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Material Balance Equations


Author: Jon Kleppe, NTNU
Assistant producer: Vidar W. Moxness
The Statfjord area in the North Sea. Source: Statoil
Material Balance Equations
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INTRODUCTION Introduction
To illustrate the simplest possible model we can have
for analysis of reservoir behavior, we will start with
derivation of so-called Material Balance Equations.
This type of model excludes fluid flow inside the
reservoir, and considers fluid and rock
expansion/compression effects only, in addition, of
course, to fluid injection and production.

This module is meant to be an extra help to the
lectures in Reservoir recovery techniques by giving
examples to the curriculum covered by the handout
Material Balance Equations.

The structure of the model is shown below.
Learning goals
Basic understanding of material balance


The handout Material Balance Equations can be
downloaded from here:
MODELLING
APPLICATION
SUMMARY
Saturation Block
diagram
Material
conservation
Graph A Graph B
Equations
Water
influence
Initial
gascap
Introduction
Modelling
Application
Summary
matbal.pdf
Plot 1 Plot 2 Plot 3
Material Balance Equations
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Block diagram of a producing reservoir
The essence of material balance is described in the
block diagram below.

From the initial stage oil, gas & water is produced. At the
same time gas & water is (re)injected into the reservoir
to maintain pressure. There is also an influx from the
aquifer below the reservoir.
Due to change in pressure, the pore volume as well as
the fraction of the volume occupied by gas, oil & water
will change.
INTRODUCTION
MODELLING
APPLICATION
SUMMARY
Block diagram
Material conservation
Graph A B
Equations
Saturation
Click to display
symbols used
Material Balance Equations
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From the block diagram we get the expression below, which is the basis for the material balance formulas.
Principle of material conservation INTRODUCTION
Block diagram
Material conservation
Graph A B
Equations
Saturation
Note that fluids produced include all influence on the reservoir:
Production
Injection
Aquifer influx

.) . (
_
_
.) . (
_ _ _
_ _ _
.) . (
_ _ _
_ _ _
vol st
produced f luid
of Amounts
vol st
f inally reservoir the in
remaining f luids of Amount
vol st
initially reservoir the in
present f luids of Amount Amount of fluids pre sent
in the res ervoir ini tially
(st. vol. )
Amount of
fluids pro duced
(st. vol. )
Amount of fluids rem aining
in the res ervoir fin ally
(st. vol. )






`

)








`

)

=






`

)

APPLICATION
SUMMARY
MODELLING
Material Balance Equations
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P
B
o

B
o
vs. P
P
B
g

B
g
vs. P
P
B
w

B
w
vs. P
Formation Volume Factor in the Black Oil model

Click to display
symbols used
INTRODUCTION
Block diagram
Material conservation
Graph A B
Equations
Saturation
The formation volume factors (FVF) tell how much the
oil, gas and water is compressed at a given pressure.

B
o
= reservoir volume of oil / standard volume of oil

B
g
= reservoir volume of gas / standard volume of gas

B
w
= reservoir volume of water / standard volume of
water
The graphs below show how the FVF of oil, gas and
water develop vs pressure. Click on the buttons to show
the graphs.
APPLICATION
SUMMARY
MODELLING
Material Balance Equations
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P
R
so

R
so
vs. P
Solution Gas-Oil Ratio in the Black Oil model INTRODUCTION
Block diagram
Material conservation
Graph A B
Equations
Saturation
Click to display
symbols used
The Rso plot shows how the solution gas ratio develops
vs pressure. When the pressure reaches the
bubblepointpressure, it is no longer possible to solve
more gas into the oil. Thus the gradient of the curve
becomes zero.

R
s
= standard volume gas / standard volume oil
Click on the button below to see the typical pressure
dependency of the solution gas-oil ratio in the black oil
model.
APPLICATION
SUMMARY
MODELLING
Material Balance Equations
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( ) ( ) F N E mE E W W B G B
o g f w i e w2 i g2
= + + + + +
,

Where: production terms are

( ) | |
F N B R R B W B
p o2 p so2 g2 p w2
= + +

oil and solution gas expansion terms are

( ) ( ) E B B R R B
o o2 o1 so1 so2 g2
= +

gas cap expansion terms are

E B
B
B
1
g o1
g2
g1
=
|
\

|
.
|
|
and rock and water compression/expansion terms are

( ) E 1 m B
C C S
1 S
P
f w o1
r w w1
w1
,
= +
+

A
The complete black oil material balance equation
The final material balance relationships is given below. How these expressions are derived can be
studied in the Material Balance pdf document.
INTRODUCTION
Block diagram
Material conservation
Graph A B
Equations
Saturation
Click to display
symbols used
matbal.pdf
APPLICATION
SUMMARY
MODELLING
Material Balance Equations
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Saturation and pressure development
Click to display
symbols used
View the animations below to see how the pressure and
oil-, gas- and water-saturation typically develops in a
reservoir initially above the bubblepoint develops versus
time. Also included is how pressure might develop
versus time.
The plot to the left shows how the saturations and the
pressure in the reservoir develop vs time in a reservoir if
there is small or no water injection.

The plot to the right shows the same for a reservoir with
large water injecton.
INTRODUCTION
Block diagram
Material conservation
Graph A B
Equations
Saturation
APPLICATION
SUMMARY
MODELLING
Material Balance Equations
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Application of Material Balance
Click to display
symbols used
In material balance calculations there are in most cases
many uncertainties with regard to reservoir parametres.
Uncertain values may for instance include the size of the
initial gascap, the initial amount of oil in the reservoir and
the influx of the aquifer.

In the following pages ways of finding some of these
values will be explained.
The animation below shows a producing reservoir with
gas and water injection.
INTRODUCTION
MODELLING
SUMMARY
APPLICATION
Initial gascap
Plot 1
Plot 2
Water influence
Plot 3
Material Balance Equations
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Application of Material Balance
Initial gas cap (Havlena and Odeh approach)
Click to display
symbols used
General mass balance formula:
e o
W NE F + =
( ) ( ) F N E mE E W W B G B
o g f w i e w2 i g2
= + + + + +
,
( )
g o
mE E N F + =
o
g
o
E
E
mN N
E
F
+ =
(1)
(2)
(3)
For gascap reservoirs the value of m is in most cases
uncertain. The value of N can however usually be
defined well through producing wells. In this case a good
approach will be to plot F as a function of (Eo+mEg) for
an assumed value of m. (eq. 2) For the correct value of
m the slope will be a straight line passing through origo
with a slope of N. For a too large value of m, the plot will
deviate down and for a too small value it will deviate up.

If both the value of m and N are uncertain one should
plot F/Eo as a function of Eg/Eo. This plot should be
linear and will intercept the y axis at a value of N and
have a slope of mN. (eq. 3)
Assuming no water influence, gas injection and rock
or water compression/expansion.
Large version
Plot 1
Large version
Plot 2
INTRODUCTION
MODELLING
APPLICATION
Initial gascap
Plot 1
Plot 2
Water influence
Plot 3
SUMMARY
Material Balance Equations
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Application of Material Balance
Water influence (Havlena and Odeh approach)
Click to display
symbols used
In water drive reservoirs the biggest uncertainty is in
most cases the water influx, We. To find this we plot
F/Eo vs We/Eo. In this plot We must be calculated with a
known model. (e.g. eq. 7)

For a correct model of We we will get a straight line. For
the wrong model the plot will deviate from a straight line
as shown in plot 3.
e o
W NE F + =
( ) ( ) F N E mE E W W B G B
o g f w i e w2 i g2
= + + + + +
,
( )
e w f g o
W E mE E N F + + + =
,
o
e
o
E
W
N
E
F
+ =
General mass balance formula:
Assuming no water or gas injection and B
w
=1.
Neglecting E
f,w
due to its small influence and assuming
no initial gascap.
(1)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Large version
Plot 3
( ) ( ) p fh r r c c W
o e f w e
A + = | t
2 2
(7)
Water influx model for radial aquifer shape:
INTRODUCTION
MODELLING
APPLICATION
Initial gascap
Plot 1
Plot 2
Water influence
Plot 3
SUMMARY
Material Balance Equations
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Summary
MODELLING:
Block diagram: Material balance equations are based on a model with a know start- and
end-point. Between the two stages oil, gas & water is produced and gas & water is
(re)injected into the reservoir to maintain pressure. There is also an influx from the aquifer
below the reservoir. Due to change in pressure, the pore volume as well as the fraction of
the volume occupied by gas, oil & water will change.

Material conservation: Amounts of fluids in the reservoir at stage one is equal to the
amount of fluids at stage two plus the amount of fluids produced.

Graph A: The formation volume factors (FVF) tell how much the oil, gas and water is
compressed at a given pressure.

Graph B: The Rso plot shows how the solution gas ratio develops vs pressure. When the
pressure reaches the bubblepointpressure, it is no longer possible to solve more gas into
the oil. Thus the gradient of the curve becomes zero.

Equations: The material balance equations consist of a general part, oil and solution gas
expansion terms, gas cap expansion terms and rock and water compression/expansion
terms

Saturation: Pressure and saturations change versus time, depending on
production/injection. See figure to the right.

APPLICATION:
Initial gascap: In a gas drive reservoirs m may be calculated by plotting F as a function of
(Eo+mEg). For the correct value of m the plot will be a straight line. Alternatively m & N
may be calculated by plotting F/Eo vs Eg/Eo. The curve will intercept the y axis at a value
of N and have a slope of m-N.

Water influence: In a water drive reservoir the water influx, We, can be recovered by
plotting F/Eo vs We/Eo. In this plot We must be calculated with a known model.
Block diagram
INTRODUCTION
MODELLING
APPLICATION
SUMMARY
Saturation & pressure
Material Balance Equations
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Jon Kleppe. Material balance. http://www.ipt.ntnu.no/~kleppe/SIG4038/02/matbal.pdf

L.P. Dake 1978. Fundamentals of reservoir engineering, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 443 pp.

L.P. Dake 1994. The practice of reservoir engineering, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 534 pp.

Svein M. Skjveland (ed.) & Jon Kleppe (ed.) 1992. SPOR monograph : recent
advances in improved oil recovery methods for North Sea sandstone reservoirs
Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, Stavanger. 335 pp.
References INTRODUCTION
MODELLING
APPLICATION
SUMMARY
Material Balance Equations
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About this module
Title: Material Balance Equations

Author: Prof. Jon Kleppe

Assistant producer: Vidar W. Moxness

Size: 0.8 mb

Publication date: 24. July 2002

Abstract: The module describes the basics of material balance calculations.

Software required: PowerPoint XP/XP Viewer

Prerequisites: none

Level: 1 4 (four requires most experience)

Estimated time to complete: --
INTRODUCTION
MODELLING
APPLICATION
SUMMARY