Cardiorespiratory Adaptations to Training

SPS211/FSRUiTM

CV Adaptation to Training
• • • • • • • Heart size SV HR Q BF BP BV
SPS211/FSRUiTM

CV Adaptation to Training
• Heart size
– Heart muscle hypertrophy – In response to increased work demand, the heart weight & volume, the left ventricle wall thickness & chamber size all increase as a results of endurance training
– Left ventricle – greatest change

SPS211/FSRUiTM

CV Adaptation to Training
• Stroke Volume
– With endurance training, SV shows an increase during rest, submax & max exertion – Why?
• Increase EDV (increase blood plasma) • Increase in LV contractility - increase elastic coil

SPS211/FSRUiTM

CV Adaptation to Training
• HR
– RHR decreases as result of O2 training – Submax exercise HR also reduce – Maximal HR either remains unchanged or decreased slightly with training – HR recovery period decreased with training – RT also can lead to reduced HR (not as large as O2 training)

SPS211/FSRUiTM

CV Adaptation to Training
•Q
– Q at rest or during submax exercise remain unchanged or decreased slightly after training – Q at max level of exercise increase considerably (result of substantial increase in maximal stroke volume)

SPS211/FSRUiTM

CV Adaptation to Training
• BF
– Endurance training enhanced BF
• Increased capillarization • Greater opening of existing capillary • More effective blood redistribution

SPS211/FSRUiTM

CV Adaptation to Training
• BP
– Resting BP is reduced by endurance training in those with borderline or moderate hypertension – Endurance training has little or no effect on BP during submax & max exercise

SPS211/FSRUiTM

CV Adaptation to Training
• BV
– BV increases as a result of endurance training – The increase is primarily caused by an increase in blood plasma volume – RBC count count also increase, but the gain in plasma is typically much higher (greater fluid portion) – Increased plasma volume – decreased blood viscosity (improve circulation) – Increased in plasma volume leading to an increase in stroke volume (SV), which in turn leads to an increase in VO2 max.

SPS211/FSRUiTM

Respiratory Adaptation to Training
• • • • • Lung Volume Respiratory Rate Pulmonary Ventilation Pulmonary Diffusion A-VO2diff

SPS211/FSRUiTM

Respiratory Adaptation to Training
• Lung Volume
– Changes little with training – Vital capacity (amount of air that can be expelled after max inspiration) increase slightly – Residual volume (the amount of air that cannot be moved out of the lungs) show a slight decrease – Tidal volume (the amount of air breath in and out during normal respiration) is unchanged

SPS211/FSRUiTM

Respiratory Adaptation to Training
• Respiratory Rate
– After training, usually lowered at rest and during submax work. – At max rate - increased

SPS211/FSRUiTM

• Pulmonary Ventilation

Respiratory Adaptation to Training
– After training, PV unchanged or slightly reduced at rest & submax work. – Max - increased

SPS211/FSRUiTM

Respiratory Adaptation to Training
• Pulmonary Diffusion
– Pulmonary diffusion at maximal work increase due to increased ventilation & increase lung perfusion

SPS211/FSRUiTM

Respiratory Adaptation to Training
• A-VO2diff
– Increases with training. – Most notably at max level of work reflecting an increased extraction by the tissues & more effective blood distribution

SPS211/FSRUiTM

Metabolic Adaptation to Training
• Lactate threshold (LT) • Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) • Oxygen Consumption (VO2)

SPS211/FSRUiTM

Metabolic Adaptation to Training
• LT
– LT increases with training, which allow athletes to perform at higher rates of work & levels of O2 consumption without increasing the BL

SPS211/FSRUiTM

SPS211/FSRUiTM

Metabolic Adaptation to Training
• RER
– After training, RER is decreased at both absolute & submax work. – These changes are due to greater utilization of FFA instead of carbs – Max work – RER increased

SPS211/FSRUiTM

Metabolic Adaptation to Training
• VO2
– O2 consumption can be increased slightly at rest and decreased slightly or unaltered during submax exercise – VO2max increases substantially following training – The oxygen uptake of a person at rest is usually 3.5ml.kg-1.min-1

SPS211/FSRUiTM

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