This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Ron Beliveau

Carrier Commercial Sales Middletown, CT

Phone Topics

**19XRV Chillers in Variable Primary Systems
**

Outline

WARNING: 55 slides in 45 minutes – We will be moving very quickly!

**19XRV chillers in VPF systems.
**

1. Review conventional Primary Secondary System.

2. Review Variable Primary Flow System.

**3. Review the Benefits of “Max Cap” in both P/S and VPF systems.
**

4. Review the Benefits of VFD driven chillers in both P/S and VPF systems. 5. Review chiller selection guidelines for VPF applications.

.

Phone Topics

**19XRV Chillers in Variable Primary Systems
**

Why VPF?

**Why all the interest in VPF?
**

1. Unlike many items –this isn’t a “sell up” concept – it is actually a lower installed cost.

- VPF Reduces pumping and piping complexities and lowers installation costs.

**- Less real estate in mechanical and electrical rooms.
**

2. Unlike many cost reductions, VPF can offer lower operational costs.

**- VPF reduces low T, increasing eff.
**

- Fewer, but larger pumps have better efficiency.

.

Phone Topics

**Primary Secondary Systems.
**

Primary Secondary Systems use constant speed pumps to supply water to the chillers.

OFF = 0 gpm

ON = 1200 gpm

Phone Topics

**Primary Secondary Systems.
**

The chiller controls to a leaving chilled water set point.

44 F

OFF = 0 gpm

Chiller cools 1200 gpm of water to 44F. How much work is the chiller doing?

ON = 1200 gpm

Phone Topics

LCHWT is fixed. ON = 1200 gpm OFF = 0 gpm Tons = GPM x T 24 500 = 1200 x (54-44) / 24 400 = 1200 x (52-44) / 24 300 = 1200 x (50-44) / 24 Phone Topics . The amount of work the chiller does is related to the return water temperature. Only variable is return temp.Primary Secondary Systems. ?? 44 F GPM is fixed.

Phone Topics . Secondary pump speed (gpm) controlled by DP switch at most hydraulically remote coil. Secondary pumps are variable speed. Chiller (primary) pumps are constant speed (flow).Primary Secondary Systems.

there is no flow through the hydraulic decoupler line. 1200 gpm 1200 gpm 1200 gpm 3600 gpm 0 gpm 3600 gpm Phone Topics .Primary Secondary Systems. If primary gpm equals secondary gpm.

If primary gpm is greater than secondary gpm. bypassing the coils. lowering the return temperature to the chillers.Primary Secondary Systems. chilled water flows through the decoupler line. 1200 gpm 1200 gpm 1200 gpm This cold water 3600 gpm mixes with the return water. 600 gpm 3000 gpm Phone Topics .

Primary Secondary Systems. return water flows through decoupler line. If return temp is too high. 1200 gpm 1200 gpm 0 gpm 600 gpm 3000 gpm Phone Topics . raising the entering chilled 2400 gpm water temperature to the coils. another chiller / pump set is started. If primary gpm is less than secondary gpm. This warm water mixes with the chilled water.

46 F 0 tons 44 F 0 gpm 1200 gpm Secondary pump only needs 240 240 gpm gpm to satisfy coil load. Start up. One chiller / pump started and a secondary pump started.EX: 100 ton building load 100 tons Primary Secondary Systems. 960 gpm 240 gpm Phone Topics . 1200 gpm 0 tons 0 gpm Coils call for load.

0 gpm 1200 gpm Phone Topics . 1200 gpm 0 tons 0 gpm 54 F 0 tons 44 F 0 gpm Primary gpm equals secondary 1200 gpm gpm and there is no flow through 1200 gpm decoupler line.EX: 500 ton building load 500 tons Primary Secondary Systems. At 500 tons of building load the secondary pumps require 1200 gpm.

At 550 tons of building load the secondary pumps require 1320 gpm.EX: 550 ton building load 500 tons Primary Secondary Systems. 1200 gpm 0 tons 0 gpm 54 F 0 tons 44 F 0 gpm 1200 gpm 120 gpm 1320 gpm 1320 gpm Phone Topics . For a brief time. primary gpm is less than secondary gpm warm water flows back through decoupler line.

