4.

The Triple Bottom Line Concept

Three Pillars of Sustainable Development
Society Environment

Sustainable Development

Economy

Policies and instruments  Integrated Product Policy  Policy instruments to encourage Sustainable Consumption and Production .5.

.  Social: awareness raising. subsidies. education. information. credits. green accounting. voluntary initiatives  Others: indicators. etc... norms. financial incentives. (enforcement)  Economic instruments: taxes. labelling. EPR (environmental performance reviews).Policy instruments  Regulatory: standards.

BACKGROUND Responses of businesses to pollution PASSIVE Ignore pollution REACTIVE Dilution and dispersion 1 2 CONSTRUCTIVE End-of-pipe treatment PROACTIVE Cleaner Production 3 4 .

” Continuous Processes Humans Preventive ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY Products RISK REDUCTION Environment Integrated Services .Definition by UNEP CLEANER PRODUCTION “ Cleaner Production is the continuous application of an integrated. products and services in order to increase overall efficiency and reduce damage and risks for humans and the environment. preventive environmental strategy towards processes.

energy and water > CP makes companies more profitable and competitive .CLEANER PRODUCTION Operational improvements to business What are the benefits for industrials ? > CP improves products and services > CP lowers risks (liability) > CP improves company image > CP improves worker’s health and safety conditions > CP reduces waste treatment and disposal costs > CP can be integrated with the business EMS > CP saves costs on raw material.

UNFCCC/Kyoto – Green House Gas emissions 2.Basel Convention – Waste minimisation 3. dioxins and furans) PRODUCTS WASTE & EMISSIONS .Stockholm Convention – Avoid unintentionally produced POP’s (PCB’s.IMPLEMENTING CP Cleaner Production categories OPERATION TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTION PROCESS INPUT MATERIALS Relationship with MEAs: 1.

METHODOLOGY Barriers to CP implementation INTERNAL BARRIERS > Traditional philosophy of CEOs (low awareness) > Internal organisation and communication (initial constraints) > Limited information. data and expertise on waste and emissions > Focus on end of pipe solutions and short term profits > Inadequate cost/profit calculations CP options > Missing. outdated or unreliable process instrumentation > No or limited support of middle management > No EMS to achieve continual improvement EXTERNAL BARRIERS > Availability of investment capital > Availability of CP technologies To be solved by an organised approach .

Implementation Successfully implemented Cleaner Production projects Sustain & Continue (EMS) .Feasibility Analysis 4.Assessment 3.METHODOLOGY CP methodology > Obtain management commitment > Organise project team > Identify barriers & solutions > Set objectives > Pre-assess > Identify sources (WHERE) > Analyse causes (WHY) > Generate possible options (HOW) > Evaluate options on: Technical. environmental and economic feasibility > Select best options > Option implementation > Monitoring and evaluation > Sustain and continue The recognized need for Cleaner Production 1.Planning and Organization 2.

CONCLUSION About CP trends UPWARD DIFFUSION National policies Legislation Action plans CP Funds LATERAL DIFFUSION New Tools Financial incentives Environmental reporting Eco-labeling ISO 14000 Award scheme LATERAL DIFFUSION New Sectors Industrial estates Building design Tourism Eco-towns DOWNWARD DIFFUSION Local authorities NGO’s CP Clubs Partnerships .

The Environment Inputs The Industrial System Outputs .Life Cycle Analysis The Life cycle concept (ISO 14040) Industrial systems are comprised of interdependent processes and activities. requiring a systems approach for considering technology from a “cradle-to-grave/cradle” perspective.

Life Cycle Analysis The Life cycle concept LCA is a holistic analytical technique for assessing the environmental effects associated with a product. process. multi-media perspective • Functional unit accounting system • Comparative assessment of relative or functional unit differences . or activity. • System-wide.

Life Cycle Analysis General Scope of LCA Inputs Life-Cycle Stages Raw Materials Extraction/Processing Energy Outputs Water Effluents Airborne Emissions Solid Wastes Products CoProducts Product Manufacturing Product Use/Reuse Raw Materials Maintenance and Repair EOL Disposition Boundary source: www.epa.gov.in .

environmental claim. 2008) . enhanced public image. product declaration)  Identifies trade offs and information gaps  Results in cost reductions. performance.Life Cycle Analysis Advantages of LCA  Supports decision-making for product/production systems with scientific data and competence  Identifies opportunities of improvement  Identifies key impacts and life-cycle stages of system  Improves marketability of product (ecolabelling. competitive advantages. productivity and profits  Helps companies to adopt a remanufacture approach to reduce the resource use and cost  Provides guidance towards optimizing the actual technology implementation by pinpointing process steps with high environmental impact (Schmidinger and Nardoslamsky.

Life Cycle Analysis Limitations of LCA        Availability and quality of life-cycle inventory data Uncertainties in the inventory and in the impact assessment methodology Impossible to assess the quality of results due to its complexity Differences in LCA problem formulation due to differences in values High cost associated with a comprehensive LCA Practical difficulty in carrying out detailed life-cycle inventories and also to translate the results into appropriate actions Time consuming and complex nature of LCA .

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