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Determine target audience Determine what you need to know Audience research Interpreting results
boards of directors Your employees Tertiary audience: . social referents) Policymakers Media professionals Supervisors.Determining the target audience Primary audience: Clients Secondary audience: People who influence your primary audience (peers.
. People most at risk for the problem you are addressing.What is a target audience? People whose behavior you wish to affect. Potential customers or consumers considering whether to adopt the “product” you are promoting.
residential status) Objective (can be observed/measured) General or behavioral General or behavioral Inferred (assessed thru questionnaire) Self-selection bases Segments define themselves thru response to campaign Rarely indicates why response occurred . race. age.Potential segmentation bases A priori Determined in advance (sex.
Bases to segment by: Objective general data – often available thru 2ndary data Inferred general: Age Income Sex Residence Race Family size Personality Lifestyle Risk preferences Media preferences Self-confidence Inferred behavioral: Obj. Behavioral Access to health care Past behaviors Distance to sources Behavior of peer group/village/family Hours watching different media Self-efficacy Perceived benefits/costs Stage of behavior change Social norms Perceived risk Perceived severity .
sex.. an STD prevention program won’t use the same appeals for boys and girls. education.g.) may NOT be as important as segmenting by risk-level or personality.Audiences not homogenous Even within an audience subgroup. there may be many important differences with respect to the behavior you are promoting. .g. etc. or older and younger teens. Segmenting by demographics (age. those who know they’re at risk may react differently to those who feel invulnerable. E. E..
Theory & Method in Segmentation What criteria are properly used to segment an audience or market? Smorgasboard of techniques and strategies Little direction for preferred strategy What’s needed: Identify subgroups that have common similar determinants of behavior in question Slater. (1996).D. 1: 267-283. vol. J of Health Comm. Theory and Method in Health Audience Segmentation. . M.
Behavior Determinants 1) Identify from research the known determinants of KAP with respect to goal behavior 2) Identify audience segments on basis of distinctive patterns of determinants HOWEVER…How do you identify these patterns? .
but not that informative Many sub-differences w/in demographic groups overlooked . gender. race. geography) Easy to measure. income.Segmentation Methods VALS – Values and Lifestyles dataset for commercial use more art than science? SES – Crude segmentation by demographics (education.
Harder to measure More informative Can start w/ demographic sub-groups and then further subdivide by psychosocial But…Assumes there are a few key variables Assumes one has correctly identified them May miss subtle distinctions w/in segments . peer support.Segmentation Methods (cont’d) Psychosocial variables – Self-efficacy. etc.
segments should be predictive of distinctive patterns of media use Descriptive vs.Social Science & Typology Segmentation process usually stops there Need for parsimony…the fewest possible variables to explain audience variance Statistical models are cumbersome when overloaded with too many variables To best guide channel selection & intervention design. predictive models .
Define Target Audience.what they care about risk level .stage of behavior change Gear message to fit Choose appropriate media . Focus Message & Choose Media Start with audience Define who they are: sociodemographic variables personal identity .
24(5). Brown JD. J Adolesc Hth 1995. louder music African-Americans and children from singleparent households watch more TV Steele JR. Adolescent room culture: Studying media in the context of everyday life. .Media diets vary by race & gender Not all teenagers tune into the same kind of media Girls prefer softer music and soap operas Boys prefer action flicks and harder.
New York: Hill and Wang. Reviving Ophelia.Media diet varies by personal identity. too Even within race & class categories. Thompson S. teenagers’ media use vary dramatically Teens define themselves by their identities Girls’ sense of selves may be particularly transitory & vulnerable to media influence Pipher M. Going All the Way. . New York: Ballantine Books. 1994. 1995.
. 21(4):471-86. The transtheoretical model of change and HIV prevention: A review.may determine sexual risk practice Related to subjective beliefs about what’s important Identity attributes may be more amenable to change than basic sociodemographic variables Prochaska J. Identity associated with behavior Speaking to teen identities may be key to influencing behavior Identity -. music & friends -. Hth Ed Qaurt 1994. et al. Harlow L. Redding C.a person’s self-perception & tastes in fashion.
Adolescent girls can be segmented by identities Categories of girls’ relationship behavior (Thompson. 1995) Shy girls Romantic idealists Hell-raisers Fast-track girls Having the baby Disinterested Intrigued/Conformers Resisters ? ? . 1995) How girls use sexual media (Steele & Brown.
Segmenting by risk level: Stages of Change Model Behavior change is not a one-step process Different messages are needed for each stage Precontemplation Contemplation Ready for action Action Maintenance .
Measuring the adoption of consistent use of condoms using the stages of change model. et al.Stages of Behavior Change: Operationalization s Pre-contemplation: s No intention to use condoms Intends to use condoms in next 6 months Intends to use condoms from now on Every time condom use for less than 6 months Condoms used every time for at least 6 months Prochaska J. 21(4):471-86. Public Health Reports 1996. s Contemplation: s s Ready-for-action: s s Action: s s Maintenance: s . Schnell DJ.111(suppl 1):59-68. The transtheoretical model of change and HIV prevention: A review. et al. Hth Ed Qaurt 1994.
in smoking cessation. exercise adoption.Segmenting by risk level: Results Campaigns that target audience by risk level are more effective than nontargeted campaigns -. dietary fat reduction & mammography screening .
American Psychologist 1992.Results of a smoking campaign People who progress from one stage to next early in campaign are more likely to ultimately change behavior 3% pre-contemplators quit smoking 7% pre-contemplators who moved to contemplation in 1st month quit smoking 20% contemplators took action 41% contemplators who moved to ready-for-action in 1st month took action Prochaska JO.47(9):1102-14. In search of how people change. et al. .
San Francisco.Segmenting by risk level: Condom campaign CDC’s Role Model Stories Campaign. using narrative pamphlets Welfare mothers ages 17-54 Target audience: . 1992-94 to change women’s HIV risk behavior & community norms.
. et al. New York City. Presented at American Public Health Association.Different stories developed for each risk category Contemplation: Kizzy says she’ll “seriously try” to use condoms Mayeisha decides to use condoms with her next man Champagne uses condoms. This is my story: A descriptive analysis of a peer education HIV/STD risk reduction program. but not every time Ready-for Action: Action: Kinght K. 1996. November.
Segmenting by demographics: Project ACTION Social marketing campaign to promote teenage condom use in Portland. Oregon by Population Services International 1992-94 Community mobilization Condom vending machines Peer skill-building workshops Motivational media campaign Evaluation research .
Project ACTION: Tailoring the message Target audience: At-risk teens ages 12-21 Caucasian boys. African-American boys & girls Audience segments: Different PSAs designed to match sexual scripts of each subgroup PSA for girls: romantic flowers PSA for boys: pretty girls PSA for African-Americans: passionate glance . Caucasian girls.
Oregon 1992-94 Teens who used condoms in last month increased from 32% to 40% Teens who used condoms with casual partners rose from 72% to 90% Teens who planned to discuss condoms with next partners rose from 53% to 80% Blair J.PSAs promote condoms in Portland. PSI/Project ACTION: Improving Teen Risk Reduction. Washington: Population Services International. 1995. .
Allocating resources: Indexing and weighting Incidence. – 1= average. etc. > 1=worse Average scores + Multiply by population size for segment (IAP) Add IAP’s together = total IAP Convert each segment’s score to a % of total IAP . severity. defenselessness.
194 .See example P.