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overlapping of duties and misunderstanding.UNITY OF COMMAND Employees should be responsible to only one superior to avoid confusion. .

SCALAR PRINCIPLE OR HIERARCHY Also known as ‘’chain of command’’. Authority and responsibility should flow in clear unbroken lines from highest to lowest. .

.HOMOGENOUS ASSIGNMENT OR DEPARTMENTATION Workers performing same assignments are grouped together for a common purpose.

depending upon the pace and pattern of the working area. .SPAN OF CONTROL The number of workers that a supervisor can effectively manage should be limited.

.EXCEPTION PRINCIPLE Recurring decision should be handled in a routine manner by lower-level managers whereas unusual ones’ should be referred to higher level.

the process of conferring specified decision making to lower levels of organization .DECENTRALIZATION Also known as ‘proper delegation of authority’.