Metabolic Adaptation to Training


Adaptation to Aerobic Training
Adaptation to Muscle
• • • • • Muscle fiber type Capillary supply Myoglobin content Mitochondrial function Oxidative enzymes

Muscle Fiber Type
• Aerobic exercise (low to mod) rely extensively on the ST fibers. • In response to training stimulus, ST fibers become 7-22% larger than FT. • Research have shown that endurance training can cause some FT type Il to FT type l. • This conversion may simply reflect the greater use of FT fibers during long exhaustive training

Capillary Supply
• Increase in the number of capillaries surrounding each muscle fibers (capillarization) • Endurance trained athletes have 5-10% more capillaries in their leg muscle compare to sedentary • Having more capillaries allows greater exchange of gases, heat, wastes, & nutrient between the blood and the working muscle fibers

Myoglobin Content
• When O2 enters the muscle fibers, it binds with myoglobin. • This iron containing compound shuttles O2 molecules from the cell membrane to the mitochondria. • The ST fibers contain large quantities of myoglobin (red appearance) • The ST fibers contain large quantities of myoglobin (white appearance) • Endurance training have been shown to increase myoglobin content by 75-80%

Mitochondrial Function
• Skeletal muscle mitochondria increase both in number (15%) and size (35%) with aerobic training, providing the muscle more efficient oxidative metabolism


Oxidative Enzymes
• Endurance training increase succinate dehyrogenase (SDH) • Jogging 20min/day – 25% increment in SDH


Adaptation Affecting Energy Source
• Carbohydrate for Energy
– Endurance trained athletes increased their muscle glycogen storage to nearly twice the levels of sedentary people who follow the same dietary regime.

• Fat for Energy
– Endurance trained muscles contains substantially more fat (triglycerides), than untrained muscles. – Activities of many muscle enzymes responsible for ß oxidation of fat increased. – This adaptation enables muscle to use fat more efficiently, lessening the demand for glycogen.

Adaptation to Anaerobic Training
Adaptation in: • ATP-PCr System • Glycolytic System


Adaptation in ATP-PCr System
• Maximal sprint bouts (6s) might improve muscular strength, but contribute little to the mechanisms responsible for ATP breakdown. • However, a 30s training bouts will increased the activities of the muscle enzymes (Creatine Phosphokinase-CPK; Myokinase- MK)


Adaptation in the Glycolytic System
• The activity of glycolytic enzymes (phorylase, phosphofructokinase and lactate dehyrogenase) increase 10 to 25% with repeated 30s training bouts compare with short (6s) bouts. • However, performance gains with these forms of training result from improvements in strength rather than improvements in the anaerobic yield of ATP.

Other Adaptations to Anaerobic Training
Improvement in: • Efficiency of movement • Aerobic energetics • Buffering capacity


Efficiency of movement
• Training at high speeds improves your skill and your coordination for performing at higher intensities • Anaerobic training optimizes fiber recruitment to allow more efficient movement • Training at fast speeds with heavy loads improves your efficiency, economizing your use of muscle energy supply


Aerobic Energetics
• Anaerobic training doesn’t stress only the anaerobic energy systems. • Part of the energy needed for sprints that last at least 30s is derived from oxidative metabolism. • Consequently, repeated bouts of sprint type exercise (30s maximal effort bouts) also increase the muscle aerobic capacity.


Buffering Capacity
• muscle buffering capacity is increased by anaerobic training, allowing the achievement of higher muscle & blood lactate levels. • Buffers (e.g., bicarbonate and muscle phosphates) combine with hydrogen can reduce fiber’s acidity (delay onset of fatigue) • Anaerobic training have been shown to increase muscle buffering capacity by 12% to 50%.


Monitoring Training Changes VO2max
– Best means for evaluating training adaptations – However, it can’t measure muscle adaptation to training

• Blood lactate measurements


Effect on Endurance Training on Blood Lactate Threshold

BL (mmol.L-1)

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Trained Untrained






90 100

% VO2max

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