Welding

• The process of joining two similar or dissimilar metallic components with the application of heat, with or without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler metal. • Heat may be obtained by chemical reaction, electric arc, electrical resistance, frictional heat, sound and light energy. • If no filter metal is used during welding then it is termed as Autogenous Welding Process'.

Welding
• • • • • • • • • • Heat Source Pressure Force Fixture Filler Material Joint preparations Flux Cleaning Inert Atmosphere Heat Treatment Safety

Welding
• Classification
– Heat Source and Type of Interaction
• Gas(Oxy-acetylene,Oxy-hydrogen) • Arc(Carbon,Shielded metal,Submerged,TIG,MIG, Electro-slag,Plasma etc) • Resistance(Spot,seam) • Solid State(Forge ,Cold pressure,Friction,Explosive,Diffusion) • Thermo Chemical(Thermit Welding & Pressure Thermit) • Radiant Energy (Laser, Electron Beam)

Metal Joining • • • • • • Fabrication & Repair Joint Faster & economical Can join dissimilar materials Not integral except solid state welding Hazardous .

Applications • • • • • • • Aircraft Automobile Civil Construction Pressure vessels. tanks & containers Rail Roads Piping On Ships & underwater welding .

Gas Welding – Heat of combustion of Oxygen with Acetylene or any other fuel gas to generate a flame with intense heat. – Copper coated Filler Material melts & fuses together the edges of the parts to be welded .

Gas Welding .

– Reducing(Carburizing) • Rich in C2H2.forms hard. High carbon content implies C2 mixing with the base metal producing hard & brittle outer layer. Acetylene feather exists between inner cone & outer envelope. . 3500 deg C. Extra O2 at high temperatures combines with the base metal.5:1.0 burns with a loud roar.low strength oxides and not used in welding of steel.• Types of Flames – Neutral • O2 & C2H2 equal. No chemical change effects in base metal. Shorter outer envelope tends to fan out at the end.brittle. Short but pointed blue cone. – Oxidizing • O2:C2H2::1. Well defined light blue inner core surrounded by dark blue envelope. 3260 deg C. 3000 deg C. Hence called carburizing.

neat – More consumption of filler – Joint is not visible – For thinner sections . – Preheating achieved – Good control.• Leftward/Forehand – Flame away & the filler directed towards the completed weld.

• Rightward/Backhand – Flame towards the completed weld & filler rod in between. – Lesser consumption of filler – Joint is visible – For thick sections – Better quality with lesser defects .

Boric Acid.filing or grinding . Lime. pastes or liquids Fusible & non-metallic To remove the oxide film & to maintain a clean surface Prevents oxidation Higher affinity to O2. reacts readily forms oxides & floats over the top of the weld bead to cover it from further contamination. – Removal later on by chipping. Magnesium Powder.• Flux – – – – – – Borax.

portable • Disadvantages – – – – – – Not economical for heavy sections Flame temperature is lesser than that of an Arc Refractory (W. Ta) & reactive (Ti. Mo.Gas Welding • Advantages – – – – Versatile Good control for welder Slow heating & cooling rates. minimizes property changes Low cost. Zr) metals can not be welded Prolonged heating implies greater HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) Flux shielding is insufficient Safety in storing O2 & Fuel gases .

• Applications – Thin section welding – Heat sensitive materials’ joining – Joins almost all ferrous & non-ferrous metals – In automotive & aircraft industries .

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known as a shielding gas.Electric ARC Welding • Heating with an electric ARC • Application of pressure & filler metal is optional • Uses either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current. and consumable or nonconsumable electrodes. The welding region is sometimes protected by some type of inert or semi-inert gas. and/or an evaporating filler material. .

• Electrode is flux coated or bare • Twin electrodes can put workpiece out of the electric circuit • Polarities can be reversed while welding different materials • DC gives one polarity at a time • AC reverses the polarities in cycles which aids arc cleaning action .ARC Welding • Arc is struck/drawn between an electrode & the workpiece • Electrode is consumable or non-consumable.

more HAZ • DCRP. lesser HAZ • AC. job negative. better control. implies cyclic. more electrode life & optimum HAZ • More the angle more the penetration • Angle implies stability to the arc • Negative waveform controls penetration • Positive waveform controls arc cleaning action .• DCSP. job positive.

Carbon Arc Welding – Single or Twin Electrode – Inert gas is optional – Arc struck between pure graphite or baked non-consumable Carbon electrode & the workpiece – In twin type the arc is struck between the two electrodes only & the workpiece doesn’t form a part of the electric circuit – The power source is AC to keep electrodes at same temp. – DC Straight polarity & longer arc lengths to avoid Carbon infusion into the base metal. – Filler is used has the similar composition to job & size similar to that of electrodes. .

• Advantages
– – – – – – Heat input controlled with arc length adjustments Less distortion Easy to mechanize process Butt welding of thinner jobs Simple & less skill required Cost is relatively low

• Disadvantages
– Carbon infusion – Separate filler metal – Poor quality, prone to welding defects

• Applications
– Non ferrous metals & alloys – In preheating, brazing – In castings’ repairs

Flux shielded metal arc welding
– Arc between flux coated consumable electrode & the job – No separate filler metal required – Flux is in-built – Temperature can be controlled by varying arc current – Flux coating of electrode decomposes due to arc heat & protects weld metal ,arc stability etc.

• Advantages – Simplest of all arc welding processes – Portable & fairly low cost – Flux & filler are inbuilt – Wide range of metals & their alloys can be welded – Any position welding possible (even overhead) • Disadvantages – Delicate electrode & coating makes mechanization difficult – Fumes & slag obstruct the metal transfer – Poor control – Electrode length is limited, changeovers lead to welding defects – Due to flux coated electrode, chances of slag entrapment & other related defects are more compared to TIG or MIG • Applications – Most of the metals coatings are available hence welding range is higher – In repairs & maintenance – Huge tanks, ship building, pressure vessels, piping, bridges, aircraft & automotives industry

arc length & Voltage are inversely proportional to current & hence the burn off rate .Submerged Arc welding – Arc between a bare metal electrode & job – Arc & weld pool hidden under blanket of molten flux – Flux serves as a shield against atmospheric contamination – Electrode is consumable & serves as filler – Flux is conductive once molten. – Arc is struck with the help of steel wool – Electrode is wire fed continuously – Arc length is self adjusting.

bridges. poor control – More fixtures – Only flat position welds – Flux pre-placing & removal – Cast iron & non-ferrous metal alloys can not be welded Applications – Fabrication of railroads. vessels.• • • Advantages – Weld thicker sections – High welding speeds – Less distortion – Small HAZ – Single pass weld – Smoke. depositing wear resisting alloys – Welding medium & low carbon steels . fumes. sparks virtually absent – Neat appearance – Can be carried out in windy areas Disadvantages – Weld is hidden. boilers – Ship building & nuclear power industry – Hard-facing.

or touch & glow method – Separate filler metal is required – Inert gas cylinder etc. He or N2 – Arc is struck with HF unit. minimize contamination . are ad-ons – Electrode is thoriated or zirconiated to increase current carrying.Tungsten Inert Gas welding – Arc between non-consumable tungsten electrode & the job – Shielding by an inert gas Ar.

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better control All position welds Less spatter High quality for thinner sections Good for Aluminum & Stainless steel Slower than MIG Tungsten inclusion are hard & brittle High cost Inert gas atmosphere is a must • Disadvantages • Applications Welding refractory metals Welding non-ferrous metal alloys Welding thinner sections Welding expansion bellows. rocket motor chamber fabrication . – Precision welding in atomic energy area. can sealing joints. instrument diaphragms.• Advantages – – – – – – – – – – – – – – No flux hence no entrapment defects Clear visibility. transistor cases.

– Shielding by inert gas – Welding rate controlled with self adjusting arc principle . – Arc between a continuously wire fed consumable metal electrode & the job – Separate filler not required – No flux.Metal Inert Gas Welding – Also called gas metal arc welding.

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• Advantages – – – – – Faster than TIG Deeper penetration Both thick & thin jobs possible Easy to mechanize No flux • Disadvantages – – – – – – – – Complex Air drafts may disrupt the gas shielding Higher base metal cooling rates Not for outdoors Welding tool steels & dies Manufacturing refrigerator parts Aircraft. civil. automotive industry Non ferrous metals & their alloys • Applications .

Flux Cored Metal Arc Welding – Consumable tubular wire filled inside with flux & alloy additions – Shielding gas is optional & flux alone will do. – Flux ingredients create gas atmosphere after melting & float on the top to cover the weld pool from contamination – Electrode is wire fed .

• Advantages – – – – – – – – – – – – – – High quality. flexible welding tech Neat appearance Variety of steels & wide ranges of thicknesses Easy to mechanize High travel speeds Only for ferrous metals. Especially steels Slag cleaning Expensive Only for flat welding position Replaces MIG For surfacing & build-up Only for ferrous metals & their alloys to any thickness ranges Bulldozer frames & blades Tractors & other locomotive fabrications • Disadvantages • Applications .

– A progressive welding technique – The order is solidifying weld. .Electro-slag welding – Arc between the consumable electrode metal & the job – Arc melts the flux to form the slag & then extinguished – Slag is maintained in molten state with the aid of its resistance to flow of current between the electrode & the job – The molten slag temperature is enough to melt the electrode & aid the deposition – The weld pool fills in from the bottom to the top of the weld. molten metal from electrode & molten slag above all.

Metal Joining

• Advantages
– – – – – – Easy joint preparations Thick sections readily welded High deposition rates Less distortion No spatter, fumes Low flux consumption

• Disadvantages
– Less economical than SMAW – Difficult to close cylindrical welds – Vertical uphill position only

• Applications
– Heavy plates, forgings – Uniform thickness castings – High strength structural steels

Plasma Arc Welding
– Arc Plasma is temporary state of gas – The gas gets ionized with the passage if electric current & breaks into electrons & positive ions. – The energy of this plasma is utilized in welding. – Every arc welding is a partially ionized plasma but this is a deliberate attempt on full scale – The water cooled nozzle employed constricts the arc & stabilizes it with an impingement effect.

better control though – Used for plating.• Non-transferred Arc process – Arc between electrode (-) & water cooled constricting nozzle (+) initiated by HF unit – Arc plasma emerges out as a flame – Workpiece is not part of the circuit – Lesser energy density. spraying • Transferred Arc process – – – – Arc between electrode (-) & job (+) Higher energy density. higher plasma jet velocity Mainly used for cutting instead of welding Can cut stainless steel & non-ferrous metals .

uniform penetration.• Advantages – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Arc stability. simplified fixture Can weld thicker sections Excellent weld quality Radiography quality welds at high speeds Infra-red & ultraviolet radiations High decibel noise Chances of electrical hazards Complicated equipment Inert gas consumption is high Single run autogenous welds In tube mill applications Welding cryogenic alloys Welding of steel rocket motor cases Nuclear sub-marine pipe system Welding of refractory metals For melting high melting point metals For spraying & cutting as well • Disadvantages • Applications .

. Resistance & Time of current flow – Heat is generated with the increase in current. – Increasing current density can decrease the time for the weld. Heat. so that the parts can be joined with the application of pressure. Current. -No fluxes are used. and filler metal rarely used. -Pressure is applied through the electrodes.Resistance Welding -Pressure welding processes in which heavy current is passed for short time through the area of interface of metals to be joined. – Heat & application of pressure – H=I²RT. -Heat is generated in localized area which is enough to heat the metal to sufficient temperature.

Metal Joining • Resistance Welding – Resistance of the workpieces R3.R6 – Resistance between the faying surfaces R4 – R4 must be optimum & relatively higher to obtain a sound weld & to avoid overheating .R5 – Resistance of electrodes R1.R7 – Contact resistance between electrode & work surfaces R2.

time lag to the second weld . – Off. passes through electrodes & workpieces – Hold. current flows. sustained pressure at the welding point when the last impulse of current seizes. initiation. upper electrode gradually applies pressure & current starts flowing at the end of the cycle – Weld.• Resistance Welding – Squeeze.

• Advantages – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Fast No filler Semi-automatic Less skilled labour Less weld defects Both similar & dissimilar metals welded High initial cost High maintenance Surface preparations Bigger job thicknesses not possible Joining sheets. tubes Metal furniture Aviation & automotive industry Making fuel tanks of cars & tractors Making wire fabric • Disadvantages • Applications . rods. bars.

Resistance Spot Welding – Rocker arm machine • Frame which is the main body of the machine. water flow. hold & squeeze etc are available • Operated with foot lever or air cylinder • Other variants are press type machine & a portable gun • In press type machine the job can be clamped on the Knee table . houses transformer & the tap switch • Upper is movable & lower arm is fixed • Welding electrodes on both the arms • Water lines to avoid overheating of electrode & to cool weld. • Step down transformer is used which reduces the voltage & proportionally increases the current • Different knob controls to adjust current flow.

– Circular welding electrodes. – Coalescence at the faying surfaces is produced by heat obtained from the resistance to current under pressure. – Air tight.Resistance Seam Welding – Continuous type of spot welding wherein spot welds overlap each other. continuous overlapping chain the spot welds – Current applied is intermittent .

– Welding of a nut on the automotive chasis.Resistance Projection Welding – Two or more than two spot welds made simultaneously by making projection of w/p. – Weld formation is localized & predetermined with the projection formation – Electrodes are flat – Projections help increase current density at the desired point – Specially used for thicker welds & selective welding – More electrode life – Forming precise projections is added cost. .

– Pressure is applied & maintained throughout the welding cycle – Heat is obtained due to resistance to current at contact/abutting surfaces – Pressure force is later on increased to induce forging effect after the current is cut off – Pieces to be joined are clamped & fed in axially to meet & start the welding current – Used in wire drawing industries .Resistance Upset/Butt Welding – Used for joining metal pieces end to end.

• Resistance Flash Butt Welding – One clamp is movable. the current is switched on to initiate a flash. movable piece is fed at a controlled but accelerated rate – Flashing continues & the pieces attain the welding temperature wherein the pressure increased to the peak value to forge the mating parts & get a sound weld – Fins of the expelled molten metal can be later on removed . other fixed – Once the pieces to be joined are in light contact. while incandescent metal particles being expelled from the metal pieces.

Metal Joining .

Solid state welding Base materials to be joined are heated to a temperature below or just up to the solidus temperature and then continuous pressure is applied to form the weld. Ni. Zn. Cu. Ag. • It’s a controlled deformation process • This welding is characterized by a deep indention & significant reduction in the base metal thickness at the joint • Suitable Al. the beneath lies the metal • With the application of pressure. the oxide layer fragments to allow the base metal deform plastically & get welded at molecular level. Pb. Cd like ductile metals • Not a feasible choice for high strength ferrous metals as it requires enormous pressure . • Cold Welding – Only mechanical pressure – No application of heat – At least one of the metals to be joined needs to be ductile with no extreme work hardening • A metals surface adsorbs moisture & forms an oxide layer below it.

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g.• Cold Welding – Surface cleaning is critical • Base metal must be free of all the contaminants such as oil. small transistors Wire joining in the drawing process . grease. dirt etc. • Degreasing & motor driven wire brushing is advisable • Welding must take place within next half an hour or before – Joints • Butt joints is popular in wire drawing industry • Lap joints are used in packaging industry – Equipments • Punch presses • Rollers • Static loads – Applications • • • • Cladding & joining of many similar or dissimilar metals Especially for welding metals in the explosive areas To join miniature electrical/electronic parts e.

e. less stable welds – Cleaning is critical: Mechanical abrasion/grinding.Diffusion (Bonding) Welding – Transmigration of atoms – Application of pressure at an elevated temperatures – Faying surfaces actually grow together with atomic diffusion with no macroscopic deformation with no relative motion between the parts. (Ti. – Heating below 1100°C fastens the diffusion process – Individual peaks & valleys i. Ni. Ag) – Low temperature diffusion bonding process wherein the filler metal forms the eutectic compound with the base metals to aid diffusion. • Eutectic fusion bonding – The filler material with low melting point is kept in between the faying surfaces. – Low strength. surface roughness are deformed at the microscopic level for surfaces to mate at the cohesive force level – At an elevated temperatures thermodynamic instability causes movement/migrations at atomic level & helps diffusion. Chemical etching etc is used . – Base metals with different temperature gradients diffuse easily • Gas pressure bonding – Parts to be joined are held in contact to an elevated temperature of about 815°C & an inert gas pressure is built up around simultaneously • Vacuum fusion bonding – In vacuum parts are pressed mechanically at an elevated temperature. Used for ferrous metals wherein the pressure & temperature required are more.

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t. aerospace.• Diffusion Bonding – – – – – – Autogenous welds possible Continuous leak-tight welding Well suited for ceramics Cleaning & removal of oxide layer is difficult Not for mass production Time consuming & control of pressure.r. temperature w. – The B1 Bomber & Space shuttle construction are classic applications of diffusion bonding – Fabrication of composite materials . time is difficult for dissimilar metals – Applied in atomic industry.

– Ultrasonic frequency (@20Khz up to 170KHz) is capable of disintegrating the surface oxide layer & disperses the moisture hence only degreasing is required prior to the weld. The combination of pressure & vibrations causes movement of the metal molecules & brings about a sound union between the mating surfaces – Very fast process under moderate pressures with no application of heat. filler rod. .Ultrasonic Welding – Local application of high frequency vibratory energy to the mating surfaces held together under clamping pressure – Vibration induces oscillating shear stress parallel to the weld interface of the clamped job.

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the anvil assembly is structurally isolated form the welder frame. • Timer – Controls the weld intervals in different types of welds. Both sonotrode tip & the anvil are faced with the high speed steel to impart wear resistance • Force application device – Provides static clamping force normal to the plane of weld.– Equipment • Frequency converter – Provides high frequency electrical power at the designed frequency • Transducer-coupling system – Converts electrical power into elastic vibratory power & a coupling system including sonotrode (Ni based super alloy. To prevent energy loss. . Pieces to be welded are clamped between the sonotrode tip & an Anvil • Anvil – It is analogous to the table where the job is placed & provides the necessary reaction to the clamping force. high fatigue) tip which conducts the vibratory power to the weld zone.

. – Heavy sections require more welding time than thinner sections – An ultrasonic weld usually takes few seconds to complete.– Welding Variables • Clamping force – Ensures the contact between the welding tip & welding surfaces – Proper clamping force permit the shortest weld interval – Too much of a clamping force damages the surface in contact with the workpiece. • Power requirements – Higher for thicker/harder materials & less for thinner/soft materials – Power means high frequency electrical watts delivered to the transducer. • Time – High power short weld time produces superior welds to low power longer weld time welds.

square or rectangular shaped closed welds • Line Welding – Sonotrode tip instead of a spherical radius has elongated geometry so as to produce a narrow line welds • Continuous Seam Welding – Work-pieces are clamped between a rotating circular sonotrode tip & a traversing table.– Types of Ultrasonic welds • Spot welding – Individually spaced or overlapping spots • Ring Welding – Circular welds in the diameter ranging from 3mm to 50mm – Also oval. – Continuous seam welds may overlap & produce total bonding over the extended surface area. .

not economical • Possibility of cold welding of base metal with the tip or anvil • Fatigue loading shortens the equipment life – Applications • • • • • For thinner work-pieces in lap joints Welding of glass Welding of electrical & electronic components Bi-metallic junctions In refrigeration & Air conditioning industry .– Advantages • • • • • • Surface preparation is not critical Not hazardous Dissimilar metals with vast difference in melting points can be joined Both thin & thick sections can be welded Virtually no HAZ & hence no micro-structural changes Welding of glass is possible – Disadvantages • High initial cost.

• Slight melting takes place which very negligible hence this is a solid state welding process only.Explosive Welding • During the 1st world war. TNT. • Explosive detonation velocity must be less than the sonic velocity of the flyer & parent plate material. the explosion wave-front travels over the flyer surface & introduces extremely high normal pressure & slight shear pressure between the flyer & the parent plate for the weld to happen. triggered this welding method • Welding is induced with a high velocity movement triggered by a controlled detonation • Workpieces to be welded are two plates. • Explosives used: PETN. Datasheet (DU Pont) . called parent plate. RDX. steel shells of the exploded bombs occasionally stuck to the metallic objects in the vicinity. • There is a buffer plate may be of rubber above the flyer plate to avoid damage to it’s top surface. one is flyer. propelled by an explosive charge & the other plate is stationary. • The explosive charge is kept above the buffer plate • Parent plate rests on an anvil to limit the distortion of the final weld • Once the explosive is ignited & detonated.

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joining & cladding of metals • Dissimilar metals can be joined with a strong metallurgical bonds • Tantalum can be explosive welded to steel though it’s melting point is higher than the vapourization temperature of steel. • Heat exchanger tubes & pressure vessels .– Advantages • No microstructural effects. no HAZ • Very large surfaces can be bonded • Good explosive weld is stronger than the weaker of the materials to be joined – Disadvantages • • • • Noise & ground level vibrations Regulations relating the storage of explosives Thicker welds require high explosive charges Hard & brittle materials can not be processed – Applications • Welding.

One component is held in the chuck & rotated. the other one is coupled with a flywheel & rotated until gains enough kinetic energy to initiate the welding process. The workpieces are held together under pressure • Temperatures created are high enough to aid the plastic flow & intermolecular bonding – Friction Welding » Components are held in axial alignment. . The kinetic energy of the flywheel is converted into the heat & the forging action at the welding interface.Friction Welding & Inertia Welding • Heat obtained by mechanically induced sliding motion between rubbing surfaces. once attained the drive to flywheel is cut off & both the workpieces are instantly brought in contact under pressure. This continues till the time sufficient heat is developed at the mating with an increased axial pressure to ensure sound weld. – Inertia Welding » One of the components is clamped in a stationary chuck or fixture. the non-rotating component is clamped & fed in axially to form a pressure contact with each other.

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e. low power requirements • High speed & low cost • Not hazardous.– Advantages • Simple. gears & valves Production of cutting tools & their bodies Welding together the small forgings . no extra material cost – Disadvantages • Only butt joint is possible • Molten metal expulsion i. flash needs to be removed • Very rigid machine is required – Applications • • • • Combinations of metals can be welded Production of shafts.

later the mating surfaces are forge welded with applied pressure. – Thermit mixture is ignited in a crucible & poured into the mold cavity which houses the workpieces to be welded. Else only suffices with the heat & aid the plastic metal flow. exothermic reaction. This is non-explosive. – The thermit mixture also serves the filler material. . fusion weld. – Temperature ranges form 2000°C to 3000°C. The mixture is ignited with a magnesium wire. pressure weld.Thermo-chemical Welding • Thermit welding – Heating produced by the superheated liquid metal & slag resulting from the chemical reaction between a metal (Iron) oxide & Aluminium or magnesium with or without the application of pressure.

Thermit Welding .

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machine frames • Welding for cast pieces together • For replacing broken teeth on large gears .– Advantages • No costly power supply. on site repairs/welding is possible – Disadvantages • Economical for heavier sections & that too for ferrous metals only. – Applications • Rail-road repairs • Repairing or welding of large crankshafts.

intermittent joints are possible though. clamped & demagnetized prior welding to prevent deflection of the electron beam. With or without filler metal. . – The process is carried out in a vacuum chamber. The avalanche after hitting the workpiece surface looses the kinetic energy to generate heat. – Workpieces are cleaned. – The weld progresses with the electron beam over the joint. Demagnetized by passing through induction coil at 50Hz. – Butt joint can have a gap of 50 µ to 75µ. Most of the welds are continuous lines or circles.Radiant Energy Welding • Electron beam welding – Heat source is a concentrated beam composed of high velocity electrons.

Electron beam welding .

. the repelled electrons get attracted towards the ring shaped anode & get accelerated because of the tremendous potential difference between anode & cathode. cathode repels the electron so formed. – Prevents scattering of the beam & allows the emission at lower temperature. evacuates the electron gun & work chamber of air & other suspended particles.– Equipment • Electron beam gun – Tungsten filament when heated electrically at 2000°C emits electrons. • Vacuum pumping system – Rectangular in shape. – The beam thus formed is directed & concentrated through an electromagnetic focusing coil & the avalanche of electrons impinges on the joint. glass window to allow for in-process observation.

flux. aviation & automobile industry for welding reactive & refractory metals • To assemble cams. gear clusters & driven shafts • From thin foils to 50mm thick plates can be welded in one pass with more precision than TIG .– Advantages • • • • • • • • • High quality & speed Narrow HAZ Can weld highly reactive metals Ti. gas High initial cost Safety as emits X rays Highly skilled labour required Cost of vacuum is an ad-on – Disadvantages – Applications • Beam distance to weld can be varied without compromising with the quality of the weld. • In space. inaccessible parts can be welded. Zr in vacuum Precise small welds possible Free of filler.

– Once energized the Xenon converts the electrical energy into white light flashes.Laser beam welding – Concentrated coherent light (light waves are identical & parallel) beam impinging on the surfaces to be joined. The ends of the crystal are coated with silver serve as mirrors. The flash tube is energized by the capacitors through electrical discharge. the tube can convert the electrical energy into light. The chromium atoms with the light energy raised to the peak energy level & immediately drop back to an intermediate energy level releasing heat. . The crystal is surrounded by a flash tube/gun filled with inert gas Xenon. Eventually drop back to the original energy level with the evolution of discrete quantity of radiation in the form of red fluorescent light. The ruby crystal gets exposed to these intense light flashes. The crystal has got an aperture for the beam to exit. – Laser stands for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. – LASER is a device for concentrating light waves into a narrowly defined highly intense beam that can impart tremendous energy on a small area to produce fusion weld. – Man made ruby crystal which is nothing but Aluminium Oxide doped with Chromium serves the purpose.

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Amplification increases manifolds with the multiple reflection from the silver coated ends of the crystal. – An optical focusing lens produces a small intense spot of LASER (light) on the workpiece surface – This saturated optical energy is converted into heat on impingement on the workpiece surface – A minute puddle is melted & frozen in microseconds hence no protection needed such as flux.– The first such emission triggers it for the neighbouring atoms & the effect amplifies. – Finally the amplified beam bursts over a threshold & emerges out through the crystal aperture as a LASER beam. gas. vacuum etc. Thus the chain reaction follows with continuous light flashes falling on the ruby crystal & the red fluorescent light beam wandering inside the crystal along the length. .

sheet-sheet. controlled well. no microstructural changes Light can be focused. clean & needs no conduction – Disadvantages • High energy losses demand water cooling of the apparatus • Depths achieved are limited – Applications • • • • • High energy light beam that can both weld & cut Electronics industry for integrated circuits’ welding To join hard high melting point metal alloys Welding of microminiaturized components. tube-sheet . wire-sheet. Joins wire-wire. no contamination Inaccessible joints can be welded Narrow HAZ.– Advantages • • • • • • Welds can be made inside transparent glass or plastic housings Wide variety of materials can be welded There is no electrode.

• Surface cleaning i. adheres & solidifies to form a brazed joint. • Closer the fitment between the joining surfaces better is the capillary action of filler. The melting point of filler metal is above 427°C but well below the melting point of the base metals.Brazing • Metallic parts are heated above 427°C & the joint is filled with a non-ferrous filler metal. The filler metal can be placed on one side of the joint & can be pulled through the joint by capillary action. Lap.e. The filler metal is distributed between the closely fitted surfaces of the joint by capillary action with no penetration into the base metal. . degreasing & wire-brush cleaning is done prior to brazing. melts & cleans the joining surfaces by removing the oxide layer. butt. scarf & Tee joints possible • Flux if used has the melting point below that of filler. The filler wets the joining surfaces.

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– Brazing fluxes & atmospheres • Flux – – – – – – – Dissolves the oxide & removes it to the top surface molten filler Spread ahead of the filler metal to protect the base metal Promote capillarity of filler by wetting the base metal surface Must not decompose & contaminate itself With low melting point than that of filler Sufficient surface tension to hold a film onto the base metal The above film must be ably displaced by the filler film on introduction – Fused borax & Na. chipping • Atmospheres – Surrounds the brazed joint to prevent atmospheric contamination – Could be a vacuum. Chlorides & hydroxides with the addition of wetting agents serve as flux. Mechanical methods like wire-brushing. washing in hot water or in a chemical bath. Hydrogen gas or an inert gas atmosphere . Li compounds with Bo & Fluorine. – Flux removal is as important. K.

porous metal components and fiber & dispersion strengthened materials . Can join cast material to wrought material Good appearance. – Disadvantages • Larger surface areas can not be welded as difficult to preheat • Requires tightly mating parts hence machining required for a close fit • Brazing fluxes & fumes are toxic – Applications • To join cast iron to wrought iron. non metals to metals.– Advantages • • • • • • Variety of dissimilar metals can be joined Pressure joints can be produced Workpieces of different thicknesses can be joined together Very thin materials can be brazed but can’t be welded.

filler is pre-placed & placed near an induction coil. Higher the frequency.5Kg with similar joints design can be brazed. • Furnace Brazing – For a number of like/similar joints to be brazed simultaneously.e. More precise & clean. • Induction Brazing – Very rapid heating. Components are fluxed. The furnace is either gas fired or electrically heated. the filler metal is hand fed to the joint later. • Resistance Brazing – Brazing with standard spot welding machine. high production rate. Joint must be accessible. Castings & forgings up to 1. Larger assemblies not possible • Dip Brazing – Components to be brazed are fluxed & dipped into the molten metal bath of filler held at brazing temperature by electrical heating in a graphite crucible.Types of brazing processes • Torch Brazing – Oxy-fuel gas welding kit provides the heat for brazing. Eddy currents & hysteresis losses help increase the temperature. W & Mo electrodes are used. • Vacuum Brazing – Furnace atmosphere is evacuated i. heat transfer by induction. Hydrogen atmosphere is employed in the furnace to avoid contamination. Rapid process. Flame application is limited. The job is cleaned & joint is spread with flux after preheating to brazing temperature. Fixtures needed to hold the assembly in the bath. Components are preassembled & the filler is pre-placed over the joint. Precise temperature control is possible & uniform heating takes place. shallower the heating. Relatively slow process. . Frequency of the AC employed decides the depth of brazing joint possible. High initial cost. vacuum instead of hydrogen. Good for brazing reactive metals. Simple & cheap. Oxidation is prevented. Wet parts if dipped cause explosion. Joint must be accessible.

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penetrates into the joint readily.P. . making tractor fuel tanks. Flux can be applied in powder or paste form by dipping the filler rod or spraying or brushing. Ring of high powered lamps is the source heat placed in a chamber around the parts/assemblies to be brazed. • Carbon Arc Brazing – Carbon arc welding setup of one or twin electrodes is used. 45% Ag. • Silver Brazing – Known as silver soldering/dry soldering.• Infrared Brazing – Radiant heat obtained below the red rays is utilized for brazing. 15% Cu. Silver alloy filler is used for brazing. The removal of flux residues post-brazing is as critical to avoid corrosion. leak-proof & strong. Ag alloy being extremely fluid. now used in joining tool bits to shank. 607°C is used. Very costly though. The chamber is evacuated or inert gas atmosphere is employed. making condensers & evaporators. Was confined to the ornaments industry. 16% Zn & 24% Cd with M. • Flow Brazing – Molten filler metals is poured into the pre-fluxed joints to be brazed.

Used in electronics applications. cans of all types. Sn. • Torch method – Gas torch. joint design should make the load act on base metal hence. Cd. Diffusion is secondary in contrast to brazing. The strength at elevated temperatures & corrosion resistance of the joint is poorer to brazed joint. Soldered joint is not meant for carrying loads. Ag in combinations. lap. Al. • Solder is a non ferrous alloy of Zn. Butt. Pb. • Dipping – Assembled & pre-fluxed parts dipped into molten solder bath. For larger part where iron won’t do. Solder can be in wire form. radiators . Portable. scarf joints possible. – Soldering Methods • Soldering Iron – Soldering iron with a copper tip is electrically heated.Soldering • Melting point of the filler metal is less than 427°C. • Filler metals distributed into the joint by capillary action. Used for electrical motor armatures. Flux is used.

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The cool pre-fluxed & solder pre-placed joint suspended into the vessel. • Furnace/Hot Plate – Prepared joints are either heated in a protective furnace atmosphere or by placing on a flame or electrically heated plate. • Ultrasonic – High frequency vibrations break the oxide layer & exposes the fresh base metal surface to wetting by solder. Used in automotive & electronics industry. • Spraying – Solder is applied to the pre-fluxed part by a spraying gun. • Induction – Assembled & pre-fluxed parts with pre-placed solder are placed on conveyors or rotating tables & made to pass through high frequency induction coil. Flux is eliminated. Current induced by coil into parts heats them up.– Soldering Methods • Wave method – Assembled parts are carried over a conveyor touching the wave of molten solder. • Condensation – A vessel open to atmosphere contains a boiling fluid heated by immersion heaters. • Resistance method – Parts with pre-placed flux & solder are sandwiched between electrodes. pumped out from the bath through a narrow slot. forms a cloud of saturated vapour above the boiling liquid. the vapour condenses on the joint loosing the latent heat of vapourization provides soldering temperature .

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Pre-cleaning of the joint surfaces of oxides. It helps in removing & excluding the surface oxide by reacting with those & forming a lighter slag which floats on the surface of the weld puddle & can be skimmed. benzoic & glutamic acids. Flux residue is corrosive & needs to be chipped off post brazing. K & Nh4 chlorides. Residue is non-corrosive. dirt etc. It’s an eutectic with very low melting point less than 200°C. . Lactic. Applied by splashing. is utmost necessary for a good functioning of a flux. Gum exude from pine trees. less corrosive. Residues should be removed post brazing. Either dissolves the oxide or loosens the layer to help float over the weld. liquid or gaseous compound which when heated promotes/accelerates wetting of base metal surfaces to be joined. – Inorganic/Acid/Corrosive Flux » Zn. N. Post joining after cooling the joint needs to be cleaned again of flux residues. stearic. don’t react with the base metals. The fumes are toxic – Non corrosive fluxes » Rosin based flux. – Mild Fluxes » Organic acids.– Soldering fluxes • Any solid.

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gets entrapped into the weld & lowers the strength of the weld. • Incomplete penetration – It is the distance from the weld top surface to the extent/root of the weld bead/nugget formed. Stress relieving heat treatment post welding is an option to reduce crack formation. Insufficient slag-cleaning of previous pass weld in the multi-pass welding. . distortion of the joint.Defects in Welding • Cracks – Residual stresses induced during welding due to application of heat & pressure lead to cracking. less arc currents. • Lamellar tearing – Cracks running parallel to the workpiece surface due to very high residual stresses & poor ductility of the base metal. Penetration decides the strength of the weld. Poor joint design. Too long arcs. • Distortion – Amount of temperature difference at various points along the weld joint leads to uneven expansion/contraction of the base metals i. Using welding fixtures to clamp the base metals can limit the distortion effect. faster arc travel speeds • Inclusion – Slag or any other foreign material which does not get the chance to reach & float over the weld top surface.e.

• Poor fusion – The filler metal may not fuse properly with the base metal surfaces due to low arc current. Gas solubility decreases with the cooling of weld pool thus entrapped gases exit the molten metal during cooling. Gases form with atmospheric contamination of the weld & gets diffused into the molten weld pool. if the cooling rate is too high for the gases to escape. • Overlapping – The weld metals flows form electrode over the parent metal surface stays there without getting properly fused or united with the surface. too high arc current or due to damp electrodes • Undercutting – A groove gets formed along sides of the weld bead due to improper welding technique & or too much of electrode weaving. Also if the base metal surfaces to be welded are not cleaned properly would not allow the filler to adhere. Occur mainly due to the entrapped gases. Incorrect joint design may also lead to poor fusion at the weld.• Porosity/Blow Holes/Gas Pockets – Porosity is a group of small voids while blow holes/gas pockets are larger holes or cavities formed inside the weld. • Poor weld bead appearance – If the weld bead is not deposited straight & the bead thickness varies from place to place due to poor skilled labour or due to an arc blow (wandering of arc due to the magnetic field around) • Spatter – The metal particles being thrown out of the flux shielded metal electrode & deposited on the base metals due to improper coating of flux. . faster arc travel speeds or due to poor weaving technique. they get entrapped & leave a void inside.

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Non-Destructive Testing(NDT) .

Excess penetrant material is carefully cleaned from the surface. The liquid is pulled into surface-breaking defects by capillary action. A developer is applied to pull the trapped penetrant back to the surface where it is spread out and forms an indication. The indication is much easier to see than the actual defect. .Dye Penetrant Testing • Penetrant solution is applied to the surface of a precleaned component.

Applications • To locate cracks. • To inspect large areas very efficiently and will work on most nonporous materials. . porosity. and other defects that break the surface of a material and have enough volume to trap and hold the penetrant material.

. • Requires a relatively smooth and nonporous surface. • Parts with complex geometry are routinely inspected. • Post cleaning is necessary to remove chemicals. waste). • Surface preparation is critical as contaminants can mask defects. Disadvantages • Detects only surface breaking defects. • Indications are produced directly on surface of the part providing a visual image of the discontinuity. fire. • Requires multiple operations under controlled conditions. • Chemical handling precautions are necessary (toxicity. • Equipment investment is minimal.Main Advantages • Large surface areas or large volumes of parts/materials can be inspected rapidly and at low cost.

The magnetic lines of force travel through the material. and exit and reenter the material at the poles. Defects such as crack or voids cannot support as much flux. and force some of the flux outside of the part. . Magnetic particles distributed over the component will be attracted to areas of flux leakage and produce a visible indication.Magnetic Particle Testing • A magnetic field is established in a component made from ferromagnetic material.

Applications • To inspect ferromagnetic materials (those that can be magnetized) for defects that result in a transition in the magnetic permeability of a material. • Magnetic particle inspection can detect surface and near surface defects .

• Requires relatively smooth surface. • Equipment costs are relatively low. . Disadvantages • Only ferromagnetic materials can be inspected.Advantages • Large surface areas of complex parts can be inspected rapidly. • Proper alignment of magnetic field and defect is critical. • Magnetic particle indications are produced directly on the surface of the part and form an image of the discontinuity. • Can detect surface and subsurface flaws. • Paint or other nonmagnetic coverings adversely affect sensitivity. • Large currents are needed for very large parts. • Demagnetization and post cleaning is usually necessary. • Surface preparation is less critical than it is in penetrant inspection.

Changes in material thickness. The sound waves travel through the material and are received by the same transducer or a second transducer. and changes in material properties can also be measured. The amount of energy transmitted or received and the time the energy is received are analyzed to determine the presence of flaws.Ultrasonic Testing • High frequency sound waves are sent into a material by use of a transducer. .

plastics. and wood.Applications • To locate surface and subsurface defects in many materials including metals. . • To measure the thickness of materials and otherwise characterize properties of material based on sound velocity and attenuation measurements.

• Method can be used for much more than just flaw detection. • Linear defects oriented parallel to the sound beam can go undetected. Disadvantages • Surface must be accessible to probe and couplant. • Skill and training required is more extensive than other technique. . • Provides distance information. • Thin parts may be difficult to inspect. • Minimum part preparation is required. • Reference standards are often needed. • Only single sided access is required.Advantages • Depth of penetration for flaw detection or measurement is superior to other methods. • Surface finish and roughness can interfere with inspection.

Eddy currents produce their own magnetic field that can be measured and used to find flaws and characterize conductivity. permeability. and dimensional features. . the changing magnetic field induces current flow in the material. When the coil is placed near a conductive material. These currents travel in closed loops and are called eddy currents.Eddy Current Testing • Alternating electrical current is passed through a coil producing a magnetic field.

such as the metals. and measures the thickness of thin sheets of metal and nonconductive coatings such as paint. . • Eddy current inspection is also used to sort materials based on electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability.Applications • To detect surface and near-surface flaws in conductive materials.

• Minimum part preparation is required. Disadvantages • Only conductive materials can be inspected. . • Depth of penetration is limited. • Surface finish and roughness may interfere. • Skill and training required is more extensive than other techniques. • Test probe does not need to contact the part.Advantages • Detects surface and near surface defects. • Ferromagnetic materials require special treatment to address magnetic permeability. • Method can be used for more than flaw detection. • Reference standards are needed for setup. • Flaws that lie parallel to the inspection probe coil winding direction can go undetected.

The thickness and the density of the material that X-rays must penetrate affects the amount of radiation reaching the detector. The test object is placed between the radiation source and detector.Radiographic Testing • X-rays are used to produce images of objects using film or other detector that is sensitive to radiation. This variation in radiation produces an image on the detector that often shows internal features of the test object. .

. and to measure thickness of materials.Applications • To inspect almost any material for surface and subsurface defects. • X-rays can also be used to locates and measures internal features. confirm the location of hidden parts in an assembly.

• Minimum part preparation is required. • Access to both sides of the structure is usually required. • Possible radiation hazard for personnel. . • Detects surface and subsurface defects.Advantages • Can be used to inspect virtually all materials. Disadvantages • Extensive operator training and skill required. • Field inspection of thick section can be time consuming. • Ability to inspect complex shapes and multi-layered structures without disassembly. • Relatively expensive equipment investment is required. • Orientation of the radiation beam to non-volumetric defects is critical.

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