A low-cost operation compared to chemical processing

Refining/affining is the process of purification of a substance.

The term is usually used for a natural resource that is almost usable in form, but which is more useful in its pure form. Involves TWO BRANCHES: SEPARATION and CONVERSION Processes

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF CRUDE OIL •Top Fractions have lower boiling points than the fractions at the bottom. •The heavy bottom fractions are often cracked into lighter. . •All of the fractions are processed further in other refining units. more useful products.

OTHER PROCESSES Alkylation Hydrogenation Isomerization Polymerization Reforming Dehydrogenation .

ENERGY BALANCES Energy expense for refining has been the most important manipulatable cost. of energy has been the object of the study. Conservation .

Direct Digital Control (DDC) computer designed to optimized variables. . The great needs of growing petroleum industry led to careful study of : Fluid Flow Heat transfer Properties of Petroleum Fractions • Use of instruments and control systems.

Heat Exchangers .SEPARATION PROCESS Major units are called Stills.  A crude Still consists of:  1.

Furnace 3.2. Fractionating tower .

Steam strippers 5. Condensers .4.

. etc.Coolers 7.) .6.tanks.Other Auxilliaries (pipes.

UNIT OPERATIONS USED IN SEPARATION PROCESS: 1. Cooling towers become less effective with time. Heat transfer. .Transfer coefficients change daily as fouling occurs. 2. Fluid operation that must not permit unexpected failure because of fire and explosion might ensue.

when a solvent of low volatility is added to depress the volatility of one of the components.3.  . Distillation Undesirable light volatiles remove by steam stripping  Tower contacting material consists of bubble caps and packings designed to reduce Pressure drop while increasing vapor-liquid contact  Extractive Distillation.


5.used to remove wax precipitated from wax containing distillates 7. waxes must be crystallized to suitably sized crystals by cooling and stirring. (e. Absorption-used to separate high-boilers from gases. Crystallization.used for recovering heavy metals from gases.g. Activated Charcoal) 6. Adsorption. . 8.Before Filtration.removal of a component by selectively dissolving it in a liquid.4. Extraction. Filtration.

CONVERSION PROCESSES Cracking/ Pyrolysis Polymerization Alkylation Hydrogenation Hydrocracking Isomerization Reforming/ Aromatization Esterification & Hydration .

CRACKING OR PYROLYSIS  The breaking down of large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller molecules by heat or catalytic action. . Zeolite catalysts are common.

we will obtain an alkane and an alkene from different types: CH3-CH3 + CH2=CH2 3rd possibility: breaking of a C-H bond we will obtain an alkene and hydrogen gas: CH2=CH-CH2-CH3 + H2 this is very useful since the catalyst can be recycled. we will obtain an alkane and an alkene : CH4 + CH2=CH-CH3 2nd possibility : breaking is done on the CH2-CH2 bond.Example: cracking of butane CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3  1st possibility : breaking is done on the CH3-CH2 bond. CH3-CH2* / *CH2-CH3.   . CH3* / *CH2-CH2-CH3.

 .CRACKING OR PYROLYSIS Hydrocarbons break into two or more fragments and one of them is always an olefin.  Cracking reactions are endothermic and energy involved is high. catalyst stripping.  Orthoflow catalytic cracking converter is a typical unit carrying out reaction. regeneration and catalyst circulation in a single converter.


improves color. reduces metallic contamination.Hydrocracking  strong processing in the presence of hydrogen. Hydrotreating  is a mild processing in the presence of hydrogen. desulfured. demetallized and stabilized. . improves storage stability.  Light and heavy oils are altered to distillable light products of good quality.

 Consists of isomerization and cracking.  Fractions are subjected to high temperature catalytic treatment in the presence of hydrogen.REFORMING Forming new molecules of size similar to the original ones. Aromatic compounds have high octane rating  Catalysts: platinum on alumina or silica-alumina .  CATALYTIC REFORMING  Involves conversion of hydrocarbons into aromatic compounds.

COKING  Lighter oils can be produced from very heavy ones by solely thermal cracking process. . The feed is usually a vacuum residue and considerable coke is formed.

OXIDATION  Oxidation-conversion gives more trouble than useful products.g. formaldehyde from the oxidation of methanol and natural gas. some serviceable products are obtained from petroleum by oxidation. . Blown Asphalt production. forming gums and resins that interfere with the employment of gasolines.  E.  However.

POLYMERIZATION The linking of similar molecules.  Converts by-product hydrocarbon gases produces in cracking into liquid hydrocarbons suitable for use as high-octane motor and aviation fuels and for petrochemicals.  Isobutylene Diisobutylene Tetrapropylene (mixed isomers) . joining together of light olefins.

 Accomplished on a commercial scale with 2 catalysts: hydrogen fluoride and sulfuric acid.ALKYLATION The union of an olefin with an aromatic or paraffinic hydrocarbon  Unsaturated +isosaturated saturated branched chain  Process are exothermic and similar to polymerization.  . they differ in that part of charging stock need to be unsaturated  Alkylate products contains no olefins and has higher octane rating.

which alkylate isobutane  isobutane propene . range: 15-35°C  The catalyst protonates the alkenes (propene. butene) to produce reactive carbocations.HF ALKYLATION PROCESS Acid hydrocarbon ratio is 2:1.  Temp.

ISOMERIZATION  Alteration of the arrangement of the atoms in a molecule without changing the number of atoms. n-butane iso-butane .

3. resins and asphaltic materials. 2. 5. .CHEMICAL TREATMENT  To remove or alter the impurities in petroleum products to produce marketable material. 6. purposes are achieved: Improvement of color Improvement of odor Removal of sulfur compounds Removal of gums.  1. One or more of the ff. Improvement of susceptibility to additives. 4. Improvement of stability to light and air.

 To maintain competitive position. distillation.  Development in 2 phases:  1st phase: unit operations.  2nd phase: study of chemical changes. fluid flow and the like. heat transfer. petroleum compounds must be chemically altered to obtain products of great usefulness or value.  .RESEARCH The petroleum industry has been characterized by continuous improvement.


 . so many historically processes have become economically or technologically obsolete.  The business changes very rapidly as new process simplified old ones.  Over 3000 individual petrochemicals enter into commerce. first produced by standard Oil New Jersey in 1920.HISTORY The 1st organic chemical made on a large scale from a petroleum base was isopropyl alcohol.






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