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Mapping The Landscape How RFID is Revolutionising The World Around US

Alfio Grasso Deputy Director Auto-ID Lab, ADELAIDE UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE


International Quality & Productivity Centre RFID Integration 2005

AUTO-ID LABS

Objective
RFID Basics History

Rising from the ashes!

Current Status

EPCglobal ISO Regulatory

Future
International Quality & Productivity Centre RFID Integration 2005

RFID Basics

International Quality & Productivity Centre RFID Integration 2005

AUTO-ID LABS

Tag reading
The black spot

Controller

Transmitter Label

Receiver

Reader Tx typically 1W, 6dB gain Antenna But propagation loss, resulting Rx at Tag typically W On tag, RF energy used for DC power and modulation More loss back to Reader Rx Therefore a very weak reply is obtained
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RFID Tags
Tags

Attached to objects or items Contains electronics (chip), and antenna Most are passive (no power source) Active tags have a battery

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Matrics (Symbol) Tags Class 0

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Alien Technology Tags Class 1 Gen 1

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Intermec Tags 18000-6TB

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Gen 2

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RFID Readers
Readers Contains electronics, Tx, Rx and control Connected to antenna(s)
mostly external

Energise tags (passive tags) Commands tags (wake up active tags, enables management of the tag population) Receive tag replies
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RFID Readers

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Gen 2 Compliant Readers

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RFID Antenna(s)

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Host CPU

Application Do something with the tag information Potential to generate massive amounts of data Once installed it costs virtually NOTHING to read a tag! Real time data => real time decisions OHIO (Zero Human Involvement Operations)*
International Quality & Productivity Centre RFID Integration 2005

* Term defined by John Greaves, CHEP International

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History
RFID concept in WWII

Steady development ever since

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Early UHF work


1979 Surface Acoustic Wave RFID

University of Adelaide, University of New South Wales TABTEK, X-cyte (XCI) MircroDesign

1988 Modulated Backscatter Technology


Discrete diodes ISD Amtech SCS Philips IBM=>Intermec

Late 90s single chip UHF RFID


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ISO
SC31 established in 1996

Automatic Identification and Data Capture Techniques RFID for Item Management 1st meeting 26-28 August 1998 Air Interface 1st meeting 12th Jan 1999 Ad-hoc meeting in September 2000 18000-6 WD by Dec 2001 18000-6 CD Sept 2002 FCD BRM Sept 2003 18000-6 Published 2004

SC31/WG4

SC31/WG4/SG3

UHF activity started in 2000


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AUTO-ID LABS

Key Events
Auto-ID Center, formation and EPC (2000) RFID Chair at University of Adelaide, April 2001 Adelaide Auto-ID Lab, established 2002 Gillette purchase (2003)

WAL*MART mandate (2003)


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AUTO-ID LABS

Metamorphous
Auto-ID Center

Terminated 31/10/2003

Spawned two organisations

Auto-ID Labs
MIT, Cambridge (UK), Adelaide,

Fudan (China), Keio (Japan), St Gallen/ETHZ (Switzerland) and in 2005 ICU (Korea)

EPCglobal

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AUTO-ID LABS

2000+ Players
Matrics

Founded 1999 Product July 2002

Symbol
Alien

Founded 1995 Cheap Tag Program, 2001 Product Q1 2002

Impinj

Founded 2000 Auto-ID Center HAG 2003 C1G2 chip 8 Apr 2005 EPCglobal certified 14 Sep 2005 Partnered with Texas Instruments

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Why Now!
Recent improvements in tag and reader technology Better performance Easier deployment and maintenance Better use of existing infrastructure and technologies Improvements in tag and reader manufacturing Cheaper tags and readers Industry standardisation EPCglobal and ISO

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RFID Market To Reach $7.26Bn In 2008 *


A new market research report covering RFID from 2005 to 2015, researched by IDTechEx.

Bottom line is that this years global market for RFID including tags, systems and services is $1.94 billion but it will be driven by demand and new laws to $26.90 billion in 2015. Passive tags: 410 million (car clickers) Active tags: 1390 million (cards) access cards for the financial, security and safety markets automotive and passenger transport sector smaller markets in leisure, libraries, laundry and healthcare.

1.8 billion RFID tags have been sold to 2005.


Key volume applications for RFID technology


* As reported in IDTechEX 11 April 2005 International Quality & Productivity Centre RFID Integration 2005

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More Trends *
3.1 billion tags will be used for pallets and cases in 2006. By 2008

6.8 billion tags for Item level tagging (especially by pharmaceuticals) and tagging of baggage, animals, books, tickets and other non retail markets But 15.3 billion tags for pallets/cases

The market for RFID interrogators will reach $1.14 billion in 2008 for EPC interrogators and $0.75 billion in the same year for other interrogators, such as Near Field Communication interrogators. Forecasts by territorial region show that by 2010 48% of RFID tags by numbers will be sold in East Asia, followed by 32% to North America.
* As reported in IDTechEX 11 April 2005 International Quality & Productivity Centre RFID Integration 2005

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Current Status

EPCglobal ISO Regulatory

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EPCglobal Standards Development Process

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EPCglobal structure
GS1 EPCglobal Board of Governors GS1 US

Architectural Review Committee

President, EPCglobal

Staff

Business Steering Committee


Business Action Group - CP
Work Groups

Technology Steering Committee


Software Action Group
Work Groups

Auto-ID Labs

Public Policy Steering Committee

Business Action Group - HLS


Work Groups

Hardware Action Group


Work Groups

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Membership Aug 2005

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Standards Development Process

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Working Groups
Business Steering Committee (BSC)

Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) Healthcare and Life Sciences (HLS) Transport and Logistics (TLS) Hardware Action Group (HAG) Software Action Group (SAG)

Technical Steering Committee (TSC)


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FMCG Working Groups


Data Exchange European Adoption Programme (EAP) Pilot and Implementation (P&I) Reusable Transport Items (RTI) Strategic Planning Tag and Inlay Standards Asian Adoption Program (AAP)

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HLS Working Groups


Strategy Policy Process Information Technology Research

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TLS - Working Groups


Transportation Four walls Import Export Clearance Integration

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HAG Working Groups


Class 1 Generation 2 (Work completed) Gen 2 Testing & Certification Joints Requirements Group for Item Level Tagging Others planned

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SAG Working Groups

Reader Protocol Reader Management Filtering and Collection ONS Security Tag Data Translation EPCIS Phase 2 Tag Data Standards

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Future Working Groups ?


Automotive Aerospace Electronics Biologics

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EPCglobal Technical Standards


Hardware Action Group Software Action Group

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EPCglobal network: roles and interfaces


Push Sharing

EPCIS EPCIS Accessing Accessing Application Application EPCIS Query Interface EPCIS EPCIS Repository Repository EPCIS Capture Interface

Firewall

Partner Partner Accessing Accessing Application Application

Security

EPCIS Capturing EPCIS Capturing Application Application F&C Interface F&C Middleware F&C Middleware

Capture Business Xactions & F&C Events

Push Sharing

Systems Mgmt

Green boxes represent Specs. Blue boxes represent roles, not necessarily discrete components

Reader Protocol / Mgmt Interface


Reader Reader

Tag Protocol (Gen2) / Tag Data Std


2004 EPCglobal

Tag Tag

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EPC Event Layers


R R

Enterprise App EPCIS Palletizer (Operational App) ALE RFID Middleware Reader Protocol Reader Reader
International Quality & Productivity Centre RFID Integration 2005

at time T, the association of the following case tags to the following pallet tag was created at palletizer #3

between the time the case crossed the first beam and the second beam at location L, the following tag was read

dozens of individual tag read events from specific antenna

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EPCIS Concepts

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Capture Application
Retailer Dist Ctr Store Dist Ctr

Manufacturer

Tagging Station

Palletizer

Dock Portal

Dock Portal

Rack

Dock Portal

Backroom Receipt

Impact Doorway

Operational Apps
Commission Observe Observe Aggregate Observe Shipment Observe Observe Receipt Putaway Observe Shipment Observe Disaggregate Observe Restock

EPCIS Events
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Gen 2

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Inlay Costs
Alien C1G1

US$0.129 Qty > 1m - 13 Sept 2005 * US$0.079 Qty > 1m - 20 Sept 2005 *

Avery Dennison C1G2

Inlay is the functional part of the tag


Includes the integrated circuit and antenna Usually "converted" to a tag


by being placed in a plastic sleeve, adhesive, or other

housing that allows it to be stuck to items.

*Source RFID Update

The final tag cost is therefore considerably more than that of the bare inlay, often by two or three times.
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Tag Costs
RSI ID Technologies

Finished, fully-validated, ready-to-use Gen2 RFID labels Under US$0.149, Qty > 1m 22 Sept 2005 *

*Source RFID Journal 23 Sept

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Gen 2 - Reader Costs

Applied Wireless Identifications (AWID)

MPR-3014
EPCglobal Gen 2 certified 4 antenna port reader WITH 4 antennas US$1,000 each *.

* Source RFID Update 26 Sept 2005

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Gen 2 Compliance Certificates

Reader Vendors

Alien Technology Applied Wireless Devices (2) Impinj Intermec Technologies (2) MaxID Group Symbol Technologies ThingMagic

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Gen 2 Compliance Certificates


Chip Vendors

Impinj Inc.
Monza

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Gen 2 Compliance Certificates


Test Centres

Pacific RFID Performance Solutions; Hsinchu, Taiwan Kimberly-Clark Corp. Auto-ID Sensing Technologies Performance Test Center; USA METRO Group AG/GS1 Germany RFID Test Center, Germany RFID Research Center, University of Arkansas, USA

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Gen 2 Chip Suppliers


Impinj

Monza 96 epc XRAG2 Supports KILL 432-bit memory (2 offerings)


Three memory banks (64 bits TID, 304 bits for EPC code and 64 bits reserved) Four memory banks (128 bits user, 64 bits TID, 176 bits for EPC code and 64 bits reserved). US$0.07, Qty > 100,000

ST Microelectronics

Philips Texas Instruments


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ISO Standards

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RF Regulations
Regulators Classify RFID as Industrial, Scientific and Medical use ISM bands 125-134 kHz (ISO 18000-2) 13.56 MHz or HF (ISO 18000-3) 433 MHz (ISO 18000-7) 860 to 960 MHz or UHF (ISO 18000-6) 2.45 GHz (ISO 18000-4) 5.8 GHz (no ISO standard)

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Other RFID Standards


ISO_IEC_18000-1

Reference architecture and definition of parameters to be standardized Application requirements profiles RFID Tag and Interrogator Performance Test Methods Test methods for air interface communications below 135 kHz Test methods for air interface communications at 13,56 MHz Test methods for air interface communications at 2.45 GHz Test methods for air interface communications at 860 to 960 MHz Test methods for air interface communications at 433 MHz Harmonised Vocabulary Elementary Tag Licence Plate functionality, for 18000-2 to 18000-7

ISO_IEC_TR_18001

ISO_IEC_18046

ISO_IEC_TR_18047-2

ISO_IEC_TR_18047-3

ISO_IEC_TR_18047-4

ISO_IEC_TR_18047-6

ISO_IEC_TR_18047-7

ISO_IEC_19762

ISO_IEC_24710

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Other Relevant ISO Standards


ISO_IEC_15418

EAN/UCC Application Identifiers and Fact Data Identifiers and Maintenance Data Carrier Identifiers (including Symbology Identifiers) Transfer syntax for high capacity ADC media

ISO_IEC_15424

ISO_IEC_15434

ISO_IEC_15459-Parts 1 & 2

Unique identification of transport units


Part 1: General Part 2: Registration procedures

ISO_IEC_15961

Data protocol: application interface Data protocol: data encoding rules and logical memory functions Unique identification for RF tags
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ISO_IEC_15962

ISO_IEC_15963

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Regulatory

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ITU Region 1 (EU and Africa)


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EN300-220 & EN302-208

CEPT countries

869.4 - 869.65 MHz : 500mW erp : DC<10% 865.6 - 867.6 MHz : 2W erp : LBT 869.4 - 869.65 MHz : 500mW erp 915.2 - 915.4 MHz : 8 W eirp

South Africa

Note: all of the above operate in < 250kHz channels


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ITU Region 2 (Americas)


AUTO-ID LABS

FCC Part 15.247

USA, Canada and Mexico


902 - 928 MHz : 4W EIRP FHSS, 500kHz wide channels permitted relaxed emission requirements within the whole band.

Central & South America


Generally similar to North America but varies from country to country.
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ITU Region 3 (Asia)


Australia

918 - 926 MHz : 1W EIRP 920 926 MHz : 4W EIRP


Experimental Strict conditions apply

New Zealand

864 - 868 MHz : 4W EIRP Generally follow CEPT some exceptions below China 917 to 922 2W ERP Hong Kong 865-868 2W ERP & 920-925 4W EIRP Japan 952 - 954 MHz : 4W EIRP (licensed) Malaysia 919-923 MHz, 2W ERP Singapore 866-869 MHz 0.5W ERP & 923-925 2W ERP (licence) South-Korea 910 914 MHz Taiwan 922-928 1W ERP (indoor) 0.5W (outdoor)
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Elsewhere in Asia

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Australian 4W RFID licence

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Experimental Licence
The original licence for RFID

1W EIRP, 918 to 926 MHz Granted to GS1 Australia 12 July 2005 Operates from 920 to 926 MHz Only licence that will be granted

Experimental 4W EIRP Licence


Statistics needed to determine possible interference to Vodaphone

Receiver base station at 915 MHz


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GS1 Contact

For details contact Fiona Wilson fwilson@gs1au.org

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Future?

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Future
RFID deployed in supply chains Anything that is mobile is a candidate RFID used for item management

Retail, Pharmaceutical, Asset Management, Access, Airline Baggage, Credit Cards, Money, Food Traceability, Security, Authentication, etc.

Integrated Mobile Phone

Connected to internet RFID reader


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RFID and Sensors


RFID with sensors

Ubiquitous Sensors VeriChip Ubiquitous Health

Bio-sensors and RFID


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Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA)


25th Sept 2005

ISA combines three systems:


GPS for location Video recognition of speed signs

RFID devices in speed signs which transmit information to passing cars.

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New Technologies

MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems ) Printed & Organic Electronics Atomic Electronics

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New Technologies - 2
Smart Dust or eGrains (Smart Stones)

Tiny smart processors Wirelessly connected to each Invisible network, adhoc Sharing data Reporting sensor information
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Conclusions

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Conclusions
RFID is NOW

Gen 2 available, inlays less than 10 cents Many people working on those standards
> 1500 people within EPCglobal workgroups

Many RFID related Standards Published


Multi-vendor support for the standards Conformance documents being published/developed Many GS1 countries already have band allocations Australia well placed (2nd best in the world)
4W EIRP 12 by 500 kHz wide channels

UHF band opening up


Future RFID

Limited by Imagination
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Further Information

Alfio Grasso Deputy Director Auto-ID Lab, Adelaide General Manager

RFID Automation
University of Adelaide Web: www.rfidautomation.org Email : alf@rfidautomation.org Ph: (08) 8303 6473 Mob: 0402 037 968
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