Foundry - An Industry manufacturing of casting by meting the metal.

Metals are processed by melting, pouring, and casting. A foundry can be produce castings of metal -ferrous or non-ferrous.

Advantages of Castings
Advantages of casting Process 1. Any complex shape, Any Grade 2. Any size and height 3. Any Special requirement.

Types of Moulding process

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Sand casting Shell moulding Pressure Die casting Investment castings Plaster mould castings Centrifugal casting Gravity die casting.

Foundry Process         Enquiry – Capability. Lay out.methoding Mould & Core making Melting & Pouring Knock out Gas cutting Fettling Inspection . Difficulty Pattern Development – Drawing. Pattern making .

Handling.Shape etc Difficulty – Mould & Core making.Enquiry Capability – Size . Fettling .Weight .Foundry Process .

.Foundry Process – Pattern A master of the object to be produced called as pattern .Negative image of job to be produce.. The size of pattern is slightly larger than the finished product. An appropriately scaled oversize ruler—called a shrink rule -specific to the type of metal to be cast.

Pattern Shrinkage – 2% for CS.5 % for SS Types of Pattern: Wood or Aluminum and Single or Multi pattern . 2.

.Pattern Advantages of pattern Wood – Small Qty. Low weight. Small Size. Big Size Aluminium – Huge Volume.

Chill. Riser. Vent … are arranged in a specific way in methoding. Padding . .Pattern Methoding: Making a path for metal flow and feeding the metal to all parts of job.Gatting. runner.

Pattern mounting / storage .

. will be filled with prepared Casting sand or Green sand—a slightly moist mixture of sand and clay.Foundry Process –Mould Making Process Molding boxes are Made in segments that may be Latched to each other and To end closures. The sand is packed in through a vibratory Process called ramming.

Resin. No bake.un wanted Sand in the Mould are Removed. A coating is applied on the mould to act as refectory And to get better surface Finish in casting. Ecolotec etc The Excess & . .Mould Making Process Types: Co2 process.

Mould Making Process .

.Core Making Process To produce cavity within the casting prepared Casting sand negative forms are used to produce cores. cores are placed into the mould box after removal of the pattern.  Usually sand-molded.  Whenever possible. due to the additional set-up time and thus  greater cost. designs are made that avoid the use of cores.

Mould Making Process .

Copula .Electric 3.Foundry Process –Melting Process  The process of creating of molten metal in furnace is called as Melting. Type of furnace : 1.Induction 2.

Melting Process Various level .

Tapping of metal .

Temperature measurement .

Ferrous Alloy Addition .

Preheating of laddle The molten metal after reaching desired temperature ( 1550.1620). . addition of alloy & Oxidization. The laddle is one which is used to take the molten metal and pouring the metal in mould . It is tranferred to Laddle.

Types of Pouring Process Molten metal is poured in the readily available mould. It may be Bottom Pouring or Top Pouring .

Pouring Process .

Foundry Process –Pouring .

Bottom Pouring Process .

Test Bar Pouring .

Bottom & Top) are locked after placing the core inside.Mould for pouring  When making the mould and core Chill. The mould boxes (Normally . Kalpad & Sleeves are placed. The runner with pouring cup is available in Top mould . Before closing the top & bottom mould both are heated to remove the available moisture in the mould/ sand. .

This time to cool the molten metal to Solid form. If knock out is carried out before sufficient time the castings may having the defect like Warpage. Crack… . Hot tear. It is done after 6 -8 Hrs from the pouring time.Knock out Knock out is the process of separating the Castings from mould.

hammering or Deburring.Gas Cutting After knock out the Sand and castings seperated by chipping. . Ingate and other un necessary part which is required for molten metal flow to form Job. Runner . This is the process of removing the riser .

it is fettled in Swing grinding process.Fettling All the riser and runner after gas cutting. Chill. welded area etc . After that Final fettling is carried out by Hand wheel grinding to remove the Extra Material.

Done as per the Ref STD/SPEC. Harden and strengthen the metals Improve machinability . Homogenize the structure to remove segregation. forging. Purpose : Relief Internal stress developed during casting.Foundry Process – Heat treatment It shall be carried out heat wise or combination two or three heats. Change the grain size.

Heat treatment .

Foundry Process – Inspection It is in 3 Stage . First stage Inspection is During gas cutting Second stage is after fettling Final is after heat treatment and final fettling. .

II stage Inspection This is the main One. Visual. RT will be carried out at this stage. Necessary Welding are carried out and before doing the heat treatment . MPI/DP.

NDT (if required )is carried out .Final Inspection In Final Inspection Dimension . . Visual .

Investment Casting process .

Eg :such as turbine blade. air plane parts etc. impeller.Investment Casting  Used to make a part which can difficult to produce by sand castings. . Pump cashing.

Die Wax Injection Assembly Shell building Dewaxing Pouring Knock out Gas cutting Fettling Inspection . Lay out.Foundry Process – Investment Casting           Die Development – Drawing.

The dies are generally automatic and the injection process is similar to plastic injection .Foundry Process – Investment Casting Wax injection –Wax is injected into the cavity to create a wax component.

Assembly The waxes are produced With feeder (through which molten Metal flow). This feeder are then secured to a wax tree to create Wax mould assembly. .

Slurry is nothing but mixture of plaster of Paris.Shell Building The wax mould assembly is now ready to be invested into various slurries and refractories to create a ceramic mould. refractory and water.  . powered silica. Strong enough to Withstand molten metal.

it is then placed inside a stream autoclave which releases the wax from the mould. .Shell Building After the mould buildup is complete (min 6 – 8 mm thickness).

the wax is melted to creating a negative impression of the assembly within the shell.  .  This molten metal fired in a furnace at around 1000° C resulting in a high integrity ceramic mould.Dewaxing Once the ceramic is dry.

spure and pouring cup become one solid casting. . the parts and gates.Pouring In the Conventional process the shell is filled with molten metal. As the metal cools.

The feeders are then dressed back up by finishing and the Components will ready after heat treatment And inspection. . The individual component are removed by cutting through the feeders.Knock out The mould then solidifies and the ceramic shell is broken off by any Mechanical method.

Advantages of investment castings Freedom of choice in design Suited for Complex and precision component Excellent Surface finish Close tolerance levels Reduced machining cost Cost effective production process Unlimited choice of alloys.        .

Casting defects 1. Surface defects 3. Visual defects 2. Dimensional In accuracy . Sub surface defects 4. Volumetric defects 5.

Rough surface. equipment are required. poor formation.Visual Defects The defects which is able to identify with eye and no need any instrument. Eg : Not formed. .

Visual Defects .

Surface defects Surface defect : Defect which is open to surface is this category. This can detectable by visually or MPI. Crack.DPI. gas hole. Cold shut etc . Eg: Hot tear .

Sub surface defects The defects which is not able to identify with eye and can be detectable with any kind of equipments are under this category. Crack Shrinkage. Inclusion etc .RT UT Eg : Gas Cavity. It can be detectable by MPI.

Volumetric Defects The defects which is observed in center portion of job. Void etc . UT Eg : Shrinkage. It can be detectable by RT.

warpage…. Core movement/ hanging.Foundry Process – Dimensional Issue  Because various operation/parameter in foundry process the dimensional deviation will be there in all casting. Excess / less fettling. Normal deviation in Foundry is – Mismatch. .  Either accept or rework or reject is parameter. Contraction problem. Less wall thickness.

Un acceptable Defects This kind of defects are not at all Acceptable. Eg: .

Foundry Process – Defects .

. mould hardness providing Chill or Fin. good methoding.Remedy for defects Hot tear / Crack – It may be because Melt tepmerature. Mould harness etc. Heat treatment. Proper Heat treatment. poor methoding. It can eliminated by Maintaining of Melt temperature.

It can avoided by providing sufficient Vent Size.Remedy for defects Gas hole/blow hole – It may be Because Gating/riser. Proper gating / riser. Moulding. by Maintaining the Mould parameter. . Poor venting.

moisture in mould sand. . Pin holes – It is because gas absorbed by molten metal. Gating. removing sharp Corners moulds. Good heating in mould / sand to remove moisture. It can be eliminated by Molten metal Property. proper gatting. It can be Controlled by Maintaining of Mould harness .Remedy for defects Inclusion – It is because low hardness Mould.

.Remedy for defects Shrinkage : – It may be because Insufficient riser or poor methoding. It can eliminated by Maintaining of Melt temperature. Sufficient feeder in Hot spot / Methoding. Mould metal temperature.

Remedy for defects Dimension in accuracy: Main cause is Pattern & Fettling. . Controlling of Fettling process. Type of pattern). dimension. It can be controlled by Maintaining pattern quality ( Finish.

It can be controlled by Proper reinforcement. HT process. Pattern Proper handling.Remedy for defects War page / open out: It may be in sufficient strength. . Proper handling. Maintaining of pattern.

C12.CF3 … Cr > 11% ..Grade used in AIL Carbon steel : WCB.. WC6… Alloy Elements . Alloy Elements 5-10% of alloy elements Stainless steel : CF8M.0-5% of alloy elements Medium alloy steel : C5. CA15.CF3M. Alloy more than 10% .LCC No alloy elements Low alloy steel : WC9.CF8.WCC.LCB.

CF3.CF3M.WCC A217 – WC6.CA15 A351 .F8.V).CF8c A352 – LCC.CD3McuN.Castings STD A216 – WCB.C12.CF8M.LC1 A995 – 4A : 22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N or CD3MN 5A : 25Cr-7Ni-Mo-N or CE3MN .LCB.WC9.C5. C12A (9Cr-1Mo.

Crack 18” 300 WCB Body leak – MPK Because of crack .

Crack .Crack 10” 33 Plug valve Body .

Crack .Crack 12” 33 Plug valve Body .

Crack 24” 150 TMBV Connector.Crack .

Crack 24” 150 TMBV Body .Crack .

Blow hole / Gas hole Blow Hole in 24” 600 WCB Body .

Blow hole / Gas hole Blow Hole in 24” 600 WCB Body .

Blow hole / Gas hole 16” 1500 DISC

Blow hole / Gas hole
16” 1500 Bracket

Blow Hole/ inclusion
4” 900 Check valve cover

Gas hole / Inclusion
6” 1500 TMBV Seat ring GrA

Shrinkage cavity .

24 measure 10 – 12 mm .Quality Issues – Excess Fettling 8” 150 Plug.

Quality Issues – Under cut Bonnet – under cut .

Excess Material Gate Ext Bonnet -.Excess Material .

Material Identification NIL/ Grounded 4” 33 Lower bonnet with out any identification .

Core movement 18” 300 Ext Bonnet Uneven thickness – upto 8 mm .

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