CHANGE MANAGEMENT

MODULE 1

SETTING THE CONTEXT

Module 1 Part 1

The Change / Learning Process

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(4) loss of identity. The feelings associated with an inability or unwillingness to learn something new because (1) it requires unlearning and temporary incompetence. But the prospect of learning something new creates… • Learning anxiety. The fear.How does learning / change begin? • Disconfirmation – information that things are not working. . • Hence resistance to change. expectations are not being met creates… • Survival anxiety or guilt. (2) loss of power or status. (3) loss of group membership. shame or guilt associated with not learning something new.

.Basic proposition about learning • Survival anxiety must be > learning anxiety. • Learning method 1: Escalate survival anxiety until it is greater than learning anxiety. • Learning method 2: Reduce learning anxiety until it is less than survival anxiety – create “psychological safety”.

Provide a safe environment for learning (practice field). Reward small steps in the right direction. CHANGE MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS AIM TO CREATE PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY . Work in a supportive climate (norms that support error embracing). Provide the time and resources necessary for learning. Provide coaching and help. Provide first steps and a direction. Provide a vision of a path. Work in groups.How to reduce learning anxiety and create “psychological safety” • • • • • • • • • Involve the “change targets” in all the steps of the learning process.

What is Change Management? • Gaining a mutual understanding of what we think Change Management is… .

Discussion of the key concepts • Conscious / unconscious • Primary / secondary process • Strategic Improvisation • Dialogue .

Module 1 Part 2 The Change Consultant .

What is a change consultant? • What characteristics underpin the role that we have to perform? • What function do we perform in organisations? • What is our strategic relevance in organisations? .

The Process Consultant (Process Power) .The different helping roles: 1. The Doctor (Diagnostic Power) 3. The Expert (Information Power) 2.

. Create a situation in which information will surface that will permit both consultant and client to understand better what may be going on – “diagnostic intervention.” 3.The strategic goals of process consultation 1. create a situation where the client will get help. 2. Client and consultant become an intervention team. Create a situation in which the client will at all times feel ownership of the problem.e. Provide help i.

I have found in all human relationships that the intention to be helpful is the best guarantee of a relationship that is rewarding and leads to mutual learning. it is unlikely to lead to a helping relationship. . Always try to be helpful. Obviously if I have no intention of being helpful and working at it. In general.Ten Principles of Process Consultation 1.

the situation and in the client. . I cannot be helpful if I cannot decipher what is going on in me.Ten Principles of Process Consultation 2. Always stay in touch with the current reality.

. I am more likely to sound congruent and sincere when I talk about it. from what I truly do not know. Access your ignorance The only way I can discover my own inner reality is to learn to distinguish what I know. and I must make an effort to locate within myself what I really do not know by scanning my own inner database and gaining access to empty compartments. Accessing is the key. If I truly do not know the answer. It is generally most helpful to work on those areas where I truly do not know.Ten Principles of Process Consultation 3. from what I assume I know.

I therefore have to own everything I do and assess the consequences to be sure that they fit my goals of creating a helping relationship. . so does every interaction have consequences for both the client and for me. Everything you do is an intervention. Just as every intervention reveals diagnostic information.Ten Principles of Process Consultation 4.

nor is it my job to offer advice and solutions in a situation that I do not live in myself.    The client owns the problem and the solution. . It is not my job to take the client’s problems onto my own shoulders.Ten Principles of Process Consultation 5. My job is to create a relationship in which the client can get help.

and once the client and helper have a shared set of insights into what is going on. flow becomes itself a shared process.Ten Principles of Process Consultation 6. .    Go with the flow. Once the relationship reaches a certain level of trust. In as much as I do not know the client’s reality. I must respect as much as possible the natural flow in that reality and not impose my sense of flow on an unknown situation.

the suggestion of alternatives. . Over and over I have learned that the introduction of my perspective. the asking of a clarifying question. or whatever else I want to introduce from my own point of view has to be timed to those moments when the client’s attention is available. The same remark uttered at two different times can have completely different results.    Timing is crucial.Ten Principles of Process Consultation 7.

I find I seize those moments and try to make the most of them. When the client signals a moment of openness. opportunistic with confrontive . Those moments occur when the client has revealed some data signifying readiness to pay attention to a new point of view.Ten Principles of Process Consultation 8. a moment when his or her attention to a new input appears to be available.  Be constructively interventions.

shame or guilt.Ten Principles of Process Consultation 9. errors are inevitable – learn from them. I will say and do things that produce unexpected and undesirable reactions in the client. Everything is a source of data. but each error produces reactions from which I can learn a great deal about my own and the client’s reality. I can never know enough of the client’s reality to avoid errors. No matter how well I observe the above principles. . I must learn from them and at all costs avoid defensiveness.

Why should I assume that I always know what to do next? In as much as it is the client’s problem and reality we are dealing with. it is entirely appropriate for me to involve the client in my own efforts to be helpful. and in other ways get paralyzed. . In situations like this. I find that the most helpful thing I can do is to share my “problem” with the client. don’t know what to do next. feel frustrated. share the problem. Inevitably there will be times in the relationship when I run out of steam.  When in doubt.Ten Principles of Process Consultation 10.

Module 1 Part 3 The Facilitator .

The Facilitator Functions • Preparing • Determining the group’s focus • Fostering trust • Assessing group process & providing feedback • Keeping communication channels open & exposing tension • Managing conflict • Concluding .

The Metaskills of the Facilitator • Compassion • Mindfulness • Neutrality / Following the Process • Detachment / Dual Awareness • Playfulness • Beginners Mind / Humility • Patience .

Facilitation techniques • Using the flipchart effectively • Sorting the field • Noticing silent participants • Climate report • Checking in • Reflective listening .

Module 1 Part 4 The Solution Finder .

Values Positives Green Hat Ideas.Edward de Bono’s Six Thinking Hats White Hat Facts. Hunches Intuition Black Hat Cautions. Information Data Red Hat Feelings. Problems Difficulties Yellow Hat Benefits. Alternatives Possibilities Blue Hat Process Control Thinking about Thinking .Problem Solving .

Anxious. Stereotypes Lethargic. Lacks trying. Procrastinates. Negative conversation.how. Enjoys environment. Sees bigger picture Rationalises. Life is unbearable.Problem Solving . Happens to all of us. Does not smile. Disbelief. Revue minor perspective. Lazy. Moves into tormented state Extremely negative. Leaves things to other people. Neurotic. Can’t cope with situation/life. Critical. Very critical. Contemplates. Warped idea of reality 3 Negativity / Unhappiness 2 Paralyses 1 Tormented Thinker . Mind does not get body going. Open . situation. Ultimate Perspective. Experience. Enjoys people interaction. Know . No way out. Withdrawn. Awakens joy in others. Seeks enjoyment. Puts life on hold.Levels of Thinking 7 Creative Wisdom 6 Joy / Passion 5 Perspective 4 OK with negative stress Knowledge. We are all alike Unhappy. Blames others. Complaining. Finds fault. Aggressive.minded. Problem centered. Do things slowly. Avoids passion killers Stand back. Habit forming. We all go of the rails at times. Understand levels of thinking Enjoys life.Not action orientated.

” (Peter Senge) .The concept of Mental Models “Mental models are deeply held internal images of how the world works. images that limit us to familiar ways of thinking and acting. Very often we are not aware of our mental models or the effects they have on our behaviour.

.The concept of Systems Thinking Systems thinking is a discipline for seeing problems holistically and for understanding how systems create patters and events we see around us.

The Advocacy / Inquiry Matrix High Explaining Imposing Mutual Learning Over Engaging Advocacy Observing Withdrawing Interviewing Interrogating Low Inquiry High .

• Go on. • Use silence and encouraging body language • Tell me what is going on. • Can you give me some examples of that? • Can you give me some of the details of what went on? • When did this last happen? .Types of Active / Inquiry Questions Pure Exploratory Inquiry Prompt the story and listen carefully and neutrally. • Tell me more. • What is happening? • Describe the situation.

past. present and future: •     What did you (others) do about that? •     What are you going to do? .Types of Active / Inquiry Questions Exploratory Diagnostic Inquiry Start to identify the issues i. Exploring emotional responses: •    How did you feel about that? •    What was your reaction? •    How did others feel and react? Exploring reasons for actions and events: •    Why do you think you did that? •    Why do you think that happened? •    Why do you think the other person did that? Exploring actions.e. diagnosing.

• Did you confront him / her about that? • Could you have done the following…? • Have you thought about doing…? • Did it occur to you that he / she did that because they were anxious? • Have you considered these other options? • Have you considered the possibility that you overreacted? • Did that not make you feel angry / anxious / elated etc? .Types of Active / Inquiry Questions Confrontive Inquiry Share own ideas and “force” the client to think about the situation from a new perspective.

Module 1 Part 5 Organisational and Business Context of Change .

Deciphering the organisational and business contexts of change • World-wide demographics • Workforce demographics • Technological advances • Social trends • Changes in ownership • Natural shocks • Political ramifications • Competition • Internal changes .

Discussion regarding organisational and business contexts of change • What have been some major change initiatives that you have seen implemented in organisations? • How successful would you gauge them to have been? • Have you ever been a change consultant / on an organisational change team? • What were the changes you were implementing and how successful were you? .

MODULE 2 GENERIC CHANGE TOOLS & TACTICS .

Module 2 Part 1 Change Management Methodology .

I n business im provem ent projects …

Change M anagem ent is about … …

Change Management Methodology Model
Leading Change
Creating a Shared Need Shaping a Vision Mobilising Commitment
Current State Transition State Improved State

Making Change Last Monitoring Progress

R E S U L T S

Changing Systems and Structures

Module 2 Part 2

Generic Change Tools & Tactics

Change Management Methodology Model Leading Change Creating a Shared Need Shaping a Vision Mobilising Commitment Current State Transition State Improved State Making Change Last Monitoring Progress R E S U L T S Changing Systems and Structures .

Leading Change Why bother? • • • Overview Strong committed leadership is critical to accelerating change Leadership impacts all other change processes Leaders must play varied roles .

Leading Change Tools and tactics include : •    Sponsorship strategy Tools and Tactics .

Highlight barriers to successful sponsorship.Leading Change Sponsorship strategy : • What is a sponsor? – – Tools and Tactics A person with the influence or responsibility to ensure that the change outcomes are delivered. A sponsor has responsibility for initiating and sustaining change. Identify the sponsors Establish sponsor responsibilities Build commitment of sponsors regarding the change process. • The purpose of a sponsorship strategy is to: – – – – .

COMMUNICATE UPDATES on a regular basis. IDENTIFY AND RESOLVE POTENTIAL “HOT SPOTS”. RAISE CONCERNS AND ASK QUESTIONS early in the transition process. MEET REGULARLY WITH YOUR PEOPLE in order to show support. . SET A CHALLENGING PACE for the change program.Leading Change Sponsorship strategy : • Tools and Tactics Sponsor responsibilities might include the following: – – – – – – – DEMONSTRATE SUPPORT FOR THE CHANGE through words. customers and peers. actions and decisions. BE RESPONSIVE – to employees. gain understanding and listen.

Leading Change Sponsorship strategy : • Tools and Tactics Sponsor action plan might include the following: Sponsor Dept Head Event Sponsor Session Duration 1 hour Developed By Change Consultant Delivered By Dept Head. Change Consultant Timing To co-incide with beginning of new project phase Message • Project changes Primary Objectives • Identify hot spots • Obtain commitment Etc… .

Create a culture that will promote the desired behaviours? Refine rewards. measures and feedback systems to reinforce behaviours? Mobilise a network of committed change sponsors and agents? Coach and counsel key stakeholders throughout the change process? Identify and remove barriers that impede the change process? .Leading Change To what extent do our change leaders : • • • • • • • • Assessment Create a personal role for themselves in leading the change process? Identify the key priorities and a critical path for the change? Create a clear picture of “where we want to get to”.

Short term issues take priority over long term focus of “big picture” goals. There are competing demands for sponsor time and resources. Sponsors object to change initiatives.Leading Change Change efforts can potentially derail when : • • • • • • They fail to establish and clarify the key change roles of Sponsor. . Not all sponsor will 100% support the change process. They lack quantifiable measures for establishing Sponsor accountability. Pitfalls Leaders fail to engage in behaviours necessary for change.

Change Management Methodology Model Leading Change Creating a Shared Need Shaping a Vision Mobilising Commitment Current State Transition State Improved State Making Change Last Monitoring Progress R E S U L T S Changing Systems and Structures .

Validates why the project is important and critical to do. . Builds momentum needed to get the change initiative launched.Creating a Shared Need Why bother? • • • Overview Forces any resistance or apathy to be addressed head-on.

Creating a Shared Need Tools and tactics include : • Tools and Tactics The Change implementation process and the change blueprint .

Stabilisation and Feedback .The Process of Change Implementation CHANGE OBJECTIVES Information Gathering CHANGE OVERVIEW Information Assessment CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN Information Dissemination CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION Information Monitoring.

• What you are hoping to achieve by the change process: a clear understanding of the change objectives • Are the changes compatible with the organisation’s current systems and processes? .CHANGE OBJECTIVES CHANGE OVERVIEW Change Objectives CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION • Requires considerable evaluation of the organisation's current position.

CHANGE OBJECTIVES Y GATHER CHANGE OVERVIEW Information gathering ASSESS CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN TELL CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION Industry Benchmarkin g Internal information gathering Personal Experience Key Areas:  Cultural fit  Strategic fit Information Sources Info teams Media  Synergy Potential  Management fit and style  Corporate demographics  Structural fit Market Knowledge Previous change attempts .

.CHANGE OBJECTIVES CHANGE OVERVIEW Change Overview CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION • Takes generic change objectives and applies them to the situation • Clarifies how the change objectives are going to be met • Serves as a practical reminder organisation is attempting to achieve of what the • Acts as a bridge between the objectives and the operational blueprint.

g. thorough planning .  Implementation costs  Redundancy expenses  System harmonisation  Capital expenditure Continual financial costs Human resources costs Employee participation Imposed decisions  Less uncertainty  Decision makers are a known quantity  No arguments or politics Assessing the change situation Addressing cultural issues Employee Input Affected employees know more about their company/function Opportunity to motivate Most successful if well done Employees must live with decisions Prolongs uncertainty Longer and slower process Affected parties may not trust the change agent Carnage if done poorly         Manifest in differences in:  Work legislation  Attitudes/ behaviours  Working practices  Management style  Company procedures  May make wrong decisions  Can seriously demotivate  Requires detailed.CHANGE OBJECTIVES Y GATHER Key Operational Decisions Resource Decisions Speed of implementation Immediate Approach  Less uncertainty  Quicker process  Greater clarity and certainty of action  May make wrong decisions  No affected employee participation  Requires detailed. thorough planning ASSESS TELL CHANGE OVERVIEW CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION Delayed Approach  Greater knowledge of the changes necessary  Opportunity to motivate and involve affected employees  Prolongs uncertainty  Longer and slower process  Longer for results to show “One off” financial costs e.

CHANGE OBJECTIVES CHANGE OVERVIEW Change Blue Print • Reduces overview into task specific actions • Serves as the basis for the implementation plan by determining: – What – action to be taken – When – the timescale for change CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION post-change – Who – is to be affected and who is to be responsible for leading the changes – How – the actual blueprint – Why – the logic behind the actions taken .

source) . coverage.CHANGE OBJECTIVES Y GATHER CHANGE OVERVIEW Communications Strategy ASSESS CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN TELL CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION el nn ha C Ti m Strategy Content in g (style.

Implementation plan and techniques • Implementation is reliant on: CHANGE OBJECTIVES CHANGE OVERVIEW CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION – Prior employee knowledge of change – Employees being comfortable with their role in the change via communication – The enactment of the change process – The alignment in systems and processes of the ultimate changes • Techniques include: – Change co-ordinator or manager – Change team – Steering committee – Information gathering teams – Working committees – External specialists / facilitators .

5. 3. 2. Assessment Are all members of the project team aligned in terms of the need to change? Have we framed the need for change in such a way to reflect the concerns of customers and key suppliers? Would each team member deliver essentially the same “message” regarding the need for change if asked by someone outside of the team? Who are the key constituencies affected by this initiative. .Creating a Shared Need 1. and how much importance does each give to the initiative? How can we help others increase their sense of the need for change? 4.

its “their” problem.Creating a Shared Need Pitfalls Change efforts can potentially derail when they : • • • • • • Fail to check for alignment and build true consensus. . Fail to frame the need for change in a meaningful way Assume that when others fail to appreciate the need for change. Underestimate the resistance to change. Assume the need for change in obvious. Fail to search beneath the surface for root causes.

Change Management Methodology Model Leading Change Creating a Shared Need Shaping a Vision Mobilising Commitment Current State Transition State Improved State Making Change Last Monitoring Progress R E S U L T S Changing Systems and Structures .

Shaping a Vision Why bother? • • Overview Visions paint a picture that appeals to both the “head” and the “heart” and answer the question “Why change?” Visions help create shared meaning and thereby help gain genuine commitment from all. .

Shaping a Vision Tools and tactics include : • Facilitating a visioning session Tools and Tactics .

“What can be learned from this?” .Shaping a Vision Facilitating a visioning session : • Prior to session – interview key stakeholders. – – – What is working? What is not working? Tools and Tactics Look at what our competitors are doing and ask ourselves.

. Use visualisation techniques to envision daily life scenarios once change is achieved. – – – Tools and Tactics Start with the end – brainstorm loosely what the future state looks like in as much detail as possible – blue sky thinking. Design a dream using the language of: o o o What we do What we sell Who we are – Discuss feedback from key stakeholder interviews.Shaping a Vision Facilitating a visioning session : • Facilitating the session (2 days).

what do we want to be? Identify and explore values and philosophies which will change the way people think and feel and which will guide our interactions through the change process. to instigate the change process.Shaping a Vision Facilitating a visioning session : • Facilitating the session (2 days). Look at the relevance / effectiveness / efficiency of: o o o Our purpose Our people Our processes – – Develop a mission i. Identify first steps – processes. – . – Tools and Tactics Engage in rigorous self examination. saying in a given time frame. forums etc.e.

Shaping a Vision To what extent : • • • • • has a vision be clearly articulated for the project? is the vision simple and straightforward? is the vision motivating and energising? Assessment is the vision shared and understood across the business? is the vision actionable? and finally. • How aligned is the team around the vision? .

and no effort is made to gain alignment. The vision fails to reflect the interests and needs of customers &/suppliers. The vision is too complex to be easily understood or translated into day-to-day behaviours. The vision changes too often. Vision statements remain at such a “lofty” level that one one pushes back.Shaping a Vision Change efforts can potentially derail when : • • • • • Pitfalls Everyone has their own vision. is so rigid that others feel excluded. . or conversely.

Change Management Methodology Model Leading Change Creating a Shared Need Shaping a Vision Mobilising Commitment Current State Transition State Improved State Making Change Last Monitoring Progress R E S U L T S Changing Systems and Structures .

Helps speed up the pace of change and ensures that performance is maximised during the transition state. Helps create an organisation that is fundamentally more flexible and able to implement change programs quickly and efficiently.Mobilising Commitment Why bother? • • Overview Helps deliver a culture of individual accountability and daily problem solving. • .

Mobilising Commitment Tools and tactics include : • • • Stakeholder analysis Change readiness Communication strategy Tools and Tactics .

. Can be an individual or a group of individuals with similar stakes in the change.Mobilising Commitment Stakeholder analysis : • • Tools and Tactics A stakeholder is anyone who is impacted by or who impacts the change.

Mobilising Commitment Stakeholder analysis : • • Tools and Tactics Stakeholder analysis is a starting point for understanding the change readiness of key stakeholder groups. and readiness gaps of key stakeholder groups. . By understanding the requirements. we are better equipped to plan and implement appropriate change interventions.

Mobilising Commitment
Stakeholder analysis :
• •

Tools and Tactics

Stakeholder analyses are best conducted by way of a 2 hour brainstorming session. Steps to be followed include:
– – – – – Explain your role. Explain the purpose of the session. Explain outcomes i.e. next steps for assessing appropriate change interventions. Ask: What is the end-to-end nature of the change? This helps to identify who is impacted by it. Complete stakeholder analysis tool. Draw the table on a whiteboard. Work your way across the table as directed.

Mobilising Commitment
Stakeholder analysis :
• Stakeholder analysis template
Stakeholder Group Stakeholder Group 1 • What is the complete list of stakeholders that impact or are impacted by the change? • Does the stakeholder group need to be broken down into subgroups at this point? - Do they have different stakes in the change? - Is there a likelihood that they will be at varying degrees of readiness? Nature of Stakeholding • What is their relationship to the change? - Are they a customer / supplier? - Are they a part of the process? - Are they affected by the outcomes only? - What would be their concerns and what would the impact of their concerns have on others? - What type of involvement would they require? Wins Losses Neutral Rate

Tools and Tactics

Rank How would you prioritise stakeholder groups relative to one another? 1 = most critical

How important is the stakeholder group to the delivery of the change? • Critical • Important • Marginal

Mobilising Commitment
Change readiness :

Tools and Tactics

Change readiness is the capacity of key stakeholders to support change in a manner that ensures that change is sustainable. Sustainability is achieved by facilitating the uptake along three key dimensions:
– – – Stages of concern, based on their degree of understanding of the change. Preparedness to support i.e. willingness to change. Ability to support, based on the development of the skills and knowledge required.

Mobilising Commitment
Change readiness :
• •

Tools and Tactics

The change readiness tool examines change readiness for key stakeholder groups and… Identifies what change interventions will be necessary to successfully guide the change.

Mobilising Commitment

Tools and Tactics

Change readiness – stages of concern :
Stages of Concern Awareness Stage (0) Information Stage (1) Personal Stage (2) Management Stage (3) Impact / Consequence Stage (4) Collaboration Stage (5) Refocusing Stage (6) Focus of Concern Little concern or involvement. General awareness & an interest in learning more about it. Uncertainty about demands of change. Uncertainty about decision making, potential conflicts. Issues relating to efficiency, organisation, scheduling, time etc. Focus is on impact of change for individuals in immediate sphere of contact. Focus is on coordination and cooperation with others. Focus is one of exploration of more universal benefits. Expression of Concern “I’m not concerned about it.” “I would like to know more about it.” “How will using it affect me? “I seem to be spending all my time in paperwork.” “How is it affecting my team?” “I am concerned about relating what I am doing with others.” “I have some ideas about something that will work even better.”

Mobilising Commitment Change readiness – stages of concern : • • • • • • • Awareness Stage. Coaching. Creating opportunities for them to innovate. Involving people in shaping the change. Tactics are mainly around… Impact / Consequence Stage. Tactics are mainly around… Allaying personal concerns and providing a level of support. Tactics are mainly around… Personal Stage. Further information and motivating. Tactics are mainly around… Collaboration Stage. Management Stage. training and development. Creating opportunities to use them to influence others. Tactics are mainly around… – – – – – – – Informing. Tools and Tactics Information Stage. Tactics are mainly around… . Tactics are mainly around… Refocusing Stage.

Jointly discuss tactics to help overcome their concerns.Mobilising Commitment Tools and Tactics Change readiness – stages of concern : • • Determining stage of concern is best conducted by way of a 2 hour small group session. plot their stage of concern. using the interventions previously discussed as guidelines for suggestions. looking for themes. . Sythesise concerns on a flipchart. Steps to follow include: – – – – – Familiarise yourself with the Stages of Concern. Spend time in open discussion about what their concerns are. Refer to Stages of Concern and. together with participants.

Facilitate discussion on: o o o What are the critical / core changes? What do you feel you are losing in the process? How do you feel about it? – – Facilitate discussion about object vs state loss – What can you control? Facilitate discussion on. – Put all unresolved issues into further process. . “What do you need?”: o o All boils down to support – “Where can you get support from?” List of actions / commitments. Get people to talk about the current change.Mobilising Commitment Tools and Tactics Change readiness – preparedness to support : • • Gauging support is best conducted by way of a half day facilitated small group session. Steps to follow include: – – Explain the purpose of the session.

.Mobilising Commitment Change readiness – ability to support : • Tools and Tactics Refer to elements of a training & support strategy in section on IT Change.

relationship to stakeholder etc.Mobilising Commitment Change readiness : • Change readiness plan template Stakeholder Group As detailed in Stakeholder Analysis Stage of Concern Preparedness to Support Ability Change Tactic Tools and Tactics Resp Tracking Outcomes • Identify the • Not initiated • Initiated and appropriate individuals to the working • Initiated and not tactic. . • Individuals can be working selected because of functional expertise. organisational influence.

Troubleshoot possible barriers to communication and determine the appropriate solutions. .Mobilising Commitment Communication : • The purpose of a communication strategy is to: – – – – Tools and Tactics Define the objectives of the communication effort. Provide a framework for developing and implementing the communications. Develop guiding principles for communication.

Critical success factors • • • e. Maximising the use of face-to-face communication. e.g. Availability of resources to produce communications materials.g. Enroll people in the change through involvement at all levels in the organisation. e. .g.Mobilising Commitment Communication : Tools and Tactics Elements of a communication strategy could include: Communication objectives • e.g. Maximising the use of respected and influential people to deliver messages.

e.g.): Guiding principles for effective communication • • Tools and Tactics e. Employees should hear information from the appropriate source. Key messages • Key messages are the themes that will underpin all communication. Communication should be two-way and face-to-face to the extent possible. .g.Mobilising Commitment Communication : Elements of a communication strategy (cont.

): Communications plan Target Audience Name of stakeholder group. Specific person / role required to deliver the message.Mobilising Commitment Change readiness : Elements of a communications strategy (cont. . Communication Activity Description of: • Meeting • Presentation • Roadshow • Workshop • Teleconference • Briefing • Demo Message Description of: key points to be highlighted: • Issues & concerns • Project timeframes • Vision & direction • Feedback • Q&A • Project status • Job changes • Etc. Sender Tools and Tactics Timing Date for communication activity to commence.

• They provide a facility for target audience groups to communicate their concerns. • Examples include: – – – – Departmental representative Open dialogue forums Survey / questionnaire Communications log (This would be a mechanism to track any communications issues that are being identified.Mobilising Commitment Communication : Tools and Tactics Elements of a communication strategy (cont. thereby ensuring a two-way communication.): Feedback mechanisms • Feedback mechanisms are important for ensuring that communication objectives are being met and messages are conveyed in the most effective way possible.) .

Conflicting information from different sources. . Diversity of different audiences requiring different types of information. Lack of clear and consistent information due to the perception of the “evolving” nature of the project.Mobilising Commitment Communication : Elements of a communication strategy (cont.): Barriers to effective communication • Examples include: – – – – Tools and Tactics Desire to keep information secret.

Mobilising Commitment How well have you : • • • • Assessment Understood the needs and concerns of the people impacting or impacted by the change? Analysed sources of resistance? Developed problem solving process to resolve resistance? Developed tactics to help prepare the stakeholders for and support them through the change? .

They assume technical solution is sufficient. Pitfalls . They don’t involve others due to time constraints.Mobilising Commitment Change efforts can derail when : • • • • • Too little information is shared with key stakeholders. They underestimate human resistance to change. Too much information is shared with key stakeholders.

Change Management Methodology Model Leading Change Creating a Shared Need Shaping a Vision Mobilising Commitment Current State Transition State Improved State Making Change Last Monitoring Progress R E S U L T S Changing Systems and Structures .

We often spend most available time on the launch of an initiative rather than its institutionalisation. resources and attention. sustained change is difficult to achieve without attention from the entire team Every change initiative will compete for time. .Making Change Last Why bother? • • • Overview Experience shows that successful.

Making Change Last Tools and tactics include : • • Forcefield analysis Systems and Structures worksheet Tools and Tactics .

Making Change Last Forcefield analysis : ENABLERS RESTRAINERS Tools and Tactics .

Making Change Last Systems and Structures worksheet : Measurement Reward Staffing Development Organisational Design Tools and Tactics Identify specific opportunities to use or modify various systems and structures to make change last .

Making Change Last Assessment To what extent have we accurately estimated : • • • • The magnitude of the total change effort? The level of resistance this initiative will face? The amount of time required to implement the change? The level of clarity and alignment regarding the kind of implementation process required? How has the change effort been integrated into other business initiatives? To what extent are needed resources made available? To what extent have we altered (or used) existing systems and structures as “levers for change”? And also… • • • .

Poorly co-ordinated activities.Making Change Last Pitfalls Change efforts can potentially derail because of ten classic implementation pitfalls : • • • • • • • • • • Underestimating the time. Inadequate capabilities / skills of employees. Lack of involvement of Change Targets. Unexpected problems. Competing distractions. Uncontrollable externalities (life happens). Lack of support for the initiative. . Unclear goals and objectives. Dismissing complaints outright.

Change Management Methodology Model Leading Change Creating a Shared Need Shaping a Vision Mobilising Commitment Current State Transition State Improved State Making Change Last Monitoring Progress R E S U L T S Changing Systems and Structures .

Monitoring Progress Why bother? Overview •    An accurate measure of the project provides focus. . direction and momentum •    Corrective action can only occur if you know you are off track •    Monitoring Progress enhances you ability to reward key events and milestones. building momentum and commitment.

Monitoring Progress Tools and tactics include : • • • Characteristics of a good measurement system Robot system Status report Tools and Tactics .

making use of the data easily obtained or already being collected for some other purposes. Timeliness: The extent to which a measurement can be taken soon after the need to measure. Interpretability:The degree to which a measure is easy to understand and produces data that is readily comparable to other organisations and/or time periods. 4. 3. . Cost: Whether the measure is inexpensive. Completeness: The extent to which a measure adequately measures the phenomenon rather than only some aspect of the phenomenon. Importance: Whether the measure is connected to important business objectives rather than being measured because it is easy to measure. 6. rather than being held to an arbitrary date. Visibility: The extent to which a measure can be openly tracked by those being measured. Controllability: The extent to which a measure can be directly influenced by those being measured.Monitoring Progress Tools and Tactics Characteristics of a good measurement system: 1. 7. 5. 2.

eye-catching technique that makes you focus on your problem areas and decide on where you have encountered focus on your problem areas and decide on where you have encountered implementation pitfalls and instigate corrective strategies. YELLOW – Change has been partially implemented / some resistance occurring / installation not complete or signed off. . GREEN – Sound progress has been made on change objective and / or has been signed off as complete.Monitoring Progress Using the ROBOT system to measure: Tools and Tactics One of the easy techniques to use for the tracking of change progress is to use the robot system – or even the colours of the robot. implementation pitfalls and instigate corrective strategies. eye-catching technique that makes you The robot system is a good. The robot system is a good. RED – Change not implemented at all / little progress on this objective. colourful. colourful.

technical. operational .Monitoring Progress Status report : • Status reports track progress in: – – Tools and Tactics Completing deliverables Achieving specifications – functional.

Steve Mark 0 0 /0 0 F '11 11 Sep S S M T W T F S . ID 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Task Name Duration T Formalise Project Charter/ Pres. Model Formalise BSC Plan GB Develop BSC Proposal for JM 1 days 1 day 1 day 1 days 1 day 1 days 1 day 1 day Michael Harry Harry Steve F '11 11 Sep S S M T W T Mark 1 /1 11 Harry. is regularly updated and visibly displayed.Monitoring Progress Status report – effort and time: • Tools and Tactics The GANNT chart is a well-known Project Management tool for monitoring progress against objectives. GB 1 day Team Review ? Formalise Proposal LetterGB Review proposal w ith JG / CC Presentation to GB Define Financial model requ'mts Design and Configure Fin. it can show true progress against implementation objectives. If used to its fullest potential.

risk: Category Description of Risk Level of Impact 0 = negligible impact 5 = very high impact Area of Impact Who does it impact? Alternative Responses Description of the different alternatives to be taken to mitigate the risk.Monitoring Progress Status report . Tools and Tactics Response Taken Description of the alternative chosen. Comments .

Status In process Complete Description of Description of identified action to bewhen and how issue was finally taken. Action to be Taken Resolution Responsibility Name of individual responsible for resolution of issue. # Issue Description Description of the issue.Monitoring Progress Status report .issues: Issue No. resolved. Tools and Tactics Date Resolved Name of individual responsible for resolution of issue. .

4. 6. Have we stated our objectives in concrete terms? Assessment Have we translated these objectives to observable behaviours? Have we set milestones that all understand and agree to? Are expected results tied to external and internal goals and have we ensured that outcomes will be evident to stakeholders? Are individuals and teams accountable for results? Do we know which existing data will pick up progress toward our goal? Have we established new ways to gather data? Do we have accurate and timely baseline data to work from? 5. 8. . 3. 2. 7.Monitoring Progress 1.

. forgetting that customers are often impacted by the change initiative. Don’t see how the change project is connected to other initiatives and fail to measure impact. Simply get too busy to track progress. Measure only against internal issues or goals. Assume all stakeholders know how things are going and fail to keep them informed.Monitoring Progress Pitfalls Change efforts can potentially derail when they : • • • • • • Want results too soon and fail to look for long-term indicators of progress. Think some things are too “soft” to measure. only looking at “hard” indicators of progress.

Change Management Methodology Model Leading Change Creating a Shared Need Shaping a Vision Mobilising Commitment Current State Transition State Improved State Making Change Last Monitoring Progress R E S U L T S Changing Systems and Structures .

reward. Need to develop the capacity to change. develop.Changing Systems and Structures Why bother? • Overview When the way we organise. not just the ability to change – “Can we build this change into our ongoing systems?” • • . train. we are likely to see individual behaviour change Successful changes usually involve significant re-alignment of “organisational infrastructure”. promote etc is changed. compensate.

DESIGNING ORGANISATIONS . 5. 2. 4. 3. STAFFING DEVELOPMENT MEASURES REWARDS COMMUNICATION (How we acquire / place talent) (How we build competence / capability) (How we track performance) (How we recognise / reward desired behaviour) (How we use information to build and sustain momentum) (How we organise to support the change initiative? 6.Changing Systems and Structures Six Aspects Changing Systems & Structures involves modifying: 1.

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EXTRA DATA Change Implementation Process Model .

Twelve “Golden Rules” of implementation  Manage employee and customer expectations  Project manage and measure the process  Be seen to add value  Build on some “quick wins”  Use the line managers  Be realistic about what you can achieve personally and corporately  Manage conflict  Repeat key messages and communicate even when you think you have nothing to say  Expect strange behaviour and be ready for it  Realise everything you say and do will be scrutinised and exaggerated  Remain visible and “out of the bunker”  Keep your eye on the ball and don’t forget about your customers .

Claim lack of direction) FEAR FAILURE FRUSTRATION (By seniors) .The impact of change (its called resistance) UNCERTAINTY LACK OF CONFIDENCE (Portrayed overtly and subtly) IMMOBILITY TO MEET/TRY OUT CHALLENGES BEYOND PERSONAL COMFORT ZONES FEAR CONSEQUENCES OF NONDELIVERY UPWARD ABDICATION (Wait for direction.

Readiness for change Readiness = D (Dissatisfaction) x V (Vision) x F (First steps) > R (Resistance) D Is there enough dissatisfaction with the current state? What is the gap between the current reality and the envisioned future? Is there a sense of compelling vision of a highly desirable future state? To what degree is it shared? To what degree are individuals committed to the vision? Are the first steps for making the change 'doable'? V F .

The Change Curve INTERNALISATION “This is the way we work here” ADOPTION “We have to do it this way” AWARENESS “I’m being told something I don’t like” LEARNING “Let me test it” POSITIVE PERCEPTION “This is good” DENIAL “NO WAY!” UNDERSTANDING “I can see why they want to do this” FEAR “What will happen to me?” EXPLORATION “”Let me take a look anyway” .

Responses Awareness                                                            Full communication and explanation Reassurance (where possible)  Denial Full communication and explanation Understanding of the consequences of non-conformance “Word picture” of the process of the change  Reassurance where possible Understanding of all possible outcomes for the individual  Full training in the new behaviours systems Full understanding of the benefits  Full training in the new behaviour systems Full understanding of the benefits  Fear  Exploration  and/or Understanding  and/or .

Responses Positive Perception Learning Reinforcement of the positive perception Full training in the new behaviour and/or systems Reinforcement of benefits Reinforcement of benefits Recognition of efforts Use as champion to those further down the change curve Recognition of efforts Awareness of the change process the individual has gone through Adoption Internalisation .

change can increase organisational flexibility and responsiveness  If handled poorly. the organisation can experience: – Lower management credibility – Higher employee turnover – Lower employee productivity – Lower employee satisfaction and trust  MOST CHANGE PROGRAMMES FAIL .Effects of change  In most organisations. it requires a change in management perspective and skill base as well as a new alignment of systems and processes  If handled well.

. 53% of software implementations will result in cost overruns by up to 189%!     The Reason: According to Fortune 500 executives resistance/people not accepting changes was the primary reason changes failed Source: Maurer and Co.According to Hammer and Co: Only 20-30% of all reengineering projects succeed Only 23% of all mergers and acquisitions make back their costs Just 43% of quality-improvement efforts make satisfactory progress Only 9% of all major software development applications in large organisations are worth the cost  31% of software implementation projects get cancelled before completion  Irrespective of success or failure.

A model for organisational change (Kurt Lewin) Re-freezing Unfreezing Change & movement .

• Acknowledge feelings and empathise • Give people as much information about the change as possible • Say what will not change • Treat the past with respect • Help others to see the gap . .UNFREEZING Creating motivation and readiness to change Techniques to reinforce unfreezing . .

. .CHANGE & MOVEMENT Guiding through the transition Techniques to reinforce movement . • Provide focus and direction • Strengthen peoples' connections to one another • Open up two way communications • Provide the individual with a specific role in the change process • Provide leadership and tenacity .

RE-FREEZING Integrating the new point of view Techniques to reinforce re-freezing: • (before reverting to the old point of view) • Ensure that individuals and leaders are reinforced for new behaviour • Implement quick results and highlight successes • Build feedback mechanisms • Celebrate! .

“overcoming resistance.” indicates an adversarial relationship … since resistance is an emotional process.Why Do People Resist Change? • The phrase. and • They do not want to deal with the reasons for it – Resistance is a way of expressing feelings of concern about making a change – These concerns tend to be: • Concerns over loss of control • Concerns over vulnerability – Your task is to help the person who is resisting change to express these concerns directly Resistance is nature’s way of telling you something important is going on and Resistance is nature’s way of telling you something important is going on and that you are on target that you are on target . the key is understanding it: – People resist change because the change is: • Perceived by them to be negative.

• Resistance can occur because people fear: – Loss of credibility or reputation – Lack of career or financial advancement – Possible damage to relationships with boss – Loss of employment – Interpersonal rejection – Change in job role – Embarrassment/loss of self-esteem – Job transfer or demotion Indirect Expressions of Concerns/ Visible Resistance Real/ Underlying Concerns Your task is to encourage the full expression of the real/underlying concerns. Your task is to encourage the full expression of the real/underlying concerns.Why Resistance Occurs . . . .

“What I think I hear you saying is . non-aggressive . . listen.Three Steps to Dealing with Resistance • Step 1: Identify the form the resistance is taking: – – – – – – – – – – – – Trust what you see more than what you hear Pick up cues Listen to yourself — use your own feelings as a barometer • Uneasy.be aware of other forms of resistance surfacing • Step 2: Acknowledge. . name the resistance: • Step 3: Be quiet. neutral. bored. let the person respond: . clear.” Tell the person how the resistance is making you feel Be specific. authentic Get him/her talking Encourage full expression of the concerns Gradually uncover underlying resistance/issue . irritated Listen for repetition/telltale phrases Make two good-faith responses Tell person your perception of the resistance Do it in a “win/win” manner.

encouragement.Dealing With Resistance: What Not To Do • • • • • • • Fight the resistance Go into more data collection Reengineer in the attempt to get a better intervention Avoid the individual Work more with your “allies” Give lots of reasons Get hooked into the details • • • • • • • Expect approval. support and/or affection Lose your confidence Expect to have all the answers Collude with the individual Avoid giving “bad news” Use aggressive language – “You Dummy” Rule Delay/wait one more day .

membership in planning/implementation teams.Tactics to Minimise Resistance • • • • Explain why Identify the benefits Invite and answer questions Solicit participation. early involvement • (“first-draft/strawmodel” reviews. step back and take a look at what is going on.) Avoid surprises • • • • • Set standards and clear targets Inform/involve informal leaders Recognize and reward efforts Over communicate • • • Provide appropriate training in new skills and coaching in new values and behaviors Encourage self-management Give more feedback than usual to ensure people always know where they stand Allow for resistance. and. Help people let go of the “old” Measure results. Keep asking “Is the change working the way we want it to?” Encourage people to think and act creatively Look for any “opportunity” created by the change Allow for withdrawal and return of people who are temporarily resistant • • • • • . if possible. etc.

you should be able to: – Identify when resistance is taking place – View resistance as a natural process and a sign that you are on target – Support the client in expressing the resistance directly – Not take the expression of the resistance personally or as an attack on you or your competence • Some common forms of resistance are: – Attack – “Give me more detail” – They flood you with detail – No time – It’s impractical – “I’m not surprised” – Confusion – Silence – Intellectualizing – One word answers – Moralizing – Avoiding responsibility – Compliance – Pressing for solutions – “We’re unique” – Methodology – Nit-picking – Flight into health – Changing the subject – Low energy. inattention .Summary: Dealing With Resistance • Resistance is inherent to change • To deal with resistance.

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