Fundamentals of Jainism

Pravin K. Shah JAINA Education Committee Jain Study Center of North Carolina 509 Carriage Woods Circle Raleigh, NC 27607-3969 Website: www.jainism.org e-mail: education@jaina.org Tele - 919-859-4994

Jain Beliefs
Fundamental Beliefs
ƒ Soul and Karma exist from Eternity ƒ Karma is attached to the Soul from Eternity ƒ The Soul is in Mithyatva (ignorant and wrong belief) from Eternity ƒ The Principles governing the successions of life cycles (Birth, Life, and Death) is Karma. ƒ Our Mithyatva and Intention behind our actions of body, mind, and speech continue to bind us with new Karma. ƒ Karma / Mithyatva is the root cause of all Sufferings ƒ Ultimate goal of life is Liberation of all Karma (Removal of Mithyatva in turn removes all Karma).

Aim of Jainism
To attain Freedom of Soul by Freeing it from its bondage to Karma. Questions
ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ What is Soul? What is Karma? What are their Qualities? What is Bondage? What is Freedom? How is the Soul bounded by Karma? How can one obtain Freedom of the Soul? –Answer requires the proper knowledge of the Universe and its substances particularly Soul and Karma and their relationship.

Jain Religion Definition Absolute Point of View: ƒ The True Nature of a substance is a Religion of a substance Practical Point of View: ƒ Any activity of Body. Mind and Speech which reduces Kashay (Anger. Deceit. and Greed) is a religious activity . Ego.

Morality vs. Spirituality Individual Person Following Law and Order Not Following Law and Order Moral Immoral Spiritual Non-spiritual .

equanimity etc. friendship. sympathy. otherwise our conduct is mere hypocrisy Jain Religion (Nischaya Dharma) ƒ Purity of soul which results from the above action (Removal of Karma / Mithyatva) . Religion (Continued) Jain Morality (Vyavahar Dharma) ƒ Conduct in accordance with the rules prescribed by Arihants / Tirthankars ƒ Our action is accompanied by compassion. love.Morality vs.

Universe and its Substances Universe is made-up of six eternal and independent substances: Six Universal Substances (Entity/Dravya) ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Jiva Pudgal Dharma Adharma Akasa Käl Soul or Living being Matter Principle of Motion Principle of Rest Space Time .

Characteristics of a Substance Utpada Vyaya Dhrauvya Origination Destruction Permanence .

certain qualities of a substance remains unchanged which are the Permanent Characteristics of a substance known as Dravya of a Substance. . Dravya and Paryay are inseparable. Dravya ƒ While going through continuous changes.Universe and its Substances Paryay ƒ Every substance continuously going through Origination and Destruction which are the Transient Characteristics of a Substance known as Paryay or Modification of a Substance.

and Eternal Two Types of Soul ƒ Free or Liberated Soul (Siddha) ƒ Bonded or Worldly Soul (Samsari) . Independent.Soul .Living Being Every Soul is Individual.

Free or Liberated Soul Free from all Karma Known as Siddha or God Possesses Infinite (Perfect) Knowledge. Vision. Bliss Has No Physical Body Free from Cycle of Birth and Death Free from Pain and Pleasure Infinite number Lives in Moksha . Power.

Vision.Worldly (Samsari) Soul Covered with Karma (Matter) Doer of all Karma (Actions) Recipient of Fruits of Karma Wonders in a Cycle of Birth and Death Feels Pain and Pleasure Possesses Limited Knowledge. Bliss Possesses Physical Body (Matter) Contraction and Expansion Infinite Number Capable of becoming Free/Liberated . Power.

Four Senses Hearing .Worldly Souls (Continued) Possesses One to Five senses ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ (association with Matter/Karma) Touch .One Sense Taste .Two Senses Smell .Five Senses .Three Senses Sight .

One Sense Soul One Sense Soul is called Ekendria ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Earth as body Water as body Fire as body Air as body Plant as body .Agnikaya .Prithvikaya .Apakaya .Vayukaya .Vanaspatikaya .

One Sense Soul (Continued) Vanaspatikaya (Plant as body) . etc. beans..) –Under ground vegetables –Each plat has innumarable cells –Each cell is shared by infinite souls –Hence such Plant has Infinte souls .two types ƒ Pratyek Vanaspatikaya –Above ground vegetables.. –Each plat has innumarable cells –Each cell is occupied by one soul –Hence such Plant has Innumarable souls ƒ Sadharan Vanaspatikaya (Nigod or Kandmul .. Onions. Carrots etc. fruits.Potatos.

Two to Five Sense Souls Two senses ƒ worms. hellish etc. heavenly. .Beindriya . lice Four senses ƒ flies.Panchendriya Five senses ƒ animals. human.Treindriya Three senses ƒ ants. leeches .Chaurendriya . birds. bees .

heavenly.Five Sense Souls Five sense beings (Panchendriya) are of two types ƒ Living beings without mind –Can not attain Samyaktva ƒ Living beings with mind –Can attain Samyaktva However animals. and hellish being cannot attain proper conduct and hence cannot attain liberation Only Human beings can attain proper conduct and hence liberation .

Smell. Taste. Skandha-desa. No Knowledge Infinite Number Possesses Body Possesses Senses ƒ Touch. and Hearing Color Occupies Space Skandha. Skandha-pradesa. Paramanu (Atom) . Sight.Matter (Pudgal) Non-living Substance No Consciousness.

small or large Karmic or Causal body Provides breathing Provides mind for thinking Provides speech .heat.Eight Vargana (Matters) All matters are classified into eight categories ƒ Audaric Vargana ƒ Tejas Vargana ƒ Aharak Vargana ƒ Vaikriya Vargana ƒ Karman Vargana ƒ Breathing Vargana ƒ Mind Vargana ƒ Speech Vargana Physical body Tejas body .small in size Vaikriya body . digestion Aharak body .

heat.Five Bodies Matter composes five different bodies ƒ Audaric body Physical body –Every soul possesses this body ƒ Tejas body Tejas body .small in size –Only certain monks possesses this body ƒ Vaikriya body Vaikriya body . digestion –Every soul possesses this body ƒ Aharak body Aharak body .small or large –Heavenly and hellish beings possess this body ƒ Karman body Karmic or Causal body –Every soul possesses this body .

Karma Karma is a matter (Pudgal) and hence it possesses all characteristics of matter ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ No consciousness / knowledge Very fine particles Can not be seen/feel/verified Entire Universe is filled with Karma Particles .

and Body Exist in Lokakas. Color. Dharma helps .to Rest Soul and Matter .Principle of Motion (Dharma) and Principle of Rest (Adharma) Non-living Substance No Consciousness One and Whole No Senses.Motion of Soul/Matter Adharma helps .

Sight. Hear Lokakas . and Time No Form. Smell. Dharma. Adharma. Color.Infinite Empty Space . Taste. Touch. Matter.Dharma /Adharma Exist Alokakas .Space (Akasa) Space (Akasa) Non-living Substance No Consciousness Everywhere (infinite) One and Whole Self Supported Provides space to All Entities ƒ Soul.

000 bhar (1000 tolas or 25 lb.15 x 10E21 miles .0 miles) –Another book gives different measurement ƒ 1 Dhanu = 6 feet ƒ 4000 Dhanu = 1 Yojan (@4.057.5 miles) ƒ 1000 Yojans = 1 Mahayojan Rajlok or Rajju –The distance traveled in six months by a ball of iron weighing 1.Yojan and Rajlok Measurement Yojan ƒ 1 Danda or Bow = 6 feet ƒ 2000 Danda or Bow = 1 Kosha ƒ 4 Kosha = 1 Yojan (@ 9.) let fall freely from heaven (Indralok) or –A distance traveled by a deva (heavenly being) in six months at a rate of 2.152 Yojan in one samay (Samay = unit of time = @1/4 second) ƒ = @1.

Universe (Lokakas) Total Height Upper world Height Middle world = 14 Rajju = 7 Rajju ƒ Width = 1 Rajju ƒ Height = 1800 Yojan – 900 Yojan up and 900 Yojan down from surface Lower world  Loka Volume  Loka Volume Height = 7 Rajju = 343 Cubic Rajju (Digambar) = 239 Cubic Rajju (Swetambar) .

Time (Kal) One View ƒ Imaginary thing ƒ No real existence Another view ƒ Real existence ƒ Innumerable time atoms Measures changes of Soul and Matter Not a cause of changes .

777.216 Avalis 2 Ghadi One Muhurat 30 Muhurat 15 Days 2 Fortnights = One Avali = One Kshullak_bhav = One Breath (inhale + exhale) = One Muhurat (48 minutes) = One Muhurat = One Muhurat = 48 minutes = One Day = One Fortnight = One Month .5 Kshullak_bhav 3773 Breaths 16.Time (Samay or Kal) Smallest indivisible portion of Time is called one Samay Innumerable Samaya 256 Avali Approx 17.

000 Sagaropama = One Time Cycle One Palyopama ƒ The time required to empty Sixty Four cubic Gau (512 cubic miles) deep well completely filled with hairs of a seven day old newly born baby and one hair is removed every 100 years.000..Time (Samaya) Continued.000.000 x 8.400.000 x 10.000 Palyopama = One Sagaropama 20 x 10.400.000. 12 Months = One Year 5 Years = One Yuga  x 10.000 Years) Innumerable Years = One Palyopama 10 x 10.000 years = One Purva (70.000. .560.

000 x 10.Time Cycle Time Cycle Kal Chakra 20 x x 10.000.000 x 10.000. Natural conditions improve over time .000 Sagaropams Utsarpini (Rising Era) 10 x 10.000 Sagaropams from Happiness to Miserable from Miserable to Happiness Time is a continuous Cycle of Decline and Rise Era Declining Era (Avasarpini) Time Cycle Human virtues.000.000.000 Sagaropams Avasarpini (Declining Era) 10 x 10. Natural conditions decline over time Rising Era (Utsarpini) Time Cycle Human virtues.

Happy_unhappy 2 x 10E14 Sagaropama ƒ 4.42000 years ƒ 5. Happy 3 x 10E14 Sagaropama ƒ 3. Unhappy_unhappy 21000 years Six parts of Rising Era (Utsarpini) Time Cycle ƒ 1. Happy_happy 4 x 10E14 Sagaropama ƒ 2.42000 years ƒ 4. Happy 3 x 10E14 Sagaropama ƒ 6. Unhappy 21000 years (present 2500 years) ƒ 6. Unhappy_happy 1 x 10E14 Sagaropama . Unhappy_unhappy 21000 years ƒ 2.Time Cycle (continued) Six parts of Declining Era (Avasarpini) Time Cycle ƒ 1. Happy_unhappy 2 x 10E14 Sagaropama ƒ 5. Unhappy_happy 1 x 10E14 Sagaropama . Unhappy 21000 years ƒ 3. Happy_happy 4 x 10E14 Sagaropama .

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