1200 gpm 275 tons 1200 gpm 49. 0 gpm 1080 gpm 1320 gpm Phone Topics .EX: 550 ton building load 275 tons Primary Secondary Systems. 5 F 0 tons 44 F Now primary gpm > secondary gpm and chilled water 2400 gpm flows through decoupler line 1320 gpm bypassing the load. temp sensor turns on chiller and pump set. To meet coil load.

2400 gpm 2400 gpm 1200 gpm 500 tons 1200 gpm 0 tons 44 F 0 gpm 0 gpm 2400 gpm Phone Topics . When the building reaches 1000 54 F tons. in theory. the chillers are fully utilized and there is no flow through the decoupler line.EX: 1000 ton building load 500 tons Primary Secondary Systems.

there is 1500 tons required by coils and 1500 tons provided by chillers. 3600 gpm 1200 gpm 500 tons 1200 gpm 54 F 500 tons 44 F 1200 gpm System is balanced and 3600 gpm there is no flow through decoupler 0 gpm 3600 gpm Phone Topics . When building is at full load.EX: 1500 ton building load 500 tons Primary Secondary Systems.

the system can shut off the 3rd chiller only if the delta T is at design. 1200 gpm 500 tons 1200 gpm 54 F 0 tons 44 F 0 gpm 2400 gpm 0 gpm 2400 gpm 2400 gpm Phone Topics . As we unload.EX: 1000 ton building load 500 tons Primary Secondary Systems.

3 chillers running at 67% load! 3600 gpm 1200 gpm 333 tons 1200 gpm 50. 1000 ton load could look like this.EX: 1000 ton building load 333 tons Primary Secondary Systems. If not controlled properly.7 F 334 tons 44 F 1200 gpm 1200 gpm 2400 gpm 2400 gpm Phone Topics .

518 IKW/Ton 3600 gpm 1029 gpm 2571 gpm 1200 gpm 1200 gpm 49 F 250 tons 44 F Extra pump power is also consumed. 2@ . 3 @ . GPM = Tons x 24 T In perfect world (2) chillers operate @ 375 tons each. GPM=? 750 x 24 /7 = 2571 gpm Phone Topics .479 IKW/Ton With low delta T (3) chillers operate @ 250 tons each. 2571 gpm 51 F T across dirty coil = 7 44 F Load is 750 Tons.Tons = GPM x T Primary Secondary24 EX: 750 ton building load with Low Delta T syndrome 1200 gpm 250 tons TONS = GPM x DT / 24 TONS = 1200 X 7 / 24 5 TONS = 350 ??? 250 250 tons Systems.

Review Variable Primary Flow System. 5. Review conventional Primary Secondary System. . 1. Review chiller selection guidelines for VPF applications. 3.19XRV Chillers in Variable Primary Systems Outline 19XRV chillers in VPF systems. 2. Review the Benefits of “Max Cap” in both P/S and VPF systems. Phone Topics . Review the Benefits of VFD driven chillers in both P/S and VPF systems. 4.

Variable Primary Systems Variable Primary Systems use variable speed pumps to supply water to the chillers. OFF = 0 gpm ON = ??? gpm (within min / max flow) Phone Topics .

How much work is the chiller doing? ON = ??? gpm Phone Topics .Variable Primary Systems The chiller controls to a leaving chilled water set point. 54 44 F OFF = 0 gpm Chiller cools 54F water to 44F.

LCHWT is fixed. Only variable is cooler gpm. ON = 1200 gpm OFF = 0 gpm Tons = GPM x T 24 500 = 1200 x (54-44) / 24 400 = 960 x (54-44) / 24 300 = 720 x (54-44) / 24 Phone Topics .Variable Primary Systems The amount of work the chiller does is related to the flow through the cooler. 54 44 F ECHWT is fixed.

Phone Topics . T changes as load changes Variable Primary T constant. Pump only the chilled water necessary to serve the load.Variable Primary Systems Tons = GPM x T 24 Primary Secondary GPM = Constant. GPM changes as load changes.

Variable Primary Systems Only one set of pumps. Flow (gpm) is regulated to maintain T. No decoupler line All pumps are Variable speed. Tons = GPM x T 24 Phone Topics .

8 F 240 gpm 500 gpm 54 F 44 F Phone Topics . Min. 0 gpm 0 gpm 0 tons 0 gpm Coils call for load.EX: 100 ton building load 0 tons Variable Primary Systems Start up. 260 gpm must bypass around coils 500 gpm 500 gpm 100 tons 500 gpm 44 F 260 gpm bypass 48. flow rate of chiller is 500 gpm. One chiller / pump started. Therefore.

Flow is no longer required to bypass coils. the design T (of 10F) is achieved.EX: 208 ton building load 0 tons Variable Primary Systems At 208 tons. 208 = 500 x 10 24 500 gpm 0 gpm 0 gpm 0 tons 0 gpm 500 gpm 208 tons 500 gpm 54 F 44 F 0 gpm 500 gpm 500 gpm 54 F 44 F Phone Topics .

the design T (of 10F) is achieved with 1200 gpm of flow.EX: 500 ton building load 0 tons Variable Primary Systems At 500 tons. 500 = 1200 x 10 24 1200 gpm 54 F 0 gpm 0 gpm 0 tons 0 gpm 1200 gpm 500 tons 1200 gpm 44 F 0 gpm 1200 gpm 1200 gpm 54 F 44 F Phone Topics . (1) chiller is now fully loaded.

the design T (of 10F) is achieved with 1320 gpm of flow. 1320 gpm 54 F 0 gpm 0 gpm 275 tons 660 gpm 1320 gpm 275 tons 660 gpm 44 F 0 gpm 1320 gpm 550 = 1320 x 10 24 54 F 44 F 1320 gpm Phone Topics . Flow split equally.EX: 550 ton building load 0 tons Variable Primary Systems At 550 tons. (2) Chillers are now part loaded.

The pump is turned on. the design T (of 10F) is achieved with 1800 gpm of flow. Flow split equally. 2nd 54 F 0 gpm 900 gpm 375 tons 900 gpm 900 gpm 375 tons 1800 gpm 900 gpm 44 F 0 gpm 1800 gpm 750 = 1800 x 10 24 54 F 44 F 1800 gpm Phone Topics .EX: 750 ton building load 0 tons Variable Primary Systems At 750 tons.

(2) Chillers are now fully loaded. the design T (of 10F) is achieved with 2400 gpm of flow. 54 F 0 gpm 1200 gpm 500 tons 1200 gpm 1200 gpm 500 tons 2400 gpm 1200 gpm 44 F 0 gpm 2400 gpm 1000 = 2400 x 10 24 54 F 44 F 2400 gpm Phone Topics . Flow split equally.EX: 1000 ton building load 0 tons Variable Primary Systems At 1000 tons.

Flow split equally. (3) Chillers are now part loaded. 54 F 880 gpm 1320 gpm 367 tons 880 gpm 1320 gpm 367 tons 2640 gpm 880 gpm 44 F 0 gpm 2640 gpm 1100 = 2640 x 10 24 54 F 44 F 2640 gpm Phone Topics .EX: 1100 ton building load 366 tons Variable Primary Systems At 1100 tons. the design T (of 10F) is achieved with 2640 gpm of flow.

the design T (of 10F) is achieved with 3600 gpm of flow.EX: 1500 ton building load 500 tons Variable Primary Systems At 1500 tons. (3) Chillers are now fully loaded. 54 F 1200 gpm 1800 gpm 500 tons 1200 gpm 1800 gpm 500 tons 3600 gpm 1200 gpm 44 F 0 gpm 3600 gpm 1500 = 3600 x 10 24 54 F 44 F 3600 gpm Phone Topics . Flow split equally.

446 0.954 0.589 Variable Primary Pumping System Constant Speed Chiller IKW/Ton 0.527 0.436 0.36 0.954 0.8 3 73.358 0.Primary Secondary Pumping System Variable Primary Systems When comparing the two systems we find that chiller efficiency is basically equal Building Load 100 208 500 550 750 1000 1100 1500 GPM 1200 1200 1200 2400 2400 2400 3600 3600 Qty of Chiller Chillers % Load ECWT 1 20% 65 1 42% 65 1 100% 65 2 55% 65 2 75% 65 2 100.2 3 100% 85 Constant Speed Chiller IKW/Ton 0.589 Building Load 100 208 500 550 750 1000 1100 1500 GPM 500 500 1200 1320 1800 2400 2640 3600 Qty of Chiller Chillers % Load ECWT 1 20% 65 1 42% 65 1 100% 65 2 55% 65 2 75% 65 2 100% 71.479 0.0% 71.619 0.537 0.527 0.485 0.551 0.332 0.444 0.328 0.384 0.479 0.384 0.446 0.2 3 100% 85 Phone Topics .59 Variable Speed Chiller IKW/Ton 0.442 0.332 0.4% 74.537 0.619 0.33 0.485 0.548 0.59 Variable Speed Chiller IKW/Ton 0.436 0.8 3 73.4% 74.

19XRV Chillers in Variable Primary Systems Why is chiller performance identical for both systems? Mass Flow X Lift KW = Tons x Lift Compressor HP ~ Compressor/Cycle Efficiency Load Chiller Cooling Tower Phone Topics .

The Efficiency Advantage of VFD Chillers is just as powerful on VPF systems! Phone Topics . Lift is SCT – SST. All of this is exactly the same regardless of chilled water system type! SST – based on LCHWT SCT – based on Tower Performance Tons – Building load identical in VPF and P/S systems – just adjust flow and T .19XRV Chillers in Variable Primary Systems Lift is equivalent in both Primary / Secondary and VPF systems.

358 0. Building Load 100 208 500 550 750 1000 1100 1500 GPM 1200 1200 1200 2400 3600 3600 3600 3600 Qty of Chiller Chillers % Load ECWT 1 20% 65 1 42% 65 1 100% 65 2 55% 65 3 50% 65 2 75% 3 66.537 0.384 0.527 0.8 100% 3 73.436 0.59 Variable Speed Chiller IKW/Ton 0.548 0.527 0.384 0.442 0.332 0.589 Building Load 100 208 500 550 750 1000 1100 1500 GPM 500 500 1200 1320 1800 2400 2640 3600 Qty of Chiller Chillers % Load ECWT 1 20% 65 1 42% 65 1 100% 65 2 55% 65 2 75% 65 75% 2 100% 71.537 0.332 0.446 0.59 Variable Speed Chiller IKW/Ton 0.562 0.36 0.33 0.339 0.414 0.954 0.533 0.589 Variable Primary Pumping System Constant Speed Chiller IKW/Ton 0.954 0.479 0.444 0.2 3 100% 85 Constant Speed Chiller IKW/Ton 0.7% 2 100.619 0.Primary Secondary Pumping System Variable Primary Systems When comparing the two systems we find that chiller efficiency is basically equal Except when the VPF chiller is able to operate fewer chillers than the Primary / Secondary system.479 0.436 0.551 0.446 0.4% 74.0% 71.328 0.8 3 73.485 0.2 3 100% 85 Phone Topics .4% 74.485 0.619 0.

19XRV Chillers in Variable Primary Systems Outline 19XRV chillers in VPF systems. Review the Benefits of “Max Cap” in both P/S and VPF systems. . Phone Topics . Review conventional Primary Secondary System. 1. 3. Review the Benefits of VFD driven chillers in both P/S and VPF systems. Review chiller selection guidelines for VPF applications. 5. 2. 4. Review Variable Primary Flow System.

19XRV Chillers in Variable Primary Systems Positive Pressure chillers typically can produce above rated tons as entering condenser water drops. The “Max Cap” Advantage Applied in VPF Systems? 643 630 630 600 Tons 570 550 Carrier Others 85oF 80oF 75oF 70oF <65oF Phone Topics .

(1) Chiller is fully loaded. At 550 tons. 550 = 1320 x 10 24 0 gpm 0 gpm 0 tons 0 gpm 1320 gpm 550 tons 1320 gpm 54 F 0 gpm 1320 gpm 1320 gpm 44 F 1320 gpm 54 F 44 F Phone Topics .EX: 550 ton building load 0 tons Variable Primary Systems With MAX CAP feature. the design T (of 10F) is achieved with 1320 gpm of flow.

(2) Chillers are now fully loaded. the design T (of 10F) is achieved with 2640 gpm of flow.EX: 1100 ton building load 0 tons Variable Primary Systems With MAX CAP feature. 1100 = 2640 x 10 24 2640 gpm 54 F 0 gpm 2640 gpm 1320 gpm 44 F 2640 gpm 54 F 44 F Phone Topics . 0 gpm 1320 gpm 550 tons 1320 gpm 1320 gpm 550 tons At 1100 tons.

At 1100 tons.EX: 1100 ton building load 0 tons Variable Primary Systems With MAX CAP feature. 1100 = 2400 x 11 24 2400 gpm 54 F 43 F Phone Topics . 2400 gpm 54 F 0 gpm 2400 gpm 1200 gpm 43 F (2) Chillers are fully loaded. the 0 gpm 1200 gpm 550 tons 1200 gpm 1200 gpm 550 tons T can be increased from 10F to 11F by lowering the LCHWT.

453 0.MORE EVAPORATOR FLOW.4% 74.0% 74.2 1500 3600 85 0.433 0.Primary Secondary Pumping System Variable Primary Systems Max Cap advantage – increasing evaporator flow. Variable Primary Pumping System Constant Speed Chiller IKW/Ton Variable Speed Chiller IKW/Ton Building Qty of Chiller Load GPM Chillers % Load ECWT 100 500 65 208 500 77 500 1200 65 550 1320 1 110% 65 750 1800 65 900 2160 69 1000 2400 71. Good idea on constant speed.332 0.537 0. not the way to control VFD chillers. Building Qty of Chiller Load GPM Chillers % Load ECWT 100 1200 65 208 1200 77 500 1200 65 550 2400 2 55% 65 750 3600 65 900 3600 69 1000 3600 71.444 MAX CAP ADVANTAGE .2 1500 3600 85 Constant Speed Chiller IKW/Ton Variable Speed Chiller IKW/Ton 0.507 0.8 1100 2640 2 110.497 Phone Topics .8 1100 3600 3 73.527 0.

537 0.517 0.458 0.0% 74.CONSTANT EVAP FLOW.2 1500 3600 85 Constant Speed Chiller IKW/Ton Variable Speed Chiller IKW/Ton 0.443 0. Increased lift on chiller – less efficient than increasing flow. LOWER LCHWT.332 0.4% 74.527 0.8 1100 2640 2 110.Primary Secondary Pumping System Variable Primary Systems Max Cap advantage holding evaporator flow constant and lowering LCHWT.444 MAX CAP ADVANTAGE . Building Qty of Chiller Load GPM Chillers % Load ECWT 100 1200 65 208 1200 77 500 1200 65 550 2400 2 55% 65 750 3600 65 900 3600 69 1000 3600 71.509 Phone Topics . Variable Primary Pumping System Constant Speed Chiller IKW/Ton Variable Speed Chiller IKW/Ton Building Qty of Chiller Load GPM Chillers % Load ECWT 100 500 65 208 500 77 500 1200 65 550 1320 1 110% 65 750 1800 65 900 2160 69 1000 2400 71.2 1500 3600 85 0.8 1100 3600 3 73.

Review chiller selection guidelines for VPF applications. Review the Benefits of “Max Cap” in both P/S and VPF systems. 2. 5. Review the Benefits of VFD driven chillers in both P/S and VPF systems. 1. . Phone Topics . 3.19XRV Chillers in Variable Primary Systems Outline 19XRV chillers in VPF systems. Review conventional Primary Secondary System. 4. Review Variable Primary Flow System.

Why Provide Variable Speed Chillers in VPF? VFD driven chillers take advantage of reduced lift and/or reduced load hours offering annual power costs unmatched by any constant speed chiller. . Phone Topics .19XRV Chillers in Variable Primary Systems Same reasons you would supply 19XRV on Primary Secondary Systems.

reduce speed to reduce power 2 Ideal Fan Laws Dictate the relationship between speed. To increase lift. A To increase flow. increase diameter or rotor speed V Diameter Power ~ Flow x Lift ~ V With constant flow and reduced lift. pumps area or rotor speed and 2 Lift ~ V compressors. increase flow fans. flow and lift Phone Topics .19XRV Chillers in Variable Primary Systems How 19XRV Chillers save kW in P/S & VPF Systems Flow Area Affinity laws for centrifugal Flow ~ V.

Refrigerant .Lift Reduction How 19XRV Chillers save kW in P/S & VPF Systems ECWT Mass Flow X Lift Compressor HP ~ Compressor/Cycle Efficiency .Aerodynamics .19XRV Chillers in Variable Primary Systems Methods to Improve Efficiency .Transmission efficiency .Metering devices .Motor efficiency .Cycle enhancements Load Cooling Tower Chiller Phone Topics .

3 85 80 75 70 65 60 Entering Condenser Water Temperature All points shown are 100% load (500 tons) 19XRV “unlifts” much better then constant speed machine.5 0.35 0.55 0.19XRV Chillers in Variable Primary Systems Efficiency improves dramatically as ECWT drops.6 0.45 0. Reduced Lift at 100% tons (500 Tons) 0. IKW / Ton 19XRV 19XR Phone Topics .4 0.

59 Variable Speed Chiller IKW/Ton 0.8 3 73.4% 74.485 0.619 0. Building Load 100 208 500 550 750 1000 1100 1500 GPM 1200 1200 1200 2400 2400 2400 3600 3600 Qty of Chiller Chillers % Load ECWT 1 20% 65 1 42% 65 1 100% 65 2 55% 65 2 75% 65 2 100.548 0.589 Building Load 100 208 500 550 750 1000 1100 1500 GPM 500 500 1200 1320 1800 2400 2640 3600 Qty of Chiller Chillers % Load ECWT 1 20% 65 1 42% 65 1 100% 65 2 55% 65 2 75% 65 2 100% 71.36 0.551 0.444 0.954 0.479 0.537 0.328 0.589 Variable Primary Pumping System Constant Speed Chiller IKW/Ton 0.2 3 100% 85 Constant Speed Chiller IKW/Ton 0.527 0.384 0.446 0.59 Variable Speed Chiller IKW/Ton 0.0% 71.33 0.619 0.537 0.358 0.442 0.332 0.485 0.8 3 73.4% 74.2 3 100% 85 Phone Topics .527 0.436 0.Primary Secondary Pumping System Variable Primary Systems VFD column better than constant speed column at every point! * VFD was selected for same FL IKW/Ton – therefore a bit larger and $$$.332 0.479 0.384 0.436 0.446 0.954 0.

19XRV Chillers in Variable Primary Systems Outline 19XRV chillers in VPF systems. Phone Topics . 2. . Review conventional Primary Secondary System. 3. Review the Benefits of “Max Cap” in both P/S and VPF systems. Review Variable Primary Flow System. 1. Review chiller selection guidelines for VPF applications. Review the Benefits of VFD driven chillers in both P/S and VPF systems. 5. 4.

5 feet / second (intermittent) and 3. VPF systems save pump energy – don’t forget to save on chiller energy too. Evaporator flow rate and pressure drops must be carefully coordinated if unequally sized chillers. Evaporator should be selected such that design flow rate is at least double the minimum flow rate (if equally sized chillers). Minimum flow rate is 1. Rate of change of flow can be up to 30% per minute.0 feet / second (extended) Maximum flow rate is 12 feet / second. Remember – you can have both! Phone Topics .19XRV Chillers in Variable Primary Systems VFD chiller selection guidelines for VPF applications.

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulPRIMARY VFD AND CHILLER SYSTEM

PRIMARY VFD AND CHILLER SYSTEM

- TRACE 700 - Users Manual
- Direct Digital Control for HVAC (BMS)
- Carrier Vpf System
- McQNews.0102
- B7.2KENNEDYKILTECHIDEA Presentation Miami June 2013small
- FINAL PDF Designing a Chiller Plant Room to Be the Most Efficient 10-12-12
- pd_053
- Optimizing Design & Control of Chilled Water Plants Part-2
- Chiller Installation Instructions
- The Demise of the Primary-Secondary Pumping Paradigm for Chilled Water Plant Design
- Control Sequences for Chilled Scrib6
- Ashrae Yea 091409
- Different Control Strategies for Chiller Plant
- 019113.4 (1)
- Chiller + Pumps Details
- LYTRON Manual
- Primary Loop
- Saving Energy Hvac Retrofits
- Constant Volume - Constant Speed. Chilled Water Systems. Chillers Pumps & Pi
- 11633_IMM_08_2007_16NK
- 16lj Iom Eng
- Chiller
- (0107) 00000792
- Chilled Water Plant Pumping Schemes
- 056-075_taylor.pdf
- CHILLED WATER SYSTEM.ppt
- avery_112
- Primary Secondary System
- Chiller System BMS
- Chiller Plant Efficiency
- PRIMARY VFD AND CHILLER SYSTEM

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd