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METAL ALLOYS There are two types of metal alloys Ferrous Alloys

Non-Ferrous Alloys
Compared to other engineering materials, the carbon steels offer high strength and high stiffness, coupled with reasonable toughness. Unfortunately, they also rust easily and generally require some form of surface protection, such as paint, galvanizing, or other coating. The plain-carbon steels are generally the lowest-cost steel material and should be given first consideration for many applications. The differentiation between plain-carbon and alloy steel is often somewhat arbitrary. Both contain carbon, manganese, and usually silicon. Copper and boron are possible additions to both classes. Steels containing more than 1.65% manganese, 0.60% silicon, or 0.60% copper are usually designated as alloy steels. Also, a steel is considered to be an alloy steel if a definite or minimum amount of other alloying element is specified. The most common alloy elements are chromium, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, cobalt, boron, and copper, as well as manganese, silicon, phosphorus, and sulphur in amounts greater than are normally present. If the steel contains less than 8% of total alloy addition, it is considered to be a low-alloy steel. Steels with more than 8% alloying elements are high-alloy steels.

IMPORTANT ORES OF COPPER Copper pyrite or chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). Chalocite (Cu2S) or copper glance. Malachite green [CuCO3.Cu(OH)2]. Azurite blue [2CuCO3.Cu(OH)2]. Bornite (3Cu2S.Fe2S3) or peacock ore. Melaconite (CuO) etc. EXTRACTION OF COPPER FROM SULPHIDE ORE Large amount of copper are obtained from copper pyrite (CuFeS2) by smelting. Ores containing 4% or more copper are treated by smelting process. Very poor ores are treated by hydro-metallurgical process (Leaching, Solution concentration and purification, Metal recovery). EXTRACTION OF COPPER BY SMELTING PROCESS Following steps are involved in the extraction of copper. 1. CONCENTRATION The finely crushed ore is concentrated by Froth-Floatation process. Froth flotation is a process for separating minerals from gangue by taking advantage of differences in their hydrophobicity. The finely crushed ore is suspended in water containing a little amount of pine oil. A blast of air is passed through the suspension. The particles get wetted by the oil and float as a froth which is skimmed. The gangue sinks to the bottom.

2. ROASTING The concentrated ore is then roasted in a furnace in the presence of a current of air. Sulphur is oxidized to SO2 and impurities of arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) are removed as volatile oxides. The following reaction takes place during the roasting process. 2CuFeS2 + O2 Cu2S + 2FeS + SO2 S + O2 SO2 4As + 3O2 As2O3 4Sb + 3O2 2Sb2O3 Cuprous sulphide and ferrous sulphide are further oxidized into their oxides. 2Cu2S + 3O2 2Cu2O + 2SO2 2FeS + 3O2 2FeO + 2SO2 3. SMELTING The roasted ore is mixed with coke and silica (sand) SiO2 and is introduced in to a blast furnace. The hot air is blasted and FeO is converted in to ferrous silicate (FeSiO3). FeO + SiO2 FeSiO3 Cu2O + FeS Cu2S + FeO FeSiO3 (slag) floats over the molten matte of copper.

4. BESSEMERIZATION Copper metal is extracted from molten matte through bessemerization . The matte is introduced into Bessemer converter which uphold by tuyers. The air is blown through the molten matte. Blast of air converts Cu2S partly into Cu2O which reacts with remaining Cu2S to give molten copper. 2Cu2S + 3O2 2Cu2O + 2SO2 2Cu2O + Cu2S 6Cu + SO2 The copper so obtained is called "Blister copper" because, as it solidifies, SO2 hidden in it escapes out producing blister on its surface.

IMPURITIES IN BLISTER COPPER AND THEIR EFFECTS Blister copper is 99% pure. It contains impurities mainly iron but little amount of As, Zn, Pb, Ag and Au may also be present. These impurities adversely affect the electrical as well as mechanical properties of copper. Therefore, they must be removed.

ZINC Ores are found in the forms of 1) Zinc sulphide 2) Smithsonite (ZnCO3) 67% Zn 3) Hemimorphite or (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2.H2O). 54.2% Zn 4) Zincite (ZnO) 5) Willemite (Zn2SiO4) 58.5%. EXTRACTION OF ZINC FROM SULPHIDE ORE There are two methods of zinc extraction 1) Pyrometallurgy 2) Hydrometallurgy EXTRACTION OF ZINC & ALUMINIUM BY SMELTING PROCESS Following steps are involved in the extraction of zinc . 1. CONCENTRATION The finely crushed ore is concentrated by Froth-Floatation process. Froth flotation is a process for separating minerals from gangue by taking advantage of differences in their hydrophobicity. The finely crushed ore is suspended in water containing a little amount of oil. A blast of air is passed through the suspension. The particles get wetted by the oil and float as a froth which is skimmed. The gangue sinks to the bottom.

2. ROASTING The concentrated ore is then roasted in a furnace in the presence of a current of air. 3. SMELTING The roasted ore is mixed with coke and silica (sand) SiO2 and is introduced in to a blast furnace, where the hot air is blasted.

Definition: Corrosion is the deterioration of materials by chemical interaction with their environment. Deteriorative mechanisms are different for metals, ceramics, and polymers. In metals, there is actual material loss either by dissolution (chemical corrosion) or by the formation of non-metallic scale or film (oxidation/electrochemical corrosion). Ceramic materials are relatively resistant to deterioration, which usually occurs at elevated temperatures or in rather extreme environments; the process is frequently also called corrosion.

For polymers, the term degradation is most frequently used. Polymers may dissolve when exposed to a liquid solvent, or they may absorb the solvent and swell. Also, electromagnetic radiation (primarily ultraviolet) and heat may cause alterations in their molecular structures.
Corrosion processes are occasionally used to advantage. For example, etching procedures, make use of the selective chemical reactivity of grain boundaries or various microstructural constituents.

Buried gas or water supply pipes can suffer severe corrosion which is not detected until an actual leakage occurs, by which time considerable damage may be done.

Losses are economic and safety: Reduced Strength Downtime of equipment Escape of fluids Lost surface properties Reduced value of goods

The consequences of corrosion are many and varied and the effects of these on the safe, reliable and efficient operation of equipment or structures are often more serious than the simple loss of a mass of metal. Failures of various kinds and the need for expensive replacements may occur even though the amount of metal destroyed is quite small.

In chemical corrosion, or direct dissolution, a material dissolves in a corrosive liquid medium. The material continues to dissolve until either it is consumed or the liquid is saturated.

Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2
Chlorine only peripherally involved

Zn + 2H+ Zn 2+ + H2

Electrochemical corrosion, the most common form of attack of metals, occurs when metal atoms lose electrons and become ions. As the metal is gradually consumed by this process, a by-product of the corrosion process is typically formed. Metal atoms characteristically lose or give up electrons in what is called an oxidation reaction. For example, a hypothetical metal M that has a valence of n (or n valence electrons) may experience oxidation according to the reaction: releasing electrons Electrons absorbed by oxygen Reactions Oxidation: (Anodic reaction) Reduction: (Cathodic reaction)

Zn Zn2+ + 2e-

2H+ + 2e- H2

Electrochemical corrosion occurs most frequently in an aqueous medium, in which ions are present in water, soil, or moist air.

Galvanization is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, in order to prevent rusting. The galvanization can be done with electrochemical and electrodeposition processes, the most common method in current use is hot-dip galvanization, in which steel parts are submerged in a bath of molten zinc.


Work hardening, or strain hardening, If we apply a stress S1 that is greater than the yield strength Sy, it causes a permanent deformation or strain. When the stress is removed, a strain of e1 remains. Our new test specimen would begin to deform plastically or flow at stress level S1. We define the flow stress as the stress that is needed to initiate plastic flow in previously deformed material. Strain hardening results in an increase in the strength of a material due to plastic deformation. Plastic deformation = adding dislocations Strain Hardening Mechanism

flow at stress level S1

the new flow Each time we apply a higher stress is S2 stress, the flow stress and tensile strength increase, and the ductility decreases

Heat treatment is the term used to describe the controlled heating and cooling of metals and alloys for the purpose of altering their structures and properties. Heat treatment is the process of combination of heating and cooling operations, timed and applied to metals and alloys in their solid state to obtain desired properties. AIM OF HEAT TREATMENT The aim is to obtain a desired microstructure to achieve certain predetermined properties (physical, mechanical, magnetic or electrical). The same metal or alloy can be made weak and ductile for ease in manufacture, and then retreated to provide high strength and good fracture resistance for use and application



Full Annealing Process Annealing Stress-relief Annealing Spheroidization Annealing

Normalizing Tempering


Annealing is done to improve ductility (the ability to be drawn and extruded) and reduce brittleness. Annealing consists of softening the metal by heating it between 30 & 50 degrees C above it upper critical point and allowing it to cool slowly. This can be done in either hot sand, ashes of a fire or by leaving the metal in an oven or furnace until cooled.


The main purpose of normalizing is to obtain a structure that is uniform throughout the work piece and is free from any locked up stresses. Similar to annealing, but the cooling rate is accelerated by taking the work piece from the furnace and allowing it to cool in free air. This more rapid cooling results in a finer grain structure which in turn leads to improved physical properties and improved finishes when machining.


Tempering is done to remove some of the brittleness and hardness of steel after hardening. Suitable temperatures for tempering vary considerably Tempering by colour still provides an accurate and reliable method of dealing with plain carbon steels

The term annealing refers to a heat treatment in which a material is exposed to an elevated temperature for an extended time period and then slowly cooled. Annealing is carried out to (1) relieve stresses; (2) increase softness, ductility, and toughness; and/or (3) produce a specific microstructure. Annealing is a heat treatment used to eliminate some or all of the effects of cold working. Annealing at a low temperature may be used to eliminate the residual stresses produced during cold working without affecting the mechanical properties of the finished part.Any annealing process consists of three stages: (1) heating to the desired temperature, (2) holding or soaking at that temperature, and (3) cooling, usually to room temperature. Time is an important parameter in these procedures. During heating and cooling, temperature gradients exist between the outside and interior portions of the piece; their magnitudes depend on the size and geometry of the piece. If the rate of temperature change is too great, temperature gradients and internal stresses may be induced that may lead to warping or even cracking. PROCESS ANNEALING is a heat treatment that is used to negate the effects of cold work that is, to soften and increase the ductility of a previously strain-hardened metal. Process annealing is applied to low carbon steels (<0.25% carbon) and is also known as recrystallization annealing. In process annealing, the steel is heated to a temperature below the lower critical line A1 held long enough to induce recrystallization of the dominant ferrite phase, and then cooled at a desired rate (usually in still air). Since the entire process is performed at temperatures within the same phase region, the process simply induces a change in phase morphology (size, shape, and distribution).

STRESS-RELIEF ANNEAL also known as sub-critical annealing is employed to reduce the residual stresses in large steel castings, welded assemblies, and cold-formed products. Parts are heated to temperatures below the A1(between 550 and 650C or 1000 and 1200F), held for a period of time, and then slow cooled to prevent the creation of additional stresses. Times and temperatures vary with the condition of the component, but the basic microstructure and associated mechanical properties generally remain unchanged. SPHEROIDIZATION ANNEALING : When high-carbon steels are to undergo extensive machining or cold forming, a process known as spheroidization is often employed. Here the objective is to produce a structure in which all of the cementite is in the form of small spheroids or globules dispersed throughout a ferrite matrix. This can be accomplished by a variety of techniques, including (1) prolonged heating at a temperature just below the A1followed by relatively slow cooling, (2) prolonged cycling between temperatures slightly above and slightly below the or (3) in the case of tool or high-alloy steels, heating to 750 to 800C (1400 to 1500F) or higher and holding at this temperature for several hours, followed by slow cooling.

TEMPERING is a process of heat treating, which is used to increase the toughness

of iron-based alloys. It is also a technique used to increase the toughness of glass. For metals, tempering is usually performed after hardening, to reduce some of the excess hardness, and is done by heating the metal to a temperature below its "lower critical temperature. Tempering is usually performed after quenching, which is rapid cooling of the metal to put it in its hardest state.

NORMALIZING: In plastically deformed metals (for example, by rolling operation),

the grains are irregularly shaped and relatively large, but vary substantially in size. An annealing heat treatment called normalizing is used to refine the grains (i.e., to decrease the average grain size) and produce a more uniform and desirable size distribution; fine-grained pearlitic steels are tougher than coarse-grained ones. One should note a key difference between full annealing and normalizing. In the full anneal, the furnace imposes identical cooling conditions at all locations within the metal, which results in identical structures and properties. With normalizing, the cooling will be different at different locations. Properties will vary between surface and interior, and different thickness regions will also have different properties. When subsequent processing involves a substantial amount of machining that may be automated, the added cost of a full anneal may be justified, since it produces a product with uniform machining characteristics at all locations.


Quenching Surface hardening by changing the surface chemistry

To harden by quenching, a metal (usually steel or cast iron) must be heated above the upper critical temperature and then quickly cooled. Depending on the alloy and other considerations (such as concern for maximum hardness vs. cracking and distortion), cooling may be done with forced air or other gases, (such as nitrogen). Liquids may be used, due to their better thermal conductivity, such as water, oil, a polymer dissolved in water, or a brine. Upon being rapidly cooled, a portion of austenite (dependent on alloy composition) will transform to martensite, a hard, brittle crystalline structure. The quenched hardness of a metal depends on its chemical composition and quenching method.

Hardening of steels is done to increase the strength and wear properties. Carbon steel is heated 30 & 50 degrees C above the upper critical point and then quenched quickly The quicker the steel is cooled the harder it will be.

ROLLING PROCESS Rolling is a deformation process in which the thickness of the work is reduced by compressive forces exerted by two opposing rolls. The rolls rotate to pull and simultaneously squeeze the work between them. Hot Rolling is generally free of residual stresses, and its properties are isotropic. Disadvantages of hot rolling are that the product cannot be held to close tolerances, and the surface has a characteristic oxide scale. High Reduction ratio. Cold Rolling strengthens the metal and permits a tighter tolerance on thickness. But causes residual stresses in the work. TYPES OF ROLLING PROCESSES Flat Rolling reduce the thickness of a rectangular cross section. Shape Rolling a square cross section is formed into a shape such as an I-beam Thread Rolling is used to form threads on cylindrical parts by rolling them between two dies. Gear Rolling is a cold working process to produce certain gears. The automotive industry is an important user of these products. The setup in gear rolling is similar to thread rolling, except that the deformed features of the cylindrical blank or disk are oriented parallel to its axis (or at an angle in the case of helical gears) rather than spiralled as in thread rolling.

Ring Rolling is a deformation process in which a thick-walled ring of smaller diameter is rolled into a thin-walled ring of larger diameter.

Ring Rolling

Roll Piercing is a specialized hot working process for making seamless thick-walled tubes. It utilizes two opposing rolls, and hence it is grouped with the rolling processes. Roll Forging In this operation (also called cross rolling), the cross section of a round Bar is shaped by passing it through a pair of rolls with profiled grooves . Skew Rolling is typically used for making ball bearings. Round wire or rod is fed into the roll gap, and roughly spherical blanks Roll piercing are formed continuously by the action of the rotating rolls.

Skew Rolling

Roll Forging


(Poly=many+ Mers=unit )

Polymers consist of chains of molecules. Polmolecules consisting of one unit (known as a monomer) or a few units (known as oligomers) that are chemically joined (by covalent bonding) to create these giant molecules. Most polymers are organic, meaning that they are carbon-based; however, polymers can be inorganic (e.g., silicones based on a Si-O network).

What is Polymerization? Polymerization is the process by which small molecules consisting of one unit (known as a monomer) or a few units (known as oligomers) are chemically joined to create these giant molecules. Polymerization normally begins with the production of long chains in which the atoms are strongly joined by covalent bonding.

Classification of Polymers There are several ways of classification of polymers based on some special considerations. The following are some of the common classifications of polymers: Classification Based on Source Under this type of classification, there are three sub categories. 1. Natural polymers These polymers are found in plants and animals. Examples are proteins, cellulose, starch, resins and rubber. Naturally occurring polymers are derived from plants and animals, these materials include wood, rubber, cotton, wool, leather, and silk. 2. Semi-synthetic polymers Cellulose derivatives as cellulose acetate (rayon) and cellulose nitrate, etc. are the usual examples of this sub category. 3. Synthetic polymers A variety of synthetic polymers as plastic (polythene), synthetic fibres (nylon) and synthetic rubbers (Buna S) are examples of man-made polymers extensively used in daily life as well as in industry. The synthetics can be produced inexpensively, and their properties may be managed to the degree that many are superior to their natural counterparts. Plastics are materials that are composed principally of naturally occurring and modified or artificially made polymers often containing additives such as fibers, fillers, pigments, and the like that further enhance their properties.

Classification Based on Structure 1. Linear polymers These polymers consist of long and straight chains. The examples of Polymers are high density polythene, polyvinyl chloride, etc. These are represented as:

2. Branched chain polymers These polymers contain linear chains having some branches, e.g., low density polythene. These are depicted as above: 3. Cross linked or Network polymers These are usually formed from bi-functional and tri-functional monomers and contain strong covalent bonds between various linear polymer chains, e.g. bakelite, melamine, etc. These polymers are depicted as above:

Classification Based on Molecular Forces Under this category, the polymers are classified into the following four sub groups on the basis of magnitude of intermolecular forces present in them. 1. Elastomers: These are rubber like solids with elastic properties. In these elastomeric polymers, the polymer chains are held together by the weakest intermolecular forces. These weak binding forces permit the polymer to be stretched. A few crosslinks are introduced in between the chains, which help the polymer to retract to its original position after the force is released as in vulcanised rubber. 2. Fibres: Fibres are the thread forming solids which possess high tensile strength and high modulus. These characteristics can be attributed to the strong intermolecular forces like hydrogen bonding. These strong forces also lead to close packing of chains and thus impart crystalline nature. The examples are polyamides (nylon 6, 6), polyesters (terylene), etc. 3. Thermoplastic polymers These are the linear or slightly branched long chain molecules capable of repeatedly softening on heating and hardening on cooling. These polymers possess intermolecular forces of attraction intermediate between elastomers and fibres. Some common thermoplastics are polythene, polystyrene, polyvinyls, etc 4 Thermosetting polymers These polymers are cross linked or heavily branched molecules, which on heating undergo extensive cross linking in moulds and again become infusible. These cannot be reused. Some common examples are bakelite, urea-formaldehyde resins, etc.

Polymers of Commercial Importance

Stress-Strain Behaviour of Polymers

The fracture strengths of polymeric materials are low relative to those of metals and ceramics. As a general rule, the mode of fracture in thermosetting polymers (heavily cross linked networks) is brittle (curve B). The behaviour for a plastic material, curve B, is similar to that for many metallic materials; the initial deformation is elastic, which is followed by yielding and a region of plastic deformation. Finally, the deformation displayed by curve C is totally elastic; this elasticity is displayed by a class of polymers termed the elastomers.

The influence of temperature on the stressstrain characteristics of poly(methyl methacrylate)

The stressstrain behaviour for brittle, plastic, and highly elastic polymers.

FORMING TECHNIQUES FOR POLYMERS Moulding is the most common method for forming plastic polymers. The several moulding techniques used include compression, transfer, blow, injection, and extrusion moulding.

Injection Molding. Compression Molding. Extrusion Molding. Blow Molding. Rotational Molding.

Injection Moulding

Compression Moulding

Extrusion Moulding

Blow Moulding

Blow Moulding

Compression Moulding
Process description The mould is held between the heated platens of the hydraulic press; A prepared quality of moulding compound is placed in the mould, usually by hand, and the mould placed in the press; The press closes with sufficient pressure to prevent or minimize flash at the mould part line; The compound softens and flows to shape; the chemical cure then occurs as the internal mould temperature becomes high enough; If necessary, cooling takes place, although for the vast majority of thermosets this is not needed; The press is opened and the moulding removed.

Rotational molding process consists of six steps

A predetermined amount of plastic, powder or liquid form, is deposited in one half of a mold. The mold is closed. The mold is rotated biaxially inside an oven. The plastics melts and forms a coating over the inside surface of the mold. The mold is removed from the oven and cooled. The part is removed from the mold.

Advantages Molds are relatively inexpensive. Rotational molding machines are much less expensive than other type of plastic processing equipment. Different parts can be molded at the same time.

Very large hollow parts can be made.

Parts are stress free. Very little scrap is produced