Dr Sushil Kumar MBBS, MD ( Physiology) Associate Professor Date – 04/ 09/ 2012


What is physiology? levels of organization A review of the organ systems

• The term physiology is derived from GREEK word PHYSIOLOGIA – functions of the living organism. • Physiology is defined as the study of functions. • So human physiology attempts to explain how and why human’s body functions.

an integrative science ¤ .Physiology is ¤ the study of the function of all animals and plants in their normal state.

Levels of Organization .

Organelle Levels of Structure Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism .


A review of the organ systems .


hair. heat loss.Integumentary System • - Structures: Skin. sweat and oil glands • - Functions: Forms the external body covering Protects deeper tissues from injury Involved in vitamin D synthesis Prevents desiccation. and pathogen entry Site of pain and pressure receptors .


Skeletal System • Structures: – The 206 bones of the human body • Functions: – Protects and supports body organs – Provides a framework that muscles can use to create movement – Hemopoiesis (synthesis of blood cells) – Mineral storage • Bone contains 99% of the body’s stored mineral .


Muscular System • Structures: – The 600+ muscles of the body • Functions: – Locomotion – Maintaining posture – Thermogenesis (generation of heat) .


spinal cord. and peripheral nerves • Functions: – Fast-acting control system of the body – Monitoring of the internal and external environment and responding (when necessary) by initiating muscular or glandular activity .Nervous System • Structures: – Brain.


signaling molecules (hormones). wastes (urea). . Blood vessels (arteries.Cardiovascular System • Structures: – Heart. veins. and capillaries) • Functions: – The heart pumps blood through the blood vessels. lipids). gases (O2. – Blood provides the transport medium for nutrients (glucose. amino acids. CO2). and heat.


. – Disposal of debris – Attacking and resisting foreign invaders (pathogens i. Thymus.Lymphatic/Immune System • Structures: – Lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes Spleen.e. disease-causing organisms) . Red bone marrow • Functions: – Returning “leaked” fluid back to the bloodstream.


pharynx. lungs • Functions: – Constantly supply the blood with O2. trachea. bronchi. and remove CO2 – Regulate blood pH .Respiratory System • Structures: – Nasal cavity.


small intestine.Digestive System • Structures: – Oral cavity. salivary glands. pancreas. esophagus. liver. stomach. rectum. gallbladder • Functions: – Ingestion and subsequent breakdown of food into absorbable units that will enter the blood for distribution to the body’s cells . large intestine.


urinary bladder. ureters. electrolytes.Urinary System • Structures: – Kidneys. and acidity . urethra • Functions: – Removal of nitrogenous wastes – Regulation of body’s levels of water.


• Functions: – Long-term control system of the body – Regulates growth. Stomach. Pancreas. Adrenal. Testes.Endocrine System • Structures: – Hormone-secreting glands • Pituitary. Parathyroid. Ovaries. . reproduction. and nutrient use among other things. Thyroid. Small Intestine. Kidneys.


vas deferens. penis – Female: • Ovary. prostate gland. cervix. uterus. uterine tube. vagina. seminal vesicles. epididymis.Reproductive System • Structures: – Male: • Testes. urethra. mammary glands • Functions: – Production of offspring . scrotum.

 Don’t miss any lecture. Medical dictionary  Pick up the time by the forceps then success will be your.  Keep two dictionaries during study 1. English to Gujarati and 2. .Suggestions  Be punctual & regular reading.

Thanks .

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