You are on page 1of 130

CLASSIFICATION OF VERTEBRATES

CHAPTER 3

Objectives
 At the end of the discussion, each student is

expected to: 1. classify the representative chordates into class, order, genus, and species; 2. state the common and scientific names of representative vertebrates; and 3. name one distinct characteristic of each taxon to differentiate it from another taxon.

Topic Outline:
A. Fish and Fishlike Animals: 1. Class Agnatha 2. Class Placodermi 3. Class Chondrichthyes 4. Class Osteichthyes B. Vertebrates with Limbs: 1. Class Amphibia 2. Class Reptilia 3. Class Aves 4. Class Mammalia

rationality. which means it is based on similarity of structure. and species. subclasses. and intuition. genera. suborders.Vertebrate Taxa  About 50.00 known species are animals with vertebral columns  The classification scheme used in this chapter is a conventional “natural classification”. order. the geologic record. superorders. families.  The chief vertebrate taxa are classes. .

Vertebrate Taxa  There are eight recognized extant classes of         vertebrates: Myxini . and caecilians Reptilia .bony fishes Amphibia .turtles.hagfishes Cephalaspidomorpha . crocodilians Aves . toads. lizards. salamanders.lampreys Chondrichthyes .birds Mammalia .mammals .cartilagenous fishes Osteichthyes .frogs. snakes.

Chondrichthyes. Reptilia. Cephalaspidomorpha. Includes Amphibia.Vertebrate Taxa  The vertebrate taxa can be grouped based on their general habitat requirements:  Pisces . and Mammalia .collective term for the terrestrial vertebrates. Osteichthyes  Tetrapoda . they have four feet unless some have been secondarily lost or converted to other uses. includes Myxini. Aves.collective term for all fishes.

.vertebrates with jaws derived from the mandibular arch. Amphibia.Vertebrate Taxa  Based on their feeding habits:  Agnatha . Aves. Osteichthyes.jawless vertebrates. and Mammalia. including Myxini and Cephalaspidomorpha  Gnathostomes . Includes Chondrichthyes. which may have (in primitive vertebrates) supported gills. Reptilia.

Chondrichthyes. or extra embryonic membrane that surrounds the embryo and encases it in amniotic fluid. Osteichthyes. Includes Myxini. Amphibia.Vertebrate Taxa  Based on their embryonic characteristics  Anamniotes .  Amniotes . Aves. Cephalaspidomorpha. and Mammals. Includes Reptilia. .vertebrates that possess an amnion.vertebrates that lack an amnion.

Major categories of vertebrates Mammalia Aves Reptilia Amphibia Osteichthyes Chondrichthyes Placodermi* Acanthodii* Agnatha* Agnathostomes Gnathostomes Fishes Tetrapods Amniotes Anamniotes .

 Binomial designation for a species was introduced in the 10th edition(1758) of his book. . Systema Naturae  Scientific name of an animal is made up of generic and specific names.Vertebrate Taxa  Binomial nomenclature as introduced by Carl von Linne (Linnaeus) has enabled all zoologists all over the world to understand one another. or the genus and the species.

Fish and Fishlike Animals .

Class Agnatha  Include 2 groups of jawless fishes: ostracoderms and cyclostomes.  Common characteristics: • no jaws • no paired appendages • a completely cartilaginous skeleton • a single nostril • 6 .14 external or concealed gill slits • a persistent notochord • a two-chambered heart .

Anapsida. with an armor of heavy plates. . Heterostraci .Class Agnatha  Orders Osteotraci. and commonly called ostracoderms.extinct.

jaws are absent -suctorial mouth.cylindrical body and well developed fin .Class Agnatha  Order Cyclostomata . soft skin .round-mouthed fishes .single nasal aperture .scales absent.6 to 14 pairs gill pouches . with horny teeth .no appendages .

Class Agnatha: O. marine deep water  Feed on detritus and carrion. as well as polychaete worms  Tentacles around their mouths are used in locating prey  Myxine. Cyclostomata Suborder Myxinoidea  Hagfishes and slime eels  Terminal mouth with 4 pairs of tentacles  Partially hermaphroditic  Live in temperate. Blellostoma .

Class Agnatha: O. Cyclostomata  Myxine (hagfish)  Pacific hagfish trying to hide under a rock .

anadromous (hatch/breed in fresh water. Cyclostomata Suborder Petromyzontia  commonly called the        lampreys suctorial mouth with horny teeth nasal sac is not connected to mouth 7 pairs of gill pouches temperate.Class Agnatha: O. mature in marine and freshwater) parasitic as adults .attach to other fishes with their suction-like mouths and rasp a hole in the skin buccal glands secrete an anticoagulant to ensure freeflowing food source larvae are called ammocoetes .

Cyclostomata Suborder Petromyzontia  parasitic marine/aquatic animal with a toothed. . funnel-like sucking mouth.Class Agnatha: O.

Class Agnatha  Lampreys attached to a lake trout .

 Hagfishes are classified under Class Myxini.  Lampreys are classified under Class Cephalaspidomorpha. Order Myxiniformes. Agnatha is a superclass.Note:  In other sources. Order Petromyzontiformes .

 With paired pectoral and pelvic fins  With an armor of bony scales and cartilaginous skeleton. .Class Placodermi  Armored prehistoric fish  The first jawed fishes  With full size hyoid gill slit.  Some skeleton maybe ossified.

Class Chondrithtyes  Cartilaginous fishes  Ventral mouth and paired nostrils  Skeleton completely cartilagenous with no     endoskeletal bone No swim bladder Scales dermal placoid when present Gill arches internal to gills Freshwater and marine species .

where the young develop and then hatch as miniature adults) or viviparous (embryos develop internally and then emerge as a miniature adult) . internal fertilization. ovoviviparous (egg contained within the uterus.7 gill openings plus spiracle anterior to first gill  upper jaw not attached to braincase  teeth derived from placoid scales. deciduous and continually replaced  claspers present in males.Class Chondrithtyes  Subclass Elasmobranchii  5 .

Class Chondrithtyes: SC Elasmobranchii Order Squaliformes  True sharks  Almost purely predaceous/marine  Heterocercal tailfin caudal fin is longer on the dorsal side than on the ventral side  Squalus .

sawfishes  Greatly flattened bottom      dwellers Scales not over entire body Pectoral fins winglike Crushing teeth .mollusk eaters Spiracles greatly enlarged Oviparous . skates.produce an egg pouch covered in a very tough shell .Class Chondrithtyes: SC Elasmobranchii Order Rajiformes  Rays.

Class Chondrithtyes Subclass Holocephali  Chimaeras or rat fishes  upper jaw fused to braincase  flat. bony plates instead of teeth  operculum covering gillslits  strictly marine. feeding on mollusks .

Class Osteichthyes  Bony fishes  Endoskeleton made up of bone  Jaws and paired appendages  Gill arches internal to gills  Gills covered by bony operculum  Dermal scales not placoid  Many forms have swim bladder  Appeared in Devonian .dominant vertebrates since mid Devonian  Arose in freshwater. moved into saltwater .

others with diphycercal tail  With rounded or rhomboid scales  The coelacanth is represented by a single species that lives off the Comoro Islands near Madagascar . Sarcopterygii Subclass Sarcopterygii: species previously believed to be extinct.  Fleshy lobed fins so that fin rays do not articulate directly to girdles  Internal and external nares  Many retain the heterocercal tail.Class Osteichthyes: S.C. such as the coelacanths and lungfish.

Class OsteichthyesS.C. Sarcopterygii
Order Crossopterygii
 Paired fins with internal

Lobed-finned fish

 


skeleton of basic tetrapod type Presence of maxillae, premaxillae, and spiracle Scales large and heavily overlapped Three lobed diphycercal tail Intestine with spiral valve

Class Osteichthyes: S.C. Sarcopterygii
Order Dipnoi
 Median fins fused to form     

Lungfish

diphycercal tail Lobed or filamentous fins Cycloid type of scales Maxillae, premaxillae, and spiracle absent Single or paired air bladder for breathing Intestine with spiral valve

Class Osteichthyes: S. C. Actinopterygii
Subclass Actinopterygii  ray-finned fish  fin rays attach directly to girdles  internal nostrils - nares absent  Nasal sacs open to the outside  single gas bladder  One dorsal fin  Without cloaca  known from Devonian

Order Chondrostei  general primitive form  typically small  skeleton primarily cartilage  heterocercal tail  ganoid scales  most died out by end of Mesozoic

Actinopterygii Suborder Polypterini  Ossified skeleton Polypterus  Dorsal fin divided into 8     or more finlets Slender body with thick ganoid scales Lobed pectoral fins Diphycercal caudal fin Ventral air bladder with two lobes .Class Osteichthyes: S. C.

Class Osteichthyes: S. C. Actinopterygii
Suborder Acipenseroidei
 Ossified dermal skull and

Polyodon (paddlefish)

unossified chondral skull  Endoskeleton mostly cartilage; body mostly scaleless except for rows of bony scutes (ganoi)  Mouth on underside of head, no teeth  Heterocercal tail, with spiral valve

Class Osteichthyes: S. C. Actinopterygii
Order Holostei  Skeleton moderately ossified  With fairly well developed vertebral centra  Ganoid to cycloid scales  Abdominal pelvic fins  Deficient spiracle  Single air bladder with conus arteriosus  Vestigial spiral valve

Class Osteichthyes: S. C. Actinopterygii
Suborder Lepidosteoidei
 With thick ganoid
Lepidosteus (gar fish)

scales of rhombic shape  Shortened heterocercal tail  Mostly extinct

Actinopterygii Suborder Amioidea  Scales tend to be thin and Amia (bowfin) round to cycloid type  Homocercal type  Bilobed swim bladder which may serve for respiration  Mostly extinct .Class Osteichthyes: S. C.

Actinopterygii Order Teleostei  Typical bony fishes  Skeleton almost completely ossified  Vertebral centra complete  Thin cycloid or ctenoid scales  Homocercal tail  Terminal mouth  Notochord a mere vestige  Pelvic fins often     displaced forward No spiracle Single.Class Osteichthyes: S. C. dorsal air bladder Vestigial conus arteriosus Without spiral valve .

Actinopterygii .Class Osteichthyes: S. C.

Class Osteichthyes .

.

.

or in a horizontal fin  Heart with 2 atria  With internal nares .VERTEBRATE WITH LIMBS  Terrestial or aquatic  Limbs serve as locomotory appendages and lungs as respiratory organs  Vertebral column terminates in a tail. sometimes absent.

must regulate body temperature by moving to different microclimates within its environment . retained into adulthood in some neotinic forms (salamanders)  Heart with two atria and one ventricle .CLASS AMPHIBIA  Arose from Crossopterygian."three chambered"  Skin is naked or with bony dermal elements  Ectothermic . Rhipidistian ancestors  Three extant orders. two extinct subclasses  Lungs and skin used as adult respiratory organs  Gills present in larvae.

eggs must be laid in water or at least in very moist environment. water-dwelling tadpoles  Embryos lack an amnion.Class Amphibia  Group includes smallest terrestrial vertebrates up to some 5’ in length  Name implies continued tie to water . young develop as gill breathing. but eggs are laid in a jellylike protective coating .

.  They are considered to include the first vertebrates known to live on solid ground.Class Amphibia Order Labyrinthodontia  Extinct amphibians that constituted some of the dominant animals of Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic times (about 350 to 210 million years ago). and to have been ancestral to at least some of the groups of modern amphibians and a bridge to the reptiles.

Class Amphibia: O. Labyrinthodontia .

Class Amphibia: Order Urodela  Tail maintained throughout life  Limbs 1 -2 "normal" pairs  Elongated trunk and long tail  Can retain larval characteristics (flattened. external gills) in adult forms (paedomorphic) . fleshy tail. shovel- shaped head.the result is a sexually mature individual with many other body parts in the larval or juvenile condition (neoteny) .

Class Amphibia: Order Urodela Necturus Salamanders .

relates to saltatorial locomotion  Long hind limbs developed for saltatorial locomotion  Vocal cords well developed  Ear modified for reception of airborne sound waves .Class Amphibia: Order Anura  Loose tail as adults  Caudal vertebrae fuse to form long inflexible urostyle .

Class Amphibia: Order Anura  Rana esculenta .

Class Amphibia: Order Anura Pipa Discoglossus .

Class Amphibia Order Gymnophiona or Apoda  Elongated. lack lids  Chemosensory tentacle on head . with no limbs or girdles  No vocal cords or airborne sound detection  Some retain scales embedded in skin  Notochord persists  Minute eyes. snake-like.

Class Amphibia: Order Apoda .

CLASS REPTILIA  First fully terrestrial vertebrates  Development of cleidoic (closed/self-contained) egg.     embryo with extra-embryonic membrane and relatively impermeable shell Lungs for respiration Heart with two atria and ventricle partially or totally (Crocodilians) divided One occipital condyle Skin with epidermal scales or bony plates .

sometimes called heliotherms because they can regulate body temperature by using solar radiation  First appeared in late Paleozoic.CLASS REPTILIA  Ectothermic. so numerous by Mesozoic known as "Age of Reptiles" .

Class Reptilia: Subclass Anapsida Order Cotylosauria  Extinct reptiles  Resemble the most primitive extinct amphibians .

no teeth  Little change since Triassic .Class Reptilia: Subclass Anapsida Order Chelonia  Ribs modified along with epidermal plates to form shell .carapace and plastron  Girdles inside ribs  Jaws covered with horny epidermal plates.

Class Reptilia Subclass Ichthyopterigia  Order Ichthyosauria  Extinct Subclass Synaptosauria  Order Sauropterygia  Extinct  Plesiosaur .

Class Reptilia: Subclass Lepidosauria  Diapsid or modified diapsid skull  Skin with horny scales Order Rhynchocephalia  Long-tailed lizard-like reptiles with weak limbs  Vertebrae amphicoelus with persistent intercentra  With abdominal ribs  Parietal eye fairly well developed and easily seen  Anus and transverse slit  Mostly extinct .

Class Reptilia: Subclass Lepidosauria Sphenodon (tuatara) .

snakes in Cenozoic  Skull has lost one or both temporal regions  Vertebrae usually procoelous  Abdominal ribs usually greatly reduced or absent  Body covered with horny epidermal scales  Quadrate bone moveable  Teeth set in sockets .Class Reptilia: Subclass Lepidosauria Order Squamata  Contains most modern reptiles  Lizards known from Cretaceous.

Class Reptilia: Subclass Lepidosauria Suborderm Lacertilia  The lizards  Well differentiated appendicular muscles  Limb girdles always present. reduced in limbless forms  Skull with 1 temporal fossa  With mandibular symphysis .

except remnants of pelvis in some  Skull has lost temporal fossae  No mandibular symphysis  Ligamentsts permits wide gape .Class Reptilia: Subclass Lepidosauria Suborder Ophidia  Snakes  Limbs and girdles absent.

 eardrum and eyes covered with opaque skin . mostly limbless  With annulated body.Class Reptilia: Subclass Lepidosauria Suborder Amphisbaenia  Subterranean lizards.

Class Reptilia: Subclass Archosauria  Diapsid skull  Tending to bipedal gait with ossified changes  Include flying forms  Contains dinosaurs and ancestors to birds .

Class Reptilia: Subclass Archosauria Order Thecodontia  The stem archosuars Archosaur  Teeth set in deep pockets  Had pneumatic bones  With long neck and tail  Extinct .

and Crocodiles  Quadrate fixed  Bony plates embedded in epidermis  Teeth set in sockets  Abdominal ribs present in Gastralia  Ventricles completely separated  Developed secondary palate  “Crop" similar to birds .Class Reptilia: Subclass Archosauria Order Crocodilia  Alligator. Caiman.

Class Reptilia: Subclass Archosauria Crocodile Alligator .

Class Reptilia: Subclass Archosauria Order Pterosauria  Flying reptiles .

Class Reptilia: Subclass Archosauria Order Saurichia  Dinosaurs with reptilelike pelvis .

Class Reptilia: Subclass Archosauria Order Ornithischia  Dinosaurs with bird-like pelvis .

dinocasts..2520 DESC .com/prod_catalog.a.Class Reptilia: Subclass Synapsida  Mammal-like reptiles  One lateral temporal fossa Order Pelycosauria  Early synapsids www..

Class Reptilia: Subclass Synapsida Order Therapsida  Late synapsids  Mammalian precursors .

.c.7pt1..htm .hoopermuseum.carleton.earthsci.

no sinus venosus  Embryo with membranes .CLASS AVES  Warm-blooded oviparous tetrapods with feathers  One occipital condyle  Quadrate free  Forelimbs modified to wings  Heart with 2 ventricles.

Class Aves: Subclass Archaornithes  Earliest birds. Proavis. Archaornis  Archeopteryx . derived     from bipedal archausar Long tail Metacarpals separate With teeth Archaopteryx.

CLASS AVES: Subclass Neornithes  Include all extinct and living birds  Four-chambered heart  Tail feathers arranged in a fan-like manner around tail      stump Fused metacarpals Epidermal scales on bill. legs. air sacs. teeth absent in modern forms Modifications for flight include hollow bones. feet Bill instead of teeth. large eyes and large cerebellum Modifications for vocalization . pectoral appendages modified as wings.

Class Aves: Subclass Neornithes Superorder Neognathae.  Ratites and Carinates  Order Columbiformes  ( a dove with its young) .

Class Aves: Subclass Neornithes Order Pelecaniformes  Pelican Cormorant .

Class Aves: Subclass Neornithes Order Anseriformes  Duck Swan and Geese .

Class Aves: Subclass Neornithes Order Falconiformes  Hawk Eagle and vulture .

Class Aves: Subclass Neornithes Order Galliformes .

Class Aves: Subclass Neornithes Order Psittaciformes  Parrot Paroquet .

Class Aves: Subclass Neornithes  Largest order of birds  Perching birds  Order Passeriformes .

CLASS MAMMALIA  Possess hair/fur  Mammary glands to nourish young  Viviparous (oviparous in one order)  Two occipital condyles  Zygomatic arch and secondary palate  Single dentary bone in lower jaw  Dentary-squamosal jaw for articulation  Muscular diaphragm  Arose from synapsid reptiles which branched off at base of reptilian tree .

Class Mammalia: Subclass Prototheria  Egg laying mammals  Mammary glands without nipples  Pectoral girdle with separate precoracoid. coracoid. and interclavicle  Scapula with spine  Oviducts separate  With cloaca .

Class Mammalia: Subclass Prototheria Order Monotremata  The monotremes  Duckbilled platypuses and echidnas .

Class Mammalia: Subclass Metatheria  Marsupial mammals  Yolk sac serves as  Precoracoid and placenta  With an abdominal skin pouch (marsupium) supported by 2 marsupial bones  Teats open into the marsupium interclavicle absent  Coracoid reduced  Scapula with spine  Clavicle present  Four molars on each side  Shallow or no cloaca  Smooth brain  Double vagina .

Opossums. wallabies. wombats.Class Mammalia: Subclass Metatheria Order Marsupialia  Includes the kangaroos. Koala bear .

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria  The true placental mammals  Viviparous with an allantoic placenta  Withuot marsupium or marsupial bones  Shoulder girdle like marsupials  Mostly three molars on each side  One vagina  No cloaca .

flying lemurs .Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Insectivora  Insect eating mammals  Small nocturnal or burrowing mammals with plantigrade        clawed feet and often elongated snout Primitive dentition Teeth with sharp cusps Auditory region incompletely ossified Uterus bicornuate With clavicle Brain small and smooth Include the moles. hedgehogs.

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria  African hedgehog www.html ..uk/animalgro.co.animalcorner..mal.

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Chiroptera  The bats  Wings are modified forelimbs where the 2nd to 5th digits       are elongated to support a thin integumental membrane for flying Thumb and hindfeet with claws With clavicle Smooth brain Teats ate found on the thorax With sharp teeth Mostly nocturnal. and are capable of true flight .

rictus.Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria www.ats...html .com/viz/photos/seattl.

.. Galeopithecus or Cynocephalus  They cannot fly but they glide with their parachutes Galeopterus variegatus wikimedia.org/wiki/Galeo.riegatus .Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Dermoptera  Flying lemurs  Related to true bats and consist of the genus.

forefeet for grasping  Orbital and temporal depressions partly or completely     separated by a bony ridge With clavicles Stomach simple Teats maybe abdominal. or axillary Brain highly convoluted with very large cerebral hemispheres . pectoral. provided with flat nails  Plantigrade gait.Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Primata  Terrestial or arboreal hairy mammals  With 5 digits on each foot.

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Chimpanzee Spider Monkey .

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Carnivora  Flesh-eating mammals  With well developed incisors and canines  Auditory region is well developed usually with expanded bulla  Clavicles reduced or absent  Simple stomach  Convoluted brain .

behind which molars are broad or reduced. cutting.Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Carnivora Suborder Fissipedia  Terrestrial carnivores with walking feet  Strongly clawed  Plantigrade to digitigrade gait  With six incisors  Anterior cheek teeth sharp. . and culminating in a special carnassial tooth.

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Suborder Fissipedia  Cat and lion Leopard .

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Suborder Fissipedia  Dogs wolves. and civets .

weasel Raccoon.Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Suborder Fissipedia  Fox. hyena. bear and otter .

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Carnivora  Suborder Pinnepedia  Aquatic mammals with Sea lion and walrus webbed feet  Nails mostly reduced  Cheek teeth alike  No carnassial. .

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Perrisodactyla  Odd-toed ungulates.  Large-hoofed herbivorous mammals  Third digit forming limb axis  Other digits smaller or reduced  Gait unguligrade  Cheek teeth broad. with grinding ridges (lophodont)  Clavicle absent  Simple stomach and no gall bladder  Convoluted brain  Teats inguinal .

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Perrisodactyla Suborder Equoidea  Horses. asses and zebras .

three behind  Reduced and wanting canines and incisors  With 1 or 2 median horns of epidermal nature.Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Perrisodactyla Suborder Tapiroidea  Four toes infront.  Rhinoceruses .

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Artiodactyla  Even-toed mammals  Various sizes  Usually with long legs  Two functional toes on each foot. except pigs  Most with a four- compartment stomach. usually sheathed in cornified hoof  Many with antlers or horns on head  Reduced dentition. and ruminate or “chew the cud”  Without clavicles and gall bladder  With convoluted brain  Teats inguinal or abdominal .

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Artiodactyla Suborder Suina  No horns or antlers  With 38-44 teeth  Canines enlarged as curved tusks  Feet four-toed  Stomach simple to twochambered  Pigs. peccaries. hippopotamus .

llamas.Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Artiodactyla Suborder Tylopoda  One upper incisor      retained on each side With ruminating habit Stomach complex Feet soft. dromedaries. alpacas . bearing nails Net hooves Camels.

antelope.Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Artiodactyla Suborder Pecora  True ruminants Deer. with 3 or 4 compartments  Mostly with paired horns . rudimentary 2nd and 5th toes rarely present  Stomach complex without water cells. cattle  Upper incisors wanting  Two-toed feet.

goat.Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Artiodactyla Suborder Pecora Sheep. and giraffe .

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Cetacea  Size. medium to very large  Body usually torpedo    Nostrils on top of head  Long tail. ending in 2 broad  shaped Long head. often pointed. joined directly to body Some with a fleshy dorsal “fin” Forelimbs/flippers broad and paddle-like. digits embedded No claws and hindlimbs        transverse fleshy flukes and notched in midline Teeth alike when present Whalebone or baleen if teeth are lacking Small ear openings Smooth body surface No skin glands With blubber under skin Complex stomach .

porpoises and some whales  Killer whale .Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Cetacea  Suborder Odontocoeti  Toothed cetaceans  Teeth 2 to 40 in various species  Dolphins.

Order Cetacea: A porpoise and a dolphin .

horny fringes hanging along the edge of the upper jaw .Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Cetacea  Suborder Mystacoeti  No teeth and instead with whalebone.

A baleen whale .

. flat and broad ears. thick skin (pachyderm). body      huge.3. loose and sparsely-haired Nose and upper lip along flexible muscular proboscis Proboscis contain nasal passages with nostrils at the tip Two upper incisors elongated as tusks Feet club-like. legs pillar-like. each with small nail-like hoof Weight is borne on elastic pad behind toes. large head.or 4.Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Proboscidea (the elephants)  Massive. short neck. toes 5.

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria .

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Sirenia (manatees or sea cow)  Large. small mouth. scattered hairs  Complex stomach . not notched  Blunt muzzle. body spindle-shaped  Forelimbs paddle-like  No hindlimbs  Tail with lateral flukes. fleshy lips  No external ears  Teeth with enamel  Few.

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria  Order Sirenia (manatees or sea cow) .

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria
Order Hyracoidea  Small  Four toes on forelimb, 3 on hind  Digits with small hoofs, except 2nd clawed toe  Ears and tail short  Incisors ½  No canines  Procavia (Hyrax)

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria
Order Rodentia
 Usually small  Limbs with 5 toes and claws

 Incisors 1/1 x2 exposed, chisel-like, rootless, grow
    

continually No canines With a gap between incisors and cheek teeth Narrow palate Jaw motion both back and forth and lateral Elbow joint rotates

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria
Order Rodentia
 Squirrels, marmots, prairie

dogs, beavers, rats, mice, guinea pigs, agoutis, porcupines

or none.Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Xenartha (edentates)  Includes sloths  Teeth reduced to molars in forepart of jaws. no enamel  Toes clawed  Smooth brain  A sloth and an armadillo .

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria  An anteater .

Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Pholidota (pangolins)  Body covered by large overlapping horny plates with sparse hair between  No teeth. tongue slender and used to capture insects  Manis ( pangolin or scaly anteater) .

sparsely haired  Long ears and snout  Tubular mouth and slender.Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Order Tubulidentata( Aadvarks)  Stout body. protrusible tongue  Many milk teeth . unrooted. no enamel  4 to 5 toes. with heavy claws . few permanent teeth. somewhat piglike.

Aadvarks .

and rabbit Order Lagomorpha  Size moderate to small  Toes with claws  Tail stubby  Incisors chisel like  No canines  Palate broad  Jaw motion lateral only  Elbow joint nonrotating .Class Mammalia: Subclass Eutheria Pika. hare.

End of Parade of the Vertebrates… COMPILED BY: PROF. DE JESUS . MA. CORAZON P.