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QURANIC GRAMMAR AS-SARF Morphology of the words Lesson 5

Lessons from the book MABADE ALARABIYAH basics of Arabic Grammar RASHEED SHARTOONI Compiled by: Sheikh Safdar Razi Ali


The verb which is used to derive a MASDAR is basically past tense therefore note the example verbs taken previously to convert to a MASDAR (noun) are past tense and the forms of MOJARRAD and MAZEED studied here will also be repeated when studying the past tense. MOJARRAD is referred to the root verb or the MASDAR which does not have any addition in the root verb and this MOJARRAD verb or MASDAR could be tri letter or four letter A MAZEED verb (past tense) or MASDAR which has addition of letters to its MOJARRAD (root).

An infinitive is that which denotes a state or an action without denoting its time, (it is not called a verbal noun that is some thing else) for example:. HOSNON (beauty) from the verb HASONA (beautified) All infinitives are formed by grammatical rules except infinitives of triliteral MOJARRAD verbs, for there are many forms which cannot be known except by referring to dictionaries.



[Shakir 3:172] (As for) those who responded (at Ohud) to the call of Allah and the Messenger after the wound had befallen them, those among them who do good (to others) and guard (against evil)shall have a great reward.

4 Mazeed with one letter

If you increase three lettered Mojarrad Verb by one letter, you can have the following forms: 1. Faala with a shaddah on the AYN of the verb ( )Form: Alima Allama (Taught) 2. Afala ( )Form: KaramaAkrama (Become Generous) 3. Faaala ( )Form: ShahidaShaahada (Witness)

4 Mazeed with one letter

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Mazeed with two letters

If you increase the three lettered Mojarrad Verb by Two letter, you can have the following 5 forms: 1. Tafaala with SHADDAH on AYN ( ) Form: Taallama (He Learned) 2. Tafaaal( )Form Tashaaraka (Associated)
3. 4. 5. Infaala( )Form: InTalaqa & Insarafa (Left) Iftaala( )Form: Ijtamaa (he met ) Ifaala with SHADDAH on LAAM ( ) Form: Ihmarra (Become Red)

4 Mazeed with two letters

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Mazeed with three letter

If you increase the three lettered Mojarrad Verb by Three letters, you can have the following forms: 1. Istafal( ) Form: Istafsfara (Seeking the Meaning) 2. Ifawala( ) Form: Ihdowdaba (Bending) 3. Ifaalla with SHADDAH on LAAM ( )Form: Ikdhaarra (Becoming Very Green)

MAZEED with three increased letter

A. ( ISTAFALA)This is form X. Here a glottal stop, sn and t are added. For example: (he asked for forgiveness) B. ( IFAOWALA)This is form XII. Here a glottal stop and a ww are added along with another second root letter , example: (It was bent outward) For Form XI is not mentioned in this book

4 Mazeed with three letters

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Four lettered Mazeed with max two

The increase in the Four lettered Mojarrad Verb by One or Two letters (A verb cannot exceed 6 letters), will be discussed further when studying the verbs in detail.

The infinitives for verbs with increase letters are as follows

A. becomes B. becomes C. becomes D. becomes E. becomes F. becomes G. becomes H. becomes I. becomes J. becomes

Increase on three letter MOJARRAD

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Four letter
K. becomes L. becomes M. becomes

Are all the forms of triliteral verbs with increase letters applied to all triliteral verbs?

No, in order to know which forms are applied to which verbs one must refer to dictionaries because many of them are without standard form (SOMAAEYAH). For example form IV ( AFALA) and XII ( IFAOWALA) This are not applied to the verb

Types of four letter MASDAR

The pattern for the quadriliteral verb is . (FALALA) The LAAM at the end distinguishes the tri and the Quadra. There are two infinitives for quadriliteral MOJARRAD verbs : ZALZALAH and ZILZAAL The second follows the rules in doublelettered verbs, for example: WASWASA = WASWASAH and WISWAAS and this is according to how Arabs use them in other than double-lettered verbs, For example: .

There are two types of quadriliteral MOJARRAD verbs: A. Regular: when there arent any repeated letters in its root. For example: (he rolled) B. Repeated-lettered: when the first and third root letters are identical as well as the second and fourth. For example ( it quaked) IN the above both examples all the four letters are root letters.


A MAZEED quadriliteral verb

There is one form of a quadriliteral verb with one increase letter: A. ( TAFALALA) This is form II. Here a t is added to the root. For example: ( he rolled down)

A MAZEED quadrilateral verb with two increased letters There are two forms of a quadrilateral verb with two increase letters: A. ( IFANLALA) This is form III. Here a glottal stop and a nn are added. For example (translate) B. ( IFALALLA)This is form IV. Here a glottal stop is added and the fourth root letter is doubled. For example: (he shivered)

5 Mazeed of four letter root verb

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How many forms of quadriliteral verbs with increase letters are there? There are three forms of quadriliteral verbs with increase letters. Are all the forms of quadriliteral verbs with increase letters applied to all quadrilteral verbs? No, to know which forms are applied to which verbs one must refer to dictionaries ( .)For example forms III and IV forms are not applied to the verb .

[Shakir 47:25] Surely (as for) those who return on their backs after that guidance has become manifest to them, the Shaitan has made it a light matter to them; and He gives them respite.

[Shakir 58:19] The Shaitan has gained the mastery over them, so he has made them forget the remembrance of Allah; they are the Shaitan's party; now surely the Shaitan's party are the losers.

[Shakir 18:77] So they went on until when they came to the people of a town, they asked them for food, but they refused to entertain them as guests. Then they found in it a wall which was on the point of falling, so he put it into a right state. (Musa) said: If you had pleased, you might certainly have taken a recompense for it.

[Shakir 9:45] They only ask leave of you who do not believe in Allah and the latter day and their hearts are in doubt, so in their doubt do they waver.

[Shakir 3:200] O you who believe! be patient and excel in patience and remain steadfast, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, that you may be successful.

[Shakir 17:64] And beguile whomsoever of them you can with your voice, and collect against them your forces riding and on foot, and share with them in wealth and children, and hold out promises to them; and the Shaitan makes not promises to them but to deceive: