Engineer Muzzamil Shaikh Engineer Nabeel Siddiqui Electrical (Telecom) Engineering Sukkur IBA

Wireless LAN

“The wireless telegraph is not difficult to understand. The ordinary telegraph is like a very long cat. You pull the tail in New York, and it meows in Los Angeles. The wireless is the same, only without the cat.”
Albert Einstein (German born American Physicist who developed the special and general theories of relativity. Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921. 1879-1955)

• A non-profit professional Org. founded in 1884, now has 415, 989 members in 160 countries • IEEE 802.11 family ( 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n)

Wireless LAN
• A wireless LAN is a wireless local area network that utilizes radio waves as its carrier. • There is Two modes of Wireless LAN
 Infrastructure mode  Ad Hoc mode

Infrastructure Mode
• High power of an access point to cover wide areas • A wireless access point (AP) is required for infrastructure mode wireless networking

Ad Hoc Mode
• Ad Hoc Mode does not require an access point. • Small or temporary network. • It is a method for wireless devices to directly communicate with each other.

WLAN Architecture--Mesh
• Mesh: Every client
in the network also acts as an access or relay point, creating a “self-healing” and (in theory) infinitely extensible network.
▫ Not yet in widespread use, unlikely to be in homes.

Flexibility Control Routing Coverage Reliability X X X X

Ad hoc


802.11 Standards
• Table shows a summary of the different 802.11 standards, their frequencies, bandwidth, and channel options.
Standard Frequency Data Rates Channel Radio Bandwidth Modulation Techniques

IEEE 802.11 a

5 GHz

54 Mbps


20 MHz


IEEE 802.11 b

2.4 GHz

11 Mbps


22 MHz


IEEE 802.11 g

2.4 GHz

54 Mbps


20 MHz


IEEE 802.11 n

2.4 GHz

150 Mbps

11 & 23

20 $ 40 MHZ


• Application of the Wireless Technologies

Existing/Developing IEEE 802.11 Standards
• • • • • • • • • • • 802.11802.11a – 802.11b – 802.11e – 802.11f – 802.11g – 802.11h – 802.11i – 802.1x – 802.15 – 802.16 –
Frequency Hopping/DSSS 54Mbps / Hyper LAN (1999) 11Mbps Quality of Service Point 2 Point Roaming (2003) 54Mbps European Inspired Changes (2004) New Encryption Protocols (2004) Port Based Network Access Personal Area Network (WPAN) Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN)


All WLAN equipment comes with a built-in omni -directional antenna, but some select products will let you attach secondary antennas that will significantly boost range.

Antennas, continued
• Antennas come in all shapes and styles:
▫ Omni-directional:
 Vertical Whip  Ceiling mount

▫ Directional:
 Yagi  Wall mounted panel  Parabolic dish

Wi-Fi Network services
• Distribution and integration

• Association, re-association, and disassociation
• Authentication and Deauthentications

• This service is used by mobile stations in an infrastructure network. It uses to deliver the frame to its destination. Any communication that uses an access point travels through the distribution service.

• Integration is a service provided by the distribution system, it allows the connection of the distribution system to a non-IEEE 802.11 network.

• Delivery of frames to mobile stations is made possible because mobile stations register, or associate, with access points.

• Reassociations are initiated by mobile stations when signal conditions indicate that a different association would be beneficial.

• To terminate an existing association, stations may use the disassociation service.

• Authentication is a necessary prerequisite to association because only authenticated users are authorized to use the network

• Deauthentication terminates an authenticated relationship. Because authentication is needed before network use is authorized, a side effect of Deauthentication is termination of any current association.

History Leaders
• Vic Hayes, who held the chair of IEEE 802.11 for 10 years and has been called the “Father of Wi-Fi" was involved in designing the initial 802.11b and 802.11a standards within the IEEE.

• Herald Bluetooth

Questions & Comments…..??
• One Person……………… One Question • No arguments ……………Just Question

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