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ARDS R D S

. hypoxemia refractory to oxygen supplementation.A clinical syndrome characterized by a sudden and progressive pulmonary edema. increasing bilateral infiltrates on chest x-ray. and reduce lung compliance.

ARDS usually require mechanical ventilation with higher-than-normal airway pressure .

The major cause of death in ARDS is non-pulmonary multiple-system organ failure. often with sepsis .

Pulmonary occlusion which initiate inflammatory response • Radiation • Disorders : Hematologic disorders > Massive transfusion > Cardio Pulmonary bypass Metabolic disorders > Pancreatitis > Anemia . • Respiratory trauma > Fat embolism.ETIOLOGY • Anaphylaxis • Aspiration of gastric contents • A prolonged inhalation of high concentrations of oxygen > causes the production of oxygen free radicals that damages the epithelium.

Aspirin) > Promotes Bleeding • Drowning • Diffused pneumonia • Sepsis • Shock • Smoke inhalation .ETIOLOGY • Drug overdose (Heparin.

Clinical Manifestations • • • • • • • Tachypnea Dyspnea (12-48 hours occurs) Hypoxemia (unresponsive to Oxygen) LOC alteration Fine crackles s/t leakage of fluids Fever Retractions .

Diagnostic Exams • Chest X-Ray > Normal until complete “white out” • Pulmonary Function Test > Decrease lung compliance and capacity • ABG analysis > Hypoxemia and Respiratory acidosis .

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Medical Management 1) Treat the underlying cause. 2) Supplemental oxygenation 3) Respiratory support – ABG analysis – Pulse Oxymetry – Bedside Pulmonary Function Test 4) PEEP .

Medical Management 5) Intravenous Crystalloids Solution administration O For systemic hypertension s/t hypovolemia 6) Rest is essential to limit oxygen consumption and reduce oxygen needed. 7) Pharmacologic Therapy .

NURSING MGT. .