# CSE 423 Computer Graphics

• Cohen Sutherland Algorithm (Line)
• Cyrus-Back Algorithm (Line)
• Sutherland-Hodgeman Algorithm (Polygon)
• Cohen Sutherland Algorithm (3d)
max min
max min
y y y
x x x
s s
s s
For a point (x,y) to be inside the clip rectangle:
(x
min
, y
min
)
(x
max
, y
max
)
x = x
min
x = x
max
y = y
min
y = y
max
clip
rectangle
Point Clipping
(x
min
, y
min
)
(x
max
, y
max
)
x = x
min
x = x
max
y = y
min
y = y
max
(x
1
, y
1
)
clip
rectangle
max min
max min
y y y
x x x
s s
s s
For a point (x,y) to be inside the clip rectangle:
Point Clipping
clip
rectangle
Cases for clipping lines
Line Clipping
Cases for clipping lines
A
B
A
B
clip
rectangle
Line Clipping
Cases for clipping lines
D
A
B
C
D'
A
B
C
D'
clip
rectangle
Line Clipping
Cases for clipping lines
D
E
F
A
B
C
D'
A
B
C
D'
clip
rectangle
Line Clipping
Cases for clipping lines
D
E
F
A
B
C
D'
G
H
G'
H'
A
B
C
D'
G'
H'
clip
rectangle
Line Clipping
Cases for clipping lines
D
E
F
A
B
C
D'
G
H
G'
H'
I
J
I'
J'
A
B
C
D'
G'
H'
clip
rectangle
Line Clipping
Clipping Lines by Solving Simultaneous Equations
clip
rectangle
(x
a
, y
a
) (x
b
, y
b
)
(x
c
, y
c
) (x
d
, y
d
)
(x
0
, y
0
)
(x
1
, y
1
)
(x, y)
clip
rectangle
(x
a
, y
a
) (x
b
, y
b
)
(x
c
, y
c
) (x
d
, y
d
)
(x
0
, y
0
)
(x
1
, y
1
)
(x, y)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
a b edge a a b edge a
line line
y y t y y x x t x x
y y t y y x x t x x
÷ + = ÷ + =
÷ + = ÷ + =
,
,
0 1 0 0 1 0
Line Clipping
The Cohen-Sutherland Line-Clipping
Algorithm performs initial tests on a line to
determine whether intersection calculations
can be avoided.
1. First, end-point pairs are checked for Trivial
Acceptance.
2. If the line cannot be trivially accepted, region
checks are done for Trivial Rejection.
3. If the line segment can be neither trivially
accepted or rejected, it is divided into two
segments at a clip edge, so that one segment
can be trivially rejected.
These three steps are performed iteratively
until what remains can be trivially accepted or
rejected.
Cohen-Sutherland Algorithm
0000
1000
0100
1001 1010
0001 0010
0101 0110
clip
rectangle
Region outcodes
min
max
y y
y y
<
>
: 1 bit
: 0 bit
min
max
x x
x x
<
>
: 3 bit
: 2 bit
Cohen-Sutherland Algorithm
1. A line segment can be trivially
accepted if the outcodes of both the
endpoints are zero.
2. A line segment can be trivially
rejected if the logical AND of the
outcodes of the endpoints is not zero.
3. A key property of the outcode is that
bits that are set in nonzero outcode
correspond to edges crossed.

Cohen-Sutherland Algorithm
clip
rectangle
A
B
C
D
E
An Example
Cohen-Sutherland Algorithm
An Example
clip
rectangle
B
C
D
E
Cohen-Sutherland Algorithm
An Example
clip
rectangle
B
C
D
Cohen-Sutherland Algorithm
An Example
clip
rectangle
B
C
Cohen-Sutherland Algorithm
(1) This fundamentally different (from Cohen-
Sutherland algorithm) and generally more
Cyrus and Beck.
(2) Liang and Barsky later independently
developed a more efficient algorithm that is
especially fast in the special cases of upright
2D and 3D clipping regions.They also
introduced more efficient trivial rejection tests
for general clip regions.
Parametric Line-Clipping
Inside of clip rectangle Outside of clip region
( ) | | 0 > ÷ ·
i
E i
P t P N
( ) | | 0 = ÷ ·
i
E i
P t P N
( ) | | 0 < ÷ ·
i
E i
P t P N
( )
i
E i
P t P ÷
i
E
P
0
P
1
P
i
N
i
E Edge
( ) ( )t P P P t P P P Line
0 1 0 1 0
: ÷ + =
( ) | |
( ) | |
( ) | |
| |
( )
| |
1 0
0
1 0
0
0 1 0
0 1 0
,
0
0
0
P P D
D N
P P N
t
P P N
P P N
t
P t P P P N
P t P P P N
P t P N
i
E i
i
E i
E i
E i
E i
i
i
i
i
i
÷ =
· ÷
÷ ·
= ¬
÷ · ÷
÷ ·
= ¬
= ÷ ÷ + · ¬
= ÷ ÷ + · ¬
= ÷ ·
The Cyrus-Back Algorithm
Inside of clip rectangle Outside of clip region
( ) | | 0 > ÷ ·
i
E i
P t P N
( ) | | 0 = ÷ ·
i
E i
P t P N
( ) | | 0 < ÷ ·
i
E i
P t P N
( )
i
E i
P t P ÷
i
E
P
0
P
1
P
i
N
i
E Edge
| |
D N
P P N
t
i
E i
i
· ÷
÷ ·
=
0
( )
( )
( ) 0 3
0 2
0 1
when exists
1 0
= ·
= ¬ =
=
D N
P P D
N
t
i
i
The Cyrus-Back Algorithm
PE
PL
P
0
P
1
t = 0
t = 1
PE
PL
P
1
t = 1
P
0
t = 0
PE
PE
PL
PL
P
0
t = 0
P
1
t = 1 Line 2
Line 1
Line 3
Clip
rectangle
° > ¬
¬ < ·
90
0
Angle
PE D N
i
° < ¬
¬ > ·
90
0
Angle
PL D N
i
PE = Potentially Entering PL = Potentially Leaving
The Cyrus-Back Algorithm
The Cyrus-Back Algorithm
Precalculate N
i
and P
Ei
for each edge
for (each line segment to be clipped) {
if (P
1
== P
0
)
line is degenerated, so clip as a point;
else {
t
E
= 0; t
L
= 1;
for (each candidate intersection with a clip edge) {
if (N
i
• D != 0) { /* Ignore edges parallel to line */
calculate t;
use sign of N
i
• D to categorize as PE or PL;
if (PE) t
E
= max(t
E
, t);
if (PL) t
L
= min(t
L
, t);
}
}
if (t
E
> t
L
) return NULL;
else return P(t
E
) and P(t
L
) as true clip intersection;

}
}
Example
Polygon Clipping
Example
Polygon Clipping
Example
Polygon Clipping
Initial Condition
Sutherland-Hodgeman Algo.
Clip Against Right Clipping Boundary Clip Against Top Clipping Boundary The Clipped Polygon Clip Against Bottom Clipping Boundary Clip Against Left Clipping Boundary
Case 1
Inside Outside
Polygon
being
clipped
Clip
boundary
s
p:output
4 Cases of Polygon Clipping
Case 2
Inside Outside
s
p
i:output
Case 3
Inside Outside
s
p
(no output)
Case 4
Inside Outside
s
i:first output
p:second output
Algorithm
Input vertex P
First Point Yes No
F=P
Does SPintersect
E?
No
Yes
Compute
Intersection Point
I
Output
vertex I
S=P
Is S on lef t
side of E?
Exit
NO
Yes
Output
vertex S
Close Polygon entry
Does SF
intersect E?
Compute
Intersection I
Yes
Output
vertex I
Exit
No
3D Clipping
• Both the Cohen-Sutherland and Cyrus-Beck clipping algorithm