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Defining some terms

census

Population

Sample

Elements

Figure 12.3 Sampling Design Process
Define the Population

Determine the Sampling Frame

Select Sampling Technique(s)

Determine the Sample Size

Execute the Sampling Process

Define the Target Population
The target population is the collection of elements or objects that possess the information sought by the researcher and about which inferences are to be made. The target population should be defined in terms of elements, sampling units, extent, and time. – An element is the object about which or from which the information is desired, e.g., the respondent. – A sampling unit is an element, or a unit containing the element, that is available for selection at some stage of the sampling process. – Extent refers to the geographical boundaries. – Time is the time period under consideration.

Figure 12.4 Defining the Target Population Time Frame: Upcoming Summer Extent: Bahrain Sampling Unit: Households with 18 year old females Element: 18 year old females .

3 Sampling Design Process Define the Population Determine the Sampling Frame Select Sampling Technique(s) Determine the Sample Size Execute the Sampling Process .Figure 12.

Sampling Frame Error Target Population: All those who live in Manama Sampling Frame Error Sampling Frame: Telephone Directory .

3 Sampling Design Process Define the Population Determine the Sampling Frame Select Sampling Technique(s) Determine the Sample Size Execute the Sampling Process .Figure 12.

6 Classification of Sampling Techniques Sampling Techniques Nonprobability Sampling Techniques Probability Sampling Techniques .Figure 12.

7 Nonprobability Sampling Techniques Nonprobability Sampling Techniques Convenience Sampling Judgmental Sampling Quota Sampling Snowball Sampling .Figure 12.

Convenience Sampling Convenience sampling attempts to obtain a sample of convenient elements. respondents are selected because they happen to be in the right place at the right time. – use of students and members of social organizations – mall intercept interviews without qualifying the respondents – department stores using charge account lists – “people on the street” interviews . Often.

B. 18. The resulting sample consists of elements 16. 17. 8 A Graphical Illustration of Non-Probability Sampling Techniques Convenience Sampling A B C D E 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 Group D happens to assemble at a convenient time and place. Note. C and E. no elements are selected from group A.Figure 12. So all the elements in this Group are selected. 19 and 20. 5 10 15 20 25 .

7 Nonprobability Sampling Techniques Nonprobability Sampling Techniques Convenience Sampling Judgmental Sampling Quota Sampling Snowball Sampling .Figure 12.

– test markets – purchase engineers selected in industrial marketing research – expert witnesses used in court .Judgmental Sampling Judgmental sampling is a form of convenience sampling in which the population elements are selected based on the judgment of the researcher.

Figure 12. The resulting sample consists of elements 8. . 22 and 24.8 A Graphical Illustration of Non-Probability Sampling Techniques Judgmental Sampling A B C D E 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 5 10 15 20 25 The researcher considers groups B. no elements are selected from groups A and D. Within each of these groups one or two elements are selected based on typicality and convenience. 13. C and E to be typical and convenient. 10. Note. 11.

Figure 12.7 Nonprobability Sampling Techniques Nonprobability Sampling Techniques Convenience Sampling Judgmental Sampling Quota Sampling Snowball Sampling .

– The first stage consists of developing control categories. of population elements. or quotas. Population composition Control Characteristic Sex Male Female Percentage 48 52 ____ 100 Sample composition Percentage 48 52 ____ 100 Number 480 520 ____ 1000 . sample elements are selected based on convenience or judgment. – In the second stage.Quota Sampling Quota sampling may be viewed as two-stage restricted judgmental sampling.

one element is selected from each column or group. Within each group. 6. 8 A Graphical Illustration of Non-Probability Sampling Techniques Quota Sampling A B C D E 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 5 10 15 20 25 A quota of one element from each group. . one element is selected based on judgment or convenience. 20 and 22.Figure 12. 13. The resulting sample consists of elements 3. is imposed. A to E. Note.

7 Nonprobability Sampling Techniques Nonprobability Sampling Techniques Convenience Sampling Judgmental Sampling Quota Sampling Snowball Sampling .Figure 12.

these respondents are asked to identify others who belong to the target population of interest. . usually at random. – Subsequent respondents are selected based on the referrals. – After being interviewed.Snowball Sampling In snowball sampling. an initial group of respondents is selected.

12. 13. no element from group E. and 18. Note. 5 10 15 20 25 . Element 9 refers element 18. Element 2 refers elements 12 and 13. 9. The resulting sample consists of elements 2.Figure 12.8 A Graphical Illustration of Non-Probability Sampling Techniques Snowball Sampling Random Selection Referrals A B C D E 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 Elements 2 and 9 are selected randomly from groups A and B.

Figure 12.6 Classification of Sampling Techniques Sampling Techniques Nonprobability Sampling Techniques Probability Sampling Techniques .

Figure 12.9 Probability Sampling Techniques Probability Sampling Techniques Simple Random Sampling Systematic Sampling Stratified Sampling Cluster Sampling .

• Each possible sample of a given size (n) has a known and equal probability of being the sample actually selected. . • This implies that every element is selected independently of every other element.Simple Random Sampling • Each element in the population has a known and equal probability of selection.

7. 16. there is no element from Group C. and 24. 5 10 15 20 25 . The resulting sample consists of population elements 3. 9.Figure 12. Note.10 A Graphical Illustration of Probability Sampling Techniques Simple Random Sampling A B C D E 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 Select five random numbers from 1 to 25.

9 Probability Sampling Techniques Probability Sampling Techniques Simple Random Sampling Systematic Sampling Stratified Sampling Cluster Sampling .Figure 12.

423. systematic sampling increases the representativeness of the sample. For example.Systematic Sampling • The sample is chosen by selecting a random starting point and then picking every ith element in succession from the sampling frame. In this case the sampling interval. i. systematic sampling may decrease the representativeness of the sample. If. the sample consists of elements 23. . is determined by dividing the population size N by the sample size n and rounding to the nearest integer. • When the ordering of the elements is related to the characteristic of interest.000 elements in the population and a sample of 1. 223. 323. • The sampling interval. this number is 23. and so on.000 is desired. i. A random number between 1 and 100 is selected. 123. • If the ordering of the elements produces a cyclical pattern. 523. for example. there are 100. is 100.

(2+5x2=) 12. (2+5=) 7.Figure 12. 5 10 15 20 25 . Note. The resulting sample consists of population 2. and (2+5x4=) 22. say 2. all the elements are selected from a single row.10 A Graphical Illustration of Probability Sampling Techniques Systematic Sampling A B C D E 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 Select a random number between 1 to 5. (2+5x3=)17.

9 Probability Sampling Techniques Probability Sampling Techniques Simple Random Sampling Systematic Sampling Stratified Sampling Cluster Sampling .Figure 12.

usually SRS. . • Next. • The strata should be mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive in that every population element should be assigned to one and only one stratum and no population elements should be omitted. • A major objective of stratified sampling is to increase precision without increasing cost. elements are selected from each stratum by a random procedure. or strata.Stratified Sampling • A two-step process in which the population is partitioned into subpopulations.

the size of the sample from each stratum is proportionate to the relative size of that stratum and to the standard deviation of the distribution of the characteristic of interest among all the elements in that stratum. but the elements in different strata should be as heterogeneous as possible. . • In disproportionate stratified sampling. • The stratification variables should also be closely related to the characteristic of interest. the size of the sample drawn from each stratum is proportionate to the relative size of that stratum in the total population. • Finally.Stratified Sampling • The elements within a stratum should be as homogeneous as possible. the variables should decrease the cost of the stratification process by being easy to measure and apply. • In proportionate stratified sampling.

A to E.Figure 12. 7.10 A Graphical Illustration of Probability Sampling Techniques Stratified Sampling A B C D E 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 Randomly select a number from 1 to 5 for each stratum. one element is selected from each column. Note. 19 and 21. The resulting sample consists of population elements 4. 13. 4 9 14 19 24 5 10 15 20 25 .

Figure 12.9 Probability Sampling Techniques Probability Sampling Techniques Simple Random Sampling Systematic Sampling Stratified Sampling Cluster Sampling .

either all the elements are included in the sample (one-stage) or a sample of elements is drawn probabilistically (two-stage). • Then a random sample of clusters is selected. • In probability proportionate to size sampling. the probability of selecting a sampling unit in a selected cluster varies inversely with the size of the cluster. • Elements within a cluster should be as heterogeneous as possible.Cluster Sampling • The target population is first divided into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive subpopulations. the clusters are sampled with probability proportional to size. based on a probability sampling technique such as SRS. or clusters. • For each selected cluster. each cluster should be a small-scale representation of the population. In the second stage. Ideally. . but clusters themselves should be as homogeneous as possible.

B. randomly select one or two elements. and 23. Note. Within each cluster. 18. 21. no elements are selected from clusters A and C. The resulting sample consists of population elements 7. 20. D and E. 5 10 15 20 25 .10 A Graphical Illustration of Probability Sampling Techniques Cluster Sampling (2-Stage) A B C D E 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 Randomly select 3 clusters.Figure 12.

Figure 12.11 Types of Cluster Sampling Divide Population into Cluster Randomly Sample Clusters One Stage Two-Stage Include All Elements from Each Selected Cluster Randomly Sample Elements from Each Selected Cluster .

sample not representative. not recommended for descriptive or causal research Does not generalization. subjective Judgmental sampling Low cost.TABLE 12.3 Strengths and Weaknesses of Basic Sampling Techniques ________________________________________________________________ Technique Strengths Weaknesses ________________________________________________________________ Nonprobability Sampling Convenience sampling Least expensive. most convenient Selection bias. not time consuming Sample can be controlled for certain characteristics Quota sampling Selection bias. no assurance of representativeness . least time consuming. convenient.

TABLE 12.3 (cont. lower precision. expensive.) Strengths and Weaknesses of Basic Sampling Techniques ________________________________________________________________ Technique Strengths Weaknesses ________________________________________________________________ Snowball sampling Can estimate rare characteristics Time consuming Probability Sampling Simple random sampling (SRS) Easily understood. sampling frame. no assurance of representativeness . results projectable Difficult to construct.

precision Difficult to select relevant stratification variables. difficult to compute and interpret results ________________________________________________________________ .3 (Cont.TABLE 12.) Strengths and Weaknesses of Basic Sampling Techniques ________________________________________________________________ Technique Strengths Weaknesses ________________________________________________________________ Stratified sampling Includes all important subpopulations. not feasible to stratify on many variables. cost effective Imprecise. expensive Cluster sampling Easy to implement.

Probability Sampling CONDITIONS FAVORING THE USE OF Nonprobability Factors Sampling Probability Sampling Nature of research Exploratory Conclusive Relative magnitude of sampling and nonsampling errors Nonsampling errors are larger Sampling errors are larger Variability in the population Homogeneous (low) Heterogeneous (high) Statistical considerations Unfavorable Favorable Operational considerations Favorable Unfavorable ________________________________________________________________ .4 Choosing Nonprobability vs.TABLE 12.

Figure 12.3 Sampling Design Process Define the Population Determine the Sampling Frame Select Sampling Technique(s) Determine the Sample Size Execute the Sampling Process .

Important qualitative factors in determining the sample size: – – – – – – – – the importance of the decision the nature of the research the number of variables the nature of the analysis sample sizes used in similar studies incidence rates completion rates resource constraints .

..2 Sample Sizes Used in Marketing Research Studies ___________________________________________________________ Type of Study Minimum Size Typical Range ___________________________________________________________ Problem identification research (e.TABLE 12.g.g. pricing ) Product tests Test marketing studies TV/radio/print advertising (per commercial or ad tested) Test-market audits Focus groups 150 10 stores 6 groups 200-300 10-20 stores 10-15 groups 200 200 200 300-500 300-500 300-500 500 1000-2500 ___________________________________________________________ . market potential) Problem solving research (e.