 GHz
163 MHz
Figure: Dual-Band Pass Filter

DESIGN (CONT.)
FILTE R Gain BAND 1 -34.223 dB BAND 2 -23.657 dB BAND 3 -18.224 dB

Centr al Freq. Lower Bound Upper Bound Band width

1.452 GHz

2.325 GHz

3.199 GHz

1.425 GHz 1.554 GHz 102 MHz

2.302 GHz 2.347 GHz 22 MHz

3.182 GHz 3.213 GHz 14 MHz

Figure: Triple-Band Pass Filter

DESIGN (CONT.)
FILTE R BAND 1 BAND 2 BAND 3

Gain
Central Freq. Lower Bound Upper Bound Band width

-53.873 -22.443 -27.301 dB dB dB


2.421 GHz 2.319 GHz 2.532 GHz 213 MHz 2.974 GHz 2.848 GHz 3.198 GHz 35 MHz 3.754 GHz 3.661 GHz 3.823 GHz 162 MHz
Figure: Triple-Band Pass Filter

Current Process
We had completed the whole project except the PCB fabrication .We are also trying to extend our work up to 4 bands. Hopefully we will do this advancement till next FYP presentation.

ANY QUESTION ?

THANK YOU