UNIT 8: ALTERNATING
CURRENT (A.C.)
SF027 2
8.1 Alternating Current (a.c.)
Definition – is defined as an electric current whose magnitude and
direction change periodically.
Figures 8.1a, 8.1b and 8.1c show three forms of alternating current.
T
I
t
0
T
2
1
T 2
0
I ÷
0
I
T
2
3
Fig. 8.1a : Sinusoidal a.c.
T
I
t
0
T
2
1
T 2
0
I ÷
0
I
T
2
3
Fig. 8.1b : Sawtooth a.c.
SF027 3
When an a.c flows through a resistor, there will be a potential
difference (voltage) across it and this voltage is alternating voltage as
shown in figure 8.1d.
Fig. 8.1c : Square a.c.
T
I
t
0
T
2
1
T 2
0
I ÷
0
I
T
2
3
T
V
t
0
T
2
1
T 2
0
V ÷
0
V
T
2
3
Fig. 8.1d : Sinusoidal alternating
voltage
ge peak volta :
o
V
where
period : T
current peak :
o
I
SF027 4
8.1.1 Terminology in a.c.
Frequency ( f )
Definition: Number of complete cycle in one second.
Unit: hertz (Hz) or s
1
Period ( T )
Definition: Time taken for one complete cycle.
Unit: second (s)
Equation :
Peak (maximum) current ( I
o
)
Definition: Magnitude of the maximum current.
8.1.2 Equation for alternating current and voltage.
Equation for the current ( I ) :
Equation for the voltage ( V ) :
f
1
T =
t I I
0
e = sin
where
frequency angular : e
current peak :
0
I
phase
t V V
0
e = sin
ge peak volta :
0
V
(8.1a)
(8.1b)
SF027 5
8.2 Mean or Average Current (I
av
)
Definition – is defined as the average or mean value of current in a
halfcycle flows of current in a certain direction.
Equation :
Note :
I
av
for one complete cycle is zero because the current flows in
one direction in onehalf of the cycle and in the opposite direction in
the next half of the cycle.
8.3.1 Root mean square current (I
rms
)
In calculating average power dissipated by an a.c., the mean (average)
current is not useful. The instantaneous power, P delivered to a
resistance R is
( )
2
π
o o
av
I
π
I 2
I = =
8.3 Root Mean Square Values
R I P
2
=
(8.2a)
SF027 6
The average power, P
av
over one cycle is given by
where is the average of I
2
over one cycle and can be written as
therefore the eq. (8.3a) can be written as
Since then eq. (8.3b) becomes
Using a doubleangle formula for trigonometry and trigonometry
identity,
thus
2
I
R I P
2
av
=
2
rms
I I =
( )
2
rms
2
I I =
( ) R I P
2
rms av
=
ωt I I
0
sin =
(8.3a)
(8.3b)
(8.3c)
ωt I I
2 2
0 rms
sin =
θ θ θ 2
2 2
sin cos cos ÷ = θ 1 θ
2 2
sin cos ÷ =
and
θ 2 1 θ 2
2
sin cos ÷ =
( ) θ 2 1
2
1
θ
2
cos sin ÷ =
and
ωt θ =
( ) ωt 2 1
2
I
I
2
0
rms
cos ÷ =
SF027 7
The mean value of cos2ωt for one cycle is zero, finally eq. (8.3b) can
be written as
Root mean square current (I
rms
) is defined as the value of the
steady d.c. which produces the same power in a resistor as the
mean (average) power produced by the a.c.
The root mean square (rms) current is the effective value of the a.c.
8.3.2 Root mean square voltage/p.d. (V
rms
)
Definition – is defined as the value of the steady direct voltage
which when applied across a resistor, produces the
same power as the mean (average) power produced by
the alternating voltage across the same resistor.
Its formula is
Note :
Eq. (8.3d) and eq. (8.3e) are valid only for a sinusoidal alternating
current and voltage (p.d.)
2
I
I
0
rms
= (8.3d)
2
V
V
0
rms
= (8.3e)
SF027 8
Example 1 :
An a.c. source V=200 sin et is connected across a resistor of 100 O.
Calculate
a. the r.m.s. current in the resistor.
b. the peak current.
c. the mean power.
Solution: R=100 O
then the peak voltage, V
0
= 200 V
a. The r.m.s. current is
b. The peak current is
R
V
I
rms
rms
=
ωt 200 V sin =
A 41 1 I
rms
. =
ωt V V
0
sin =
2 R
V
I
0
rms
=
compare with
and
2
V
V
0
rms
=
2
I
I
0
rms
=
A 99 1 I
0
. =
SF027 9
c. By applying the equation of mean power, thus
Example 2 :
The alternating potential difference shown above is connected across a
resistor of 10 kO. Calculate
a. the r.m.s. current,
b. the frequency,
c. the mean power dissipated in the resistor.
( ) R I P
2
rms av
=
W 199 P
av
=
and
04 0.
) (Volt V
) second ( t
0
02 0. 08 0.
200 ÷
200
06 0.
SF027 10
Solution: R=10x10
3
O
From the graph, V
0
= 200 V and T=0.04 s
a. The r.m.s. current is
b. The frequency of the a.c. is
c. By applying the equation of mean power, thus
R
V
I
rms
rms
=
A 10 x 41 1 I
2
rms
÷
= .
2 R
V
I
0
rms
=
and
2
V
V
0
rms
=
T
1
f =
Hz 0 25 f . =
( ) R I P
2
rms av
=
W 99 1 P
av
. =
SF027 11
8.4 Phasor diagram
Phasor is defined as a vector that rotate anticlockwise about its
axis with constant angular velocity.
A diagram containing phasor is called phasor diagram.
It is used to represent a sinusoidally varying quantity such as
alternating current (a.c.) and alternating voltage (a.v.).
It also being used to determine the phase difference between current
and voltage in a.c. circuit.
8.4.1 In Phase
Consider a graph represents sinusoidal a.c. and sinusoidal a.v. as
shown in figure 8.4a.
t
0
0
V ÷
0
V
0
I ÷
0
I
T
T
2
1
T 2
T
2
3
Fig. 8.4a
I
V
ω
Fig. 8.4b : Phasor diagram
SF027 12
From the figure 8.4a :
Thus the phase difference is
Conclusion : The current I is in phase with the voltage V and constant
with time.
8.4.2 Lead
Consider a graph represents sinusoidal a.c. and sinusoidal a.v. as
shown in figure 8.4c.
t
0
0 0
I V ÷ ÷ &
0 0
I V &
T
T
2
1
T 2
T
2
3
Fig. 8.4c
ωt I I
0
sin =
0 =  A
ωt V V
0
sin =
ωt ωt Δ ÷ = 
I
V
ω
Fig. 8.4d : Phasor diagram
 Δ
SF027 13
From the figure 8.4c :
Thus the phase difference is
Conclusion : The voltage V leads the current I by t/2 radians and
constant with time.
8.4.3 Lags behind
Consider a graph represents sinusoidal a.c. and sinusoidal a.v. as
shown in figure 8.4e.
t
0
0 0
I V ÷ ÷ &
0 0
I V &
T
T
2
1
T 2
T
2
3
Fig. 8.4e
ωt I I
0
sin =
rad
2
t
=  A
ωt V V
0
cos =
ωt
2
ωt Δ ÷

.

\

t
+ = 
I
V
ω
Fig. 8.4f : Phasor diagram
 Δ

.

\

+ =
2
π
ωt V V
0
sin
SF027 14
From the figure 8.4e :
Thus the phase difference is
Conclusion : The voltage V lags behind the current I by t/2 radians
and constant with time.
The quantity that measures the opposition of a circuit to the a.c. flows.
It is defined by
It is a scalar quantity and its unit is ohm (O)
In a d.c. circuit, impedance is the resistance R.
ωt I I
0
sin =
rad
2
t
÷ =  A
ωt V V
0
cos ÷ =
ωt
2
ωt Δ ÷

.

\

t
÷ = 

.

\

÷ =
2
π
ωt V V
0
sin
8.5 Impedance (Z)
rms
rms
I
V
Z =
2
V
0
2
I
0
or
0
0
I
V
Z =
(8.5a)
SF027 15
8.6 Pure Resistor in the A.C. Circuit
The symbol of an a.c. source in the electrical circuit is shown in figure
8.6a.
Pure resistor means that no capacitance and selfinductance effect
in the a.c. circuit.
8.6.1 Phase difference between Voltage V and current I
Figure 8.6b shows an a.c. source connected to a pure resistor R.
Fig. 8.6a
The current flows in the resistor is
given by
The voltage across the resistor V
R
at
any instant is given by
ωt I I
0
sin =
IR V
R
=
ωt R I V
0 R
sin =
V ωt V V
0 R
= = sin
and
0 0
V R I =
Fig. 8.6b
a.c. source
R
I
R
V
V
where
tage Supply vol : V
SF027 16
Therefore the phase difference between V and I is
In pure resistor, the current I is in phase with the voltage V .
Figure 8.6c shows the variation of V and I with time while Figure 8.6d
shows the phasor diagram for V and I in a pure resistor.
0 =  A
ωt ωt Δ ÷ = 
t
0
0
V ÷
0
V
0
I ÷
0
I
T
T
2
1
T 2
T
2
3
Fig. 8.6c
I
V
ω
Fig. 8.6d : Phasor diagram
SF027 17
8.6.2 Impedance in a pure resistor
From the definition of the impedance, hence
8.6.3 Power in a pure resistor
Since V and I are in phase, the instantaneous power P is given by
Therefore the graph of variation of power with time is shown in figure
8.6e.
ωt P P
2
0
sin =
IV P =
R
I
V
I
V
Z
0
0
rms
rms
= = =
( )( ) ωt V ωt I P
0 0
sin sin =
ωt V I P
2
0 0
sin =
and
0 0 0
P V I =
(8.6a)
(8.6b)
ωt P P
2
0
sin =
where power um) peak(maxim :
0
P
t
0
0
P
T T
2
1
T 2
T
2
3
Fig. 8.6e
) (P Power
Power being absorbed
SF027 18
The average (mean) power P
av
in a resistor is given by
Pure capacitor means that no resistance and selfinductance effect
in the a.c. circuit.
8.7.1 Phase difference between Voltage V and current I
Figure 8.7a shows an a.c. source connected to a pure capacitor C.
ωt P P
2
0 av
sin =
2
V I
P
0 0
av
=
and
2
1
t
2
= e sin
0 av
P
2
1
P =
or
(8.6c)
8.7 Pure Capacitor in the A.C. Circuit
The voltage across the capacitor V
C
at
any instant is equal to the supply
voltage V and is given by
The charge accumulates at the plates
of the capacitor is
ωt CV Q
0
sin =
C
CV Q =
C 0
V ωt V V = = sin
Fig. 8.7a
a.c. source
C
V
V
C
I
SF027 19
Charge and current are related by
Hence the equation of a.c. in capacitor is
Therefore the phase difference between V and I is
In pure capacitor, the current I leads the voltage V by t/2 radians.
dt
dQ
I =
ωt CV I
0
cos e =
( ) ωt CV
dt
d
I
0
sin =
( ) ωt
dt
d
CV I
0
sin =
and
0 0
I CV = e
ωt I I
0
cos =
or

.

\

+ =
2
ωt I I
0
t
sin
rad
2
t
 = A
ωt
2
ωt Δ ÷

.

\

+ =
t

SF027 20
Figure 8.7b shows the variation of V and I with time while Figure 8.7c
shows the phasor diagram for V and I in a pure capacitor.
8.7.2 Impedance in a pure capacitor
From the definition of the impedance, hence
t
0
0
V ÷
0
V
0
I ÷
0
I
T
T
2
1
T 2
T
2
3
Fig. 8.7b
rad
2
t
 = A
e
0
0
CV
V
Z =
0
0
I
V
Z =
and
e
0 0
CV I =
I
V
ω
Fig. 8.7c : Phasor diagram
SF027 21
where X
C
is known as capacitive (capacitative) reactance.
Capacitive reactance is the opposition of a capacitor to the current
flows and is defined by
The unit of capacitive reactance is ohm (O)
From eq. (8.7a), the relationship between capacitive reactance X
C
and
frequency f can be shown by using graph in figure 8.7d.
C
X
C
1
Z = =
e
(8.7a)
fC 2
1
X
C
t
=
and f 2t e =
0
0
rms
rms
C
I
V
I
V
X = = (8.7b)
source a.c. of frequency : f
capacitor the of e capacitanc : C
f
0
Fig. 8.7d
C
X
f
1
X
C
·
SF027 22
8.7.3 Power in a pure capacitor
Since the current I leads the voltage V by t/2 radians, the
instantaneous power P is given by
Therefore the graph of variation of power with time is shown in figure
8.7e.
ωt 2 P
2
1
P
0
sin =
IV P =
( )( ) ωt V ωt I P
0 0
sin cos =
ωt ωt V I P
0 0
cos sin = and
0 0 0
P V I =
(8.7c)

.

\

= ωt 2
2
1
P P
0
sin
t
0
2
P
0
÷
2
P
0
T
T
2
1 T 2
T
2
3
Fig. 8.7e
) (P Power
ωt 2 P
2
1
P
0
sin =
Power being absorbed
Power being returned to supply
SF027 23
The average (mean) power P
av
in a capacitor is
Pure inductor means that no resistance and capacitance effect in the
a.c. circuit.
8.8.1 Phase difference between Voltage V and current I
Figure 8.8a shows an a.c. source connected to a pure inductor L.
ωt 2 P
2
1
P
0 av
sin = and
0 t 2 = e sin
0 P
av
=
8.8 Pure Inductor in the A.C. Circuit
The current flows in the inductor is
given by
When the current flows in the inductor,
the back e.m.f. caused by the self
induction is produced and given by
ωt ω LI
0 B
cos ÷ = c
( ) ωt I
dt
d
L
0 B
sin ÷ = c
Fig. 8.8a
a.c. source
V
I
L
L
V
ωt I I
0
sin =
dt
dI
L ε
B
÷ =
(8.8a)
SF027 24
At each instant the supply voltage V must be equal to the back e.m.f
c
B
(voltage across the inductor) but the back e.m.f always oppose the
supply voltage V represents by the negative sign in eq. (8.8a).
By comparing the magnitude of V and c
B
,thus
Therefore the phase difference between V and I is
In pure inductor,
the voltage V leads the current I by t/2 radians.
or
the current I lags behind the voltage V by t/2 radians.
ωt ω LI V
0 B
cos = c =
ωt V V
0
cos =
and
0 0
V ω LI =
rad
2
t
 = A
ωt
2
ωt Δ ÷

.

\

+ =
t

or

.

\

t
+ =
2
ωt V V
0
sin
SF027 25
Figure 8.8b shows the variation of V and I with time while Figure 8.8c
shows the phasor diagram for V and I in a pure inductor.
8.8.2 Impedance in a pure inductor
From the definition of the impedance, hence
0
0
I
LI
Z
e
=
0
0
I
V
Z =
and
e =
0 0
LI V
t
0
0
V ÷
0
V
0
I ÷
0
I
T
T
2
1
T 2
T
2
3
Fig. 8.8b
rad
2
t
 = A
I
V
ω
Fig. 8.8c : Phasor diagram
SF027 26
where X
L
is known as inductive reactance.
Inductive reactance is the opposition of a inductor to the current flows
and is defined by
The unit of inductive reactance is ohm (O)
From eq. (8.8b), the relationship between inductive reactance X
L
and
frequency f can be shown by using graph in figure 8.8d.
L
X L Z = e =
(8.8b)
fL 2 X
L
t =
and f 2t e =
0
0
rms
rms
L
I
V
I
V
X = = (8.8c)
source a.c. of frequency : f
inductor the of inductance self : L
f
0
Fig. 8.8d
L
X
f X
L
·
SF027 27
8.8.3 Power in a pure inductor
Since the voltage V leads current I the by t/2 radians, the
instantaneous power P is given by
Therefore the graph of variation of power with time is shown in figure
8.8e.
ωt 2 P
2
1
P
0
sin =
IV P =
( )( ) ωt V ωt I P
0 0
cos sin =
ωt ωt V I P
0 0
cos sin = and
0 0 0
P V I =
(8.8d)

.

\

= ωt 2
2
1
P P
0
sin
t
0
2
P
0
÷
2
P
0
T
T
2
1 T 2
T
2
3
Fig. 8.8e
) (P Power
ωt 2 P
2
1
P
0
sin =
Power being absorbed
Power being returned to supply
SF027 28
The average (mean) power P
av
in a inductor is
Note :
For both pure capacitor and inductor, the average (mean) power is
zero because the power is positive for quarter of a cycle and
negative for the next quarter of a cycle in each half cycle.
The term ‘resistance’ is not used in pure capacitor and inductor
because no heat is dissipated in both devices.
Example 3 :
A capacitor with C=4700 pF is connected to an a.c. supply with r.m.s.
voltage of 240 V and frequency of 50 Hz. Calculate
a. the capacitive reactance.
b. the peak current in the circuit.
Solution: C=4700x10
12
F, V
rms
=240 V, f=50 Hz.
a. By applying the equation of capacitive reactance, thus
ωt 2 P
2
1
P
0 av
sin = and
0 t 2 = e sin
0 P
av
=
Ω 10 x 677 X
3
C
=
fC 2
1
X
C
t
=
SF027 29
b. From the definition of the capacitive reactance, thus
Example 4 :
A 240 V r.m.s. supply with a frequency of 50 Hz causes an r.m.s.
current of 3.0 A to flow through an inductor which can be taken to have
zero resistance. Calculate
a. the reactance of the inductor.
b. the inductance of the inductor.
Solution: I
rms
=3.0 A, V
rms
=240 V, f=50 Hz.
a. From the definition of the inductive reactance, thus
b. By using the equation of the inductive reactance, thus
rms
rms
C
I
V
X =
and
2
I
I
0
rms
=
A 10 x 01 5 I
4
0
.
÷
=
Ω 80 X
L
=
C
rms
0
X
2 V
I =
rms
rms
L
I
V
X =
H 26 0 L . =
fL 2 X
L
t =
f 2
X
L
L
t
=
SF027 30
8.9 RC, RL and LRC in Series Circuit
8.9.1 RC in series circuit
Consider an a.c. source with voltage V is connected in series with a
resistor R and a capacitor C as shown in figure 8.9a.
The voltage across the resistor V
R
and
the capacitor V
C
are given by
The phasor diagram of RC circuit is
shown by figure 8.9b.
Based on the phasor diagram, the total
voltage V(supply voltage) across both
resistor R and capacitor C is
IR V
R
=
C C
IX V =
2
C
2
R
2
V V V + =
where
angle phase : 
Fig. 8.9a
a.c. source
R
I
R
V
V
C
V
C

ω
C
V
I
R
V
V
Fig. 8.9b : Phasor diagram
( ) ( )
2
C
2
2
IX IR V + =
( )
2
C
2 2 2
X R I V + =
2 2
2
C ω
1
R I V + =
and
ωC
1
X
C
=
(8.9a)
SF027 31
Since , hence eq. (8.9a) can be written as
From the phasor diagram (fig. 8.9b), the current I leads the supply
voltage V by  radians where
From the eq. (8.9b) and (8.9c), the new phasor diagram in terms of R,
X
C
and Z can be sketched (refer to figure 8.9c)
rms
rms
I
V
Z =
R
C
V
V
=  tan
2
C
2
X R Z + =
IR
IX
C
=  tan
R
X
C
=  tan
2 2
2
C ω
1
R Z + =
or (8.9b)
ωCR
1
=  tan or
(8.9c)

ω
C
X
R
Z
Fig. 8.9c : Phasor diagram in
terms of R, X
C
and Z
SF027 32
8.9.2 RL in series circuit
Consider an a.c. source with voltage V is connected in series with a
resistor R and an inductor L as shown in figure 8.9d.
The voltage across the resistor V
R
and
the inductor V
L
are given by
The phasor diagram of RL circuit is
shown by figure 8.9e.
Based on the phasor diagram, the total
voltage V(supply voltage) across both
resistor R and inductor L is
IR V
R
=
L L
IX V =
2
L
2
R
2
V V V + =

ω
L
V
I
R
V
V
Fig. 8.9e : Phasor diagram
( ) ( )
2
L
2
2
IX IR V + =
( )
2
L
2 2 2
X R I V + =
2 2 2
L ω R I V + =
and
ωL X
L
=
(8.9d)
Fig. 8.9d
a.c. source
R
I
R
V
V
L
L
V
SF027 33
Since , hence eq. (8.9d) can be written as
From the phasor diagram (fig. 8.9e), the supply voltage V leads the
current I by  radians where
From the eq. (8.9e) and (8.9f), the new phasor diagram in terms of R,
X
L
and Z can be sketched (refer to figure 8.9f)
rms
rms
I
V
Z =
R
L
V
V
=  tan
2
L
2
X R Z + =
IR
IX
L
=  tan
R
X
L
=  tan
2 2 2
L ω R Z + =
or (8.9e)
R
ωL
=  tan or
(8.9f)
Fig. 8.9f : Phasor diagram in
terms of R, X
L
and Z

ω
L
X
Z
R
SF027 34
8.9.3 LRC in series circuit
Consider an a.c. source with voltage V is connected in series with an
inductor L, a resistor R and a capacitor C as shown in figure 8.9g.
The voltage across the inductor V
L
,
resistor V
R
and resistor V
R
are given
by
The phasor diagram of LRC circuit is
shown by figure 8.9h.
Based on the phasor diagram, the total
voltage V (supply voltage) across
inductor L , resistor R and capacitor C
is
IR V
R
=
C C
IX V =
( )
2
C L
2
R
2
V V V V ÷ + =

ω
L
V
I
R
V
V
Fig. 8.9h : Phasor diagram
( ) ( )
2
C L
2
2
IX IX IR V ÷ + =
( )  
2
C L
2 2 2
X X R I V ÷ + =
( )
2
C L
2
X X R I V ÷ + =
Fig. 8.9g
a.c. source
I
V
R
R
V
L
L
V
C
V
C
L L
IX V =
C
V
( )
C L
V V ÷
(8.9g)
SF027 35
Since , hence eq. (8.9g) can be written as
From the phasor diagram (fig. 8.9h), the supply voltage V leads the
current I by  radians where
From the eq. (8.9h) and (8.9i), the new phasor diagram in terms of X
L
,
, R, X
C
and Z can be sketched (refer to figure 8.9i)
rms
rms
I
V
Z =
R
C L
V
V V ÷
=  tan
2
2
C
1
L R Z

.

\

e
÷ e + =
( )
IR
X X I
C L
÷
=  tan
R
X X
C L
÷
=  tan
( )
2
C L
2
X X R Z ÷ + =
or
R
ωC
1
ωL

.

\

÷
=  tan
or
Fig. 8.9i : Phasor diagram in terms of
X
L
, R, X
C
and Z
(8.9h)
(8.9i)

ω
L
X
R
Z
C
X
( )
C L
X X ÷
SF027 36
From the graph, the value of Z
is minimum when
where its value is
This phenomenon occurs at
frequency of f
r
known as
resonant frequency.
8.10 Resonance and Power in A.C. Circuit
8.10.1 Resonance in a.c. circuit
Definition – is defined as the phenomenon that occurs when the
frequency of the applied voltage is equal to the
frequency of the LRC series circuit.
Figure 8.10a shows the variation of X
C
, X
L
,R and Z with frequency f
of the LRC series a.c circuit.
Z
f X
L
·
R
f
1
X
C
·
Fig. 8.10a
0
f
Z R X X
L C
, , ,
r
f
( )
2
C L
2
X X R Z ÷ + =
0 R Z
2
+ =
min
C L
X X =
R Z =
min
(8.10a)
SF027 37
When the resonance occurred in the LRC series circuit, the Z is
minimum but the r.m.s. current flows in the circuit is maximum and
given by
The resonant frequency f
r
of the LRC series circuit is given by
At frequencies above or below the resonant frequency f
r
, the r.m.s.
current is less than the maximum current.
The series resonance circuit is used for tuning a radio receiver.
When resonance
occurred
C L
X X = L X
L
e =
R
V
Z
V
I
rms rms
rms
= =
ωC
1
X
C
=
where and
ωC
1
ωL =
LC
1
ω=
r
πf 2 ω= and
hence
LC 2
1
f
r
t
=
where
frequency resonant :
r
f
frequency angular resonant : ω
SF027 38
We get , then eq. (8.10b)
can be written as
where cos  is called the power factor of
the circuit and P
r
is the average real
power.
8.10.2 Power in a.c. circuit
No power is absorbed by either inductors or capacitors over a complete
cycle and therefore the average (mean) power absorbed by both
inductors and capacitors is zero.
In an a.c. circuit in which there is resistance R, inductance L and
capacitance C, the total average power P
av
is equal to that dissipated
in the resistance i.e.
From the phasor diagram of the LRC series circuit in figure 8.10b,
R av
IV P =
or
R I P
2
av
=

ω
I
R
V
V
( )
C L
V V ÷
Fig. 8.10b
(8.10b)
V
V
R
=  cos
 = cos IV P
av
r
2
av
P Z I P = =  cos
and
IZ V =
(8.10c)
SF027 39
Note :
Power factor can also be calculated by using formula below :
From the figure 8.10b,
From the figure 8.10b, Since V and I are not in phase, then the
average apparent power P
a
is given by
By substituting P
a
=I
2
Z into eq. (8.10c), the power factor can be
related to P
a
and P
r
by expression below :
where
IZ
IR
=  cos
(8.10d)
V
V
R
=  cos
IR V
R
=
Z
R
=  cos
and
IZ V =
Z
V
Z I IV P
2
2
a
= = = (8.10e)
a
r
P
P
=  cos
(8.10f)
SF027 40
Example 5 :
A 10 µF capacitor, a 2.0 H inductor and a 20 O resistor are connected
in series with an alternating source given by the equation below :
Calculate :
a. the frequency of the source.
b. the capacitive reactance and inductive reactance.
c. the impedance of the circuit.
d. the maximum (peak) current in the circuit.
e. the phase angle.
f. the mean power of the circuit.
Solution: C=10x10
6
F, L=2.0 H, R=20 O
Gives the peak voltage, V
0
= 300 V and
the angular frequency e = 300 rad s
1
.
a. By using the relationship between e and f, hence the frequency is
t 300 300 V sin =
t 300 300 V sin =
ωt V V
0
sin =
compare with
f 2t e =
z . H 8 47 f =
SF027 41
b. By applying the formulae of capacitive reactance and inductive
reactance, thus
c. By using the formula of impedance for LRC series circuit, thus
d. From the definition of the impedance, thus
Capacitive
reactance :
Ω 333 X
C
=
C
1
X
C
e
=
L X
L
e = Ω 600 X
L
=
Inductive
reactance :
( )
2
C L
2
X X R Z ÷ + =
Ω 267 Z =
0
0
rms
rms
I
V
I
V
Z = =
A 12 1 I
0
. =
Z
V
I
0
0
=
SF027 42
e. By using the formula of phase angle for LRC series circuit, thus
f. The mean (average) power is
rad 50 1 7 85 . @ .
= 
R
X X
C L
÷
=  tan

.

\

÷
=
÷
R
X X
C L
1
tan 
R I P
2
rms av
=
W 5 12 P
av
. =
and
2
I
I
0
rms
=
R I
2
1
P
2
0 av
=
OR  cos Z I P
2
rms av
=
W 5 12 P
av
. =
 cos Z I
2
1
P
2
0 av
=
and
2
I
I
0
rms
=
SF027 43
Example 6 :
A 0.14 H inductor and a 12 O resistor are connected in series to the
alternating source 110 V, 25 Hz. Calculate
a. the r.m.s current flows in the inductor.
b. the phase angle between the current and supply voltage.
c. the power factor of the circuit.
d. the average power loss to the surrounding.
Solution: R=12 O, L=0.14 H, V
rms
=110 V, f =25 Hz
a. The inductive reactance is
The impedance of the circuit is
Therefore the r.m.s. current is
L X
L
e =
A 4 4 I
rms
. =
2
L
2
X R Z + =
and f 2t e =
Ω 25 Z =
fL 2 X
L
t =
Ω 22 X
L
=
Z
V
I
rms
rms
=
SF027 44
b. By using the formula of phase angle for RL series circuit, thus
c. The power factor is
d. The average power loss is
Example 7 :
Based on the RCL series circuit above, the r.m.s. voltage across R, L
and C is shown.
a. By using the phasor diagram, calculate the supply voltage and the
phase angle in this circuit.
R
X
L
=  tan
rad 07 1 4 61 . @ .
= 
W 232 P
av
=

.

\

=
÷
R
X
L
1
tan 
 cos = factor power
 cos
rms rms av
V I P =
48 0 factor power . =
C
R
L
V 3 27 V 141 V 133
I
SF027 45
Calculate :
b. the current flows in the circuit if the resistance of the resistor R
is 68 O.
c. the inductance and capacitance if the frequency of the a.c. source
is 50 Hz.
d. the resonant frequency.
Solution: V
R
=141 V, V
L
=327 V, V
C
=133 V
a. The phasor diagram of the circuit is

ω
L
V
I
R
V
V
C
V
( )
C L
V V ÷
From the phasor diagram :
The supply voltage V is
The phase angle  is
( )
2
C L
2
R
V V V V ÷ + =
V 240 V =
R
C L
V
V V ÷
=  tan
rad 942 . 0 0 54 @ .
= 


.

\

÷
=
÷
R
C L
1
V
V V
tan 
SF027 46
b. Given R =68 O
Since L, R and C are connected in series, hence the current flows in
each devices is the same. Therefore
c. Given f =50 Hz
The inductive reactance is
therefore the inductance of the inductor is
The capacitive reactance is
therefore the inductance of the inductor is
IR V
R
=
A 07 2 I . =
R
V
I
R
=
H 503 0 L . =
L L
IX V = Ω 158 X
L
=
L X
L
e =
f 2
X
L
L
t
=
and f 2t e =
C C
IX V = Ω 3 64 X
C
. =
F 10 x 95 4 C
5
.
÷
=
C
1
X
C
e
=
C
fX 2
1
C
t
=
and f 2t e =
SF027 47
d. The resonant frequency is
Example 8 : (exercise)
An a.c. current of angular frequency of 1.0 x 10
4
rad s
1
flows through a
10 kO resistor and a 0.10 µF capacitor which are connected in series.
Calculate the r.m.s. voltage across the capacitor if the r.m.s. voltage
across the resistor is 20 V.
Ans. : 2.0 V
Example 9 : (exercise)
A 200 O resistor, a 0.75 H inductor and a capacitor of capacitance C
are connected in series to an alternating source 250 V, 600 Hz.
Calculate
a. the inductive reactance and capacitive reactance when resonance is
occurred.
b. the capacitance C.
c. the impedance of the circuit at resonance.
d. the current flows through the circuit at resonance. Sketch the phasor
diagram.
Ans. : 2.83 kO, 93.8 nF, 200 O, 1.25 A
C L
X X =
Hz 0 32 f
r
. =
C
1
L
e
= e
LC 2
1
f
r
t
=
and
r
f 2t e =
SF027 48
8.11 A.C. Rectification
Definition – is defined as the process of converting alternating
current to direct current.
Rectifier :
is a device that allows current to flow in one direction only.
diodes are usually used as rectifiers.
Diode is said to be forward biased when positive terminal of the
diode connected to the positive terminal of the battery and vice
versa, hence a current will be able to flow (figure 8.11a).
Diode is said to be reverse biased when positive terminal of the
diode connected to the negative terminal of the battery and vice
versa, hence no current flows (figure 8.11b).
Fig. 8.11a : Forward biased
+
+ 

I I
Fig. 8.11b : Reverse biased
+
+ 

0 I =
Diode
SF027 49
t
0
T
T 2
R
V
0
V ÷
0
V
Fig. 8.11f
t
0
T
T 2
D
V
0
V ÷
0
V
Fig. 8.11e
Two types of rectification are
halfwave
fullwave
8.11.1 Halfwave Rectification
Halfwave rectification means that only one half of a cycle passes
through the rectifier (diode).
Figure 8.11c shows a halfwave rectification circuit.
Fig. 8.11d
0
V ÷
0
V
t
0
T
T 2
V Voltage Supply
Fig. 8.11c
R
V
D
V
D
R
A
B
V
Supply
voltage
SF027 50
Explanation:
First half cycle (Fig. 8.11d)
When terminal A is positive, diode is forward biased and offers
low resistance such that a pulse of current flows through the
circuit.
There is negligible voltage across the diode, V
D
(Fig. 8.11e).
Thus the voltage across the resistor, V
R
is almost equal to the
supply voltage (Fig. 8.11f).
Next half cycle (Fig. 8.11d)
When terminal B is positive, diode is now reverse biased and
has a very high resistance such that a very small current flows
through it.
The voltage across the diode, V
D
is almost equal to the supply
voltage (Fig. 8.11e).
The voltage across the resistor, V
R
is almost zero (Fig. 8.11f).
An alternating voltage is thus rectified to give direct current voltage
across the resistor. Current flows through the resistor in one
direction only and only half of each cycle passes through is shown
in figure 8.11g.
t
0
T
T 2
I
0
I ÷
0
I
Fig. 8.11g
SF027 51
R.m.s. value after halfwave rectification:
In halfwave rectification, half the supply voltage is suppressed and
therefore the mean of the square of the voltage is given by
Therefore the r.m.s voltage of halfwave rectification is given by
2
1
Mean of the square
after rectification
= X
Mean of the square
before rectification
rect.) wave half before ( rect.) wave half ( ÷ ÷
× =
2 2
V
2
1
V
t V
2 2
0
e sin and
2
1
t
2
= e sin
4
V
2
V
2
1
V
2
0
2
0
2
=


.

\

=
÷ rect.) wave half (
rect.) wave half ( ÷
=
2
rms
V V
4
V
V
2
0
rms
=
2
V
V
0
rms
= (8.11a)
2
V
2
0
SF027 52
0
V ÷
0
V
t
0
T
T 2
V Voltage Supply
Fig. 8.11i
In similar way as to find the r.m.s. voltage of halfwave rectification,
the r.m.s. current of halfwave rectification is given by
8.11.2 Fullwave Rectification
While halfwave rectification only allows half of each cycle to pass
through the diode, fullwave rectification allows both halves of each
cycle to pass through the diode.
To obtain fullwave rectification, four diode are used and are arranged
in a form known as the diode bridge.
Figure 8.11h shows a fullwave rectification circuit.
2
I
I
0
rms
=
(8.11b)
Fig. 8.11h
A
R
R
V
V
Supply
voltage
F
B
C D
E
1
2
3
4
t
Fig. 8.11j
0
V
t
0
T
T 2
R
V
SF027 53
Explanation:
First half cycle (Fig. 8.11i)
When terminal A is positive, diodes 1 and 2 are forward biased
and conduct the current.
The current takes the path ABC, R and DEF.
Diodes 3 and 4 are reverse biased and hence, do not conduct
the current.
The voltages across diodes 1 and 2 are negligible, the voltage
across the resistor V
R
is almost equal to the supply voltage
(Fig. 8.11j)
Next half cycle (Fig. 8.11i)
When terminal F is positive, diodes 3 and 4 are forward biased
and conduct the current.
The path taken by the current is FEC, R and DBA.
Diodes 1 and 2 are reverse biased and hence, do not conduct
the current.
The voltage across the resistor is again almost equal to the
supply voltage (Fig. 8.11j).
Both halves of the alternating voltage are rectified. The current
flowing through the resistor is in one direction only i.e. a varying
d.c. is obtained (Fig. 8.11k).
Fig. 8.11k
0
I
t
0
T
T 2
I
SF027 54
R.m.s. value after fullwave rectification:
Notice that the negative side of supply voltage is flipped over to
become positive side without being suppressed, thus the r.m.s.
voltage of fullwave rectification is the same as the r.m.s.
voltage of supply voltage and given by
The output obtained from halfwave and fullwave rectifications are
unidirectional but varying d.c.
Usually a steady (constant) d.c. is required for operating various
electrical and electronic appliances. To change a varying d.c. into a
steady (constant) d.c., smoothing is necessary.
A simple smoothing circuit consists of a capacitor ( with a large
capacitance >16 F) connected parallel to the resistor R shown in figure
8.12a. The capacitor functions as a reservoir to store charges.
2
V
V
0
rms
=
(8.11b)
8.12 Smoothing using Capacitor
+
R output
V V
R
=
C

Fig. 8.12a
Rectified unsmoothed
voltage V
I
SF027 55
8.12.1 Smoothing of a halfwave rectified Voltage
Figure 8.12b shows an effects of smoothing a halfwave rectified
voltage.
Initially, the halfwave rectified input voltage V causes the current to
flow through the resistor R. At the same time, capacitor C becomes
charged to almost the peak value of the input voltage.
At A (Fig. 8.12b), input V (dash line) falls below output V
R
, the
capacitor C starts to discharge through the resistor R. Hence the
current flow is maintained because of capacitor’s action.
Along AB (Fig. 8.12b), V output falls. At B, the rectified current again
flows to recharge capacitor C to the peak of the input voltage V.
This process is repeated and hence the output voltage V
R
across the
resistor R will look like the variation shown in figure 8.12b.
Fig. 8.12b
A
B
Rectified unsmooth input
voltage V
( )
output
V V
R
Smoothed voltage V
R
Discharge
Charge
t time,
SF027 56
8.12.2 Smoothing of a fullwave rectified Voltage
Figure 8.12c shows an effects of smoothing a fullwave rectified
voltage.
The explanation of the smoothing process likes for a halfwave rectified
voltage.
The fluctuations of the smoothed output voltage are must less compare
to the halfwave rectified.
The smoothing action of the capacitor is due to the large time constant
t, given by RC so the output voltage cannot fall as rapidly as the
rectified unsmoothed input voltage.
Therefore a large capacitor performs greater smoothing. However, an
initially uncharged capacitor may cause a sudden surge of current
through the circuit and damage the diode.
Fig. 8.12c
A
B
Rectified unsmooth input
voltage V
( )
output
V V
R
Smoothed voltage V
R
Discharge
Charge
t time,
SF027 57
THE END…
Next Unit…
UNIT 9 :
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES