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(A Road to Universal Broadband Connectivity

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Presented By: Harika.K

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Introduction Why Daknet First Mile Solutions Wireless Catalyst Daknet Architecture How DaknetWorks Challenges & Lessons Learned Features Of Daknet Conclusion

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MA and offers its Wi-Fi based technology to the rural population in developing countries such as India and Cambodia (contd)   3 . which was spun-off from an idea. Daknet. DakNet is an internet service based on the technology from First Mile Solutions (FMS). an ad hoc network uses wireless technology to provide digital connectivity. known as “DonkeyNet”. FMS is based in Cambridge. Daknet takes advantages of the existing transportation and communication infrastructure to provide digital connectivity.

To mobilize end-user market creation. Real time communications need large capital investment and hence high level of user adoption to receiver costs Technologies like store. The purpose behind the creation of UV was to develop for-profit rural internet service providers using FMS technology. known as United Villages Network Private Limited 4 . known as United Villages (UV).and forward or asynchronous modes of communication can be significantly lower in cost and do not necessarily sacrifice the functionality required to deliver valuable user services. a separate organization. was created by the founders of FMS.    FMS and United Villages merged in 2003 and an operating company.

but rather on affordability and basic interactivity Technologies like storeand forward or asynchronous modes of communication can be significantly lower in cost and do not necessarily sacrifice the functionality required to deliver valuable user services. The average villager cannot even afford a personnel communications device such as a telephone or computer. Studies show that the current market for successful rural Information and Communication Technology (ICT) services does not appear to rely on real-time connectivity. In addition to non real-time applications such as e-mail and voice messaging   5 . Real time communications need large capital investment and hence high level of user adoption to receiver costs.

DakNet.Shelf (COTS) hardware components. they believed.cost technology. could overcome these deficiencies and provide a glimpse into the market opportunities that exist in serving people living in rural and remote areas (contd)   6 . open.source software.1 0 DakNet integrates inexpensive Customer Off.The. a novel. low. and FMS¶s proprietary software to create an asynchronous Internet hub and spoke system. First Mile Solutions (FMS) specifically tackles the problems of high cost and limited access through its Village Area Network technology which includes DakNet.

 This concept. The primary DakNet pilot in India was with Bhoomi.  7 . an eGovernance initiative established by the Indian State Government of Karnataka to computerize all land records in Karnataka. Hammond. Armed with these initial proofs of concept. Al Hammond (Prahalad. and Stuart Hart. Prahalad. was popularized by C. Hasson returned to Boston and was contacted by Bernie Krisher from American Assistance for Cambodia/Japan Relief Fund (AAfC/JRF) to deploy their solution for rural schools in Cambodia. 2004). known as the bottom of the pyramid (BOP) business model.K.

making it for a hacker to easily breach the security of that network.Advances in the IEEE 802 standards have led to huge commercial success and low pricing for broadband networks. These techniques can provide broadband access to even the most remote areas at low price. access is not limited to the wired PCs but it is also open to all the wireless network devices. • Reach: WLAN should have optimum coverage and performance for mobile users to seamlessly roam in the wireless network 8 . Important considerations in a WLAN are • Security: In a WLAN.

11 or wifi standard are perhaps the most promising of the wireless technologies. use and maintenance.• Interference: Minimize the interference and obstruction by designing the wireless network with proper placement of wireless devices. Features of wifi include ease of setup. make changes and troubleshoot problems with fewer hassles. Wireless data networks based on the IEEE 802. connection in the enterprise network • Reliability: WLAN should provide reliable network Manageability: A manageable WLAN allows network • administrators to manage. • Interoperability: Choose a wireless technology standard that would make the WLAN a truly interoperable network with devices from different vendors integrated into the same. and relatively low cost for both users and providers. relatively high bandwidth. 9 .

These standards are universally in use around the globe.Wi-Fi refers to a set of high frequency wireless local area network (WLAN) technologies more specifically referred to as 802. to connect anywhere there is a Wi-Fi access point that is available. all of these Wi-Fi standards are fast enough to generally allow a broadband connection. 802. 10 . as well as travelers that can increasingly access Wi-Fi in airports.11b and 802. Across the board. and allow users that have a Wi. although the faster Wi-Fi standards are quickly replacing it. like a laptop or PDA.Fi capable device.11b ( which transmits at 11 Megabits per Second ) is the most common. coffee shops. The three standards that are refered to signify the speed of the connection they are capable of producing.11a 802. Wi-Fi adds tremendous levels of convenience and increased productivity for workers whose offices are equipped with Wi-Fi. and hotels around world.11g. Wi-Fi is an emerging technology that will likely be as common as electrical outlets and phone lines within a few years.

The main parts of daknet architecture are 1) Mobile access point 2) Hub 3) Kiosk 1) Mobile Access Point: Daknet offers data to be transmitted over short point-to-point links. It combines physical and wireless data transport to enable high-bandwidth intranet and internet connectivity among kiosks (public computers) and between kiosks and hubs (contd) 11 .

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3Mbps. MAP equipment used on the bus includes. or even a bicycle with a small generator. during which the MAP and kiosk go in and out of connection because of mobility and obstructions. Mobile Access Point is mounted on and powered by a bus or motorcycle.11b wireless card and 512 Mbytes of compact flash memory. mounting equipment. is 2. MAPs are installed on vehicles that normally pass by each village to provide store-and-forward connectivity. an uninterruptible power supply powered by the bus battery. A 100-mW amplifier. But on average.A session occurs each time the bus comes within range of a kiosk and MAP transfers data. The speed of the connection between the access point and the kiosk or hub varies in each case. The average good put or actual throughput for a session. a custom embedded PC running Linux with 802. they can move about 21Mb or 42 Mb bidirectional per session. and a 14-in Omni directional antenna. Omni directional antennas are uses on the bus and either directional or Omni directional antennas are located at each of the kiosks or hubs    13 . cabling. The total cost of the Daknet MAP equipment used on the bus is $580.

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The above figure illustrates the Daknet concept that has been applied in real time. Mounted on and powered by a bus. Instead of relaying information over long distances which would be expensive and consume more power. or even a bicycle with a small generator. a motorcycle. Daknet makes use of short point -to-point links to transmit data between the Kiosks in each village and portable storage devices call Mobile Access Points (MAP).time Internet access). a MAP physically transports data among public kiosks and private communications devices (as an intranet) and between kiosks and a hub (for nonreal. Low-cost WiFi radio transceivers automatically transfer the data stored in the MAP at high bandwidth for each point-to-point connection 16 .

Even a single vehicle passing by a village is sufficient to carry the entire daily information. These steps repeat or all the vehicles carrying MAP. and when in range of one of the outlying information kiosks it synchronizes data for later processing. thus providing a low cost wireless network and seamless communication infrastructure. A simple store-and-forward WiFi system. 17   . The bus contains a simple WiFi installation and server. The connection quality is also high. As it comes in the range of Internet access points (the hub) it automatically synchronizes the data from kiosks using the Internet.  Daknet has thus functions: As the MAP equipped vehicle comes within the range of a village Wi-Fi enabled kiosk it automatically senses the wireless connection and uploads and downloads tens of mega bytes of data. using a government bus as a central linkage.

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and asynchronous Internet searching and browsing API enabling organizations to easily integrate DakNet with their existing applications 1. including email. 2. 3. 19 . 4. 5. audio/video messaging. including: Wireless Hardware (wireless transceiver and antennas) Networking Software Server and cache Software Custom applications. DakNet offers an affordable and complete connectivity package.

Figure: DakNet store-and-forward drive-by wifi model 20 .

4. transportation. 6. 1. Building a strong ecosystem of partnerships.related barriers. Determining actual ICT demand from the end-user market. Managing relationships with clients and partners 5. Limited demand from institutional clients.FMS initial deployments have revealed many challenges. and weather. Developing locally relevant applications to generate demand for DakNet. Infrastructure. 21 . The following section highlights several of those challenges. from actual deployment of the technology to penetrating the BOP market. 2. 3.

Securing locally relevant applications will be important because different countries have different needs and use different languages. 22 .  Adoption of DakNet technology will depend heavily on the usefulness and relevance of related applications and the villagers ability to use them despite low levels of education and literacy. Since FMS and UV have made a conscious decision to focus on creating a small set of core tools instead of creating many different applications. FMS and UV are considering running pilot projects with established e. In their initial stages.kiosk operators running successful applications.

This provides millions of people their first possibility for digital connectivity. The larger goal is to shift the policy focus of the Government’s universal service obligation funds from wireless village telephones to wireless ad-hoc networking.   Daknet’s low deployment cost and enthusiastic reception by rural users has motivated dozens of inquiries for further deployments. Increasing connectivity is the most reliable way to encourage economic growth. resulting economic growth and system reliability 23 . The shift will probable require formal assessment for user satisfaction.

